Pessac, France
Pessac, France

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Benezit M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Biarnes V.,Terres Inovia | Jeuffroy M.-H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
OCL - Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids | Year: 2017

For farmers, pea crop is characterized by a large yield variability between years, between areas, and even between fields in a same small area in a given year. In dry year, spring pea crops are mostly affected by water stress and high temperature but significant yield losses can also be caused by a root disease, Aphanomyces euteiches, particularly during wet years. Winter pea can escape partially from drought, high temperature, and root disease during the reproductive phase of the crop cycle. However, when winters are mild, without progressive negative temperatures, which provide frost acclimation, available cultivars are not resistant enough to frost and are susceptible to aerial diseases such as ascochyta blight and bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi), thus leading to yield losses. A better adaptation of sowing dates, an improvement of lodging resistance and a limitation of the sowing density can limit the development of ascochyta blight for winter pea crops. For spring pea, an increased use of Aphanomyces soil test could avoid to sow the crop in infested fields. Current spring pea varieties are the result of changes in plant architecture including the reduction of 1000-seed weight that have led to yield losses by increasing the fragility of variety facing these stresses. The development of a pea crop model, simulating the effect of various stress encountered on winter and spring pea crops, can help to better define the regions adapted for the production of these two types of cultivars, and also help the breeders to better define and choose which trait to improve in order to increase the pea productivity and yield stability. National and European projects are in course to breed new varieties more adapted to different stresses. © M. Bénézit et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-01a-2014 | Award Amount: 9.93M | Year: 2015

Feed-a-Gene aims to better adapt different components of monogastric livestock production systems (i.e., pigs, poultry and rabbits) to improve the overall efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact. This involves the development of new and alternative feed resources and feed technologies, the identification and selection of robust animals that are better adapted to fluctuating conditions, and the development of feeding techniques that allow optimizing the potential of the feed and the animal. To reach this overall objective, the project will: - Develop new and alternative feeds and feed technologies to make better use of local feed resources, green biomass and by-products of the food and biofuel industry. - Develop methods for the real-time characterization of the nutritional value of feeds to better use and adapt diets to animal requirements. - Develop new traits of feed efficiency and robustness allowing identification of individual variability to select animals that are more adapted to changes in feed and environmental conditions. - Develop biological models of livestock functioning to better understand and predict nutrient and energy utilization of animals along their productive trajectory. - Develop new management systems for precision feeding and precision farming combining data and knowledge from the feed, the animal, and the environment using innovative monitoring systems, feeders, and decision support tools. - Evaluate the overall sustainability of new management systems developed by the project. - Demonstrate the innovative technologies developed by the project in collaboration with partners from the feed industry, breeding companies, equipment manufacturers, and farmers organisations to promote the practical implementation of project results. - Disseminate new technologies that will increase animal production efficiency, whilst maintaining product quality and animal welfare and enhance EU food security to relevant stakeholders.


PubMed | University of Avignon, Terres Inovia and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2017

In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery efficiency. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) approach was applied to investigate the influence of process variables on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions providing a protein yield of 4.24 g/100 g DM were an ultrasound power of 5.6 Wcm


PubMed | University of Hertfordshire, Terres Inovia, Rothamsted Research and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2016

Six stable QTL for resistance against L. maculans (phoma stem canker) have been identified by QTL environment interaction analysis using data from five winter oilseed rape field experiments. Phoma stem canker, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a disease of worldwide importance on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Quantitative trait loci (QTL)-mediated resistance against L. maculans in B. napus is considered to be race non-specific and potentially durable. Identification and evaluation of QTL for resistance to L. maculans is important for breeding oilseed rape cultivars with durable resistance. An oilseed rape mapping population was used to detect QTL for resistance against L. maculans in five winter oilseed rape field experiments under different environments. A total of 17 QTL involved in field quantitative resistance against L. maculans were detected and collectively explained 51% of the phenotypic variation. The number of QTL detected in each experiment ranged from two to nine and individual QTL explained 2-25% of the phenotypic variation. QTL environment interaction analysis suggested that six of these QTL were less sensitive to environmental factors, so they were considered to be stable QTL. Markers linked to these stable QTL will be valuable for selection to breed for effective resistance against L. maculans in different environments, which will contribute to sustainable management of the disease.


PubMed | Institute du porc, Terres Inovia, Institute Of Lelevage, ARVALIS Institute du vegetal and Agrocampus Ouest
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Feeds contribute highly to environmental impacts of livestock products. Therefore, formulating low-impact feeds requires data on environmental impacts of feed ingredients with consistent perimeters and methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA). We created the ECOALIM dataset of life cycle inventories (LCIs) and associated impacts of feed ingredients used in animal production in France. It provides several perimeters for LCIs (field gate, storage agency gate, plant gate and harbour gate) with homogeneously collected data from French R&D institutes covering the 2005-2012 period. The dataset of environmental impacts is available as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet on the ECOALIM website and provides climate change, acidification, eutrophication, non-renewable and total cumulative energy demand, phosphorus demand, and land occupation. LCIs in the ECOALIM dataset are available in the AGRIBALYSE database in SimaPro software. The typology performed on the dataset classified the 149 average feed ingredients into categories of low impact (co-products of plant origin and minerals), high impact (feed-use amino acids, fats and vitamins) and intermediate impact (cereals, oilseeds, oil meals and protein crops). Therefore, the ECOALIM dataset can be used by feed manufacturers and LCA practitioners to investigate formulation of low-impact feeds. It also provides data for environmental evaluation of feeds and animal production systems. Included in AGRIBALYSE database and SimaPro, the ECOALIM dataset will benefit from their procedures for maintenance and regular updating. Future use can also include environmental labelling of commercial products from livestock production.


PubMed | OLEAD, Terres Inovia, Thuringian State Institute of Agriculture and University of Hohenheim
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and biotechnology | Year: 2016

During processing in a desolventizer/toaster (DT), rapeseed meal (RSM) is heated to evaporate the hexane and to reduce the level of heat-labile anti-nutritional factors such as glucosinolates (GSL). However, excessive heat treatment may reduce amino acid (AA) content in addition to lower AA digestibility and availability in RSM. The objective of the present study was to produce from one batch of a 00-rapeseed variety (17mol GSL/g dry matter (DM), seed grade quality) five differently processed RSM under standardized and defined conditions in a pilot plant, and to determine the impact of these different treatments on protein solubility and chemical composition, in particular with regard to contents of AA including reactive Lys (rLys) and levels of total and individual GSL.Four RSM were exposed to wet toasting conditions (WetTC) with increasing residence time in the DT of 48, 64, 76, and 93min. A blend of these four RSM was further processed, starting with saturated steam processing (< 100C) and followed by exposure to dry toasting conditions (DryTC) to further reduce the GSL content in this RSM.The contents of neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber bound crude protein (CP) increased linearly (P<0.05), as residence time of RSM in the DT increased from 48 to 93min, whereas contents of total and most individual GSL and those of Lys, rLys, Cys, and the calculated ratio of Lys:CP and rLys:CP decreased linearly (P 0.05). The combination of wet heating and DryTC resulted in the lowest GSL content compared to RSM produced under WetTC, but was associated with lowest protein solubility.It can be concluded that by increasing residence time in the DT or using alternative processing conditions such as wet heating combined with DryTC, contents of total and individual GSL in RSM can be substantially reduced. Further in vivo studies are warranted to elucidate if and to which extent the observed differences in protein quality and GSL content between RSM may affect digestibility and bioavailability of AA in monogastric animals.


Regis J.,Terres Inovia | Joffre F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Fine F.,Terres Inovia
OCL - Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids | Year: 2016

Mainly composed of triglycerides and their fatty acids, vegetable oils also contain between 1 and 5% of micronutrients such as tocopherols, phytosterols, polyphenols and coenzymes Q. Naturally present in rape, soya and sunflower seeds, these compounds are known for their benefits to health. Their transfer and their preservation from seed to oil appear as essential. However, much of these micronutrients are partially to totally destroyed during crushing and refining processes. Seed preparation (rolling, grinding, cooking), solvent extraction and purification of oils (neutralization, bleaching and deodorization) are, indeed, all steps that have a significant influence on levels of minor components of crude and refined oils. Work to demonstrate the efficiency of different alternative methods have then been conducted. © 2016 J. Régis et al., published by EDP Sciences.


Quinsac A.,Terres Inovia | Carre P.,CREOL | Fine F.,Terres Inovia
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Cold-pressing has well-known adverse effects on solvent extraction performances from the resulting cakes. Here, we investigated the added value of an additional pelletizing step in a batch extractor (3.5 kg) to produce pellets with better physical quality (durability, wettability, and percolation speed) for hexane extraction and desolventization. We then led a second experiment in a pilot-scale continuous belt extractor (250 kg/h) to evaluate the feasibility of the process and its impacts on mass balance, oil and meal quality, and energy consumption. Results showed that pelletizing cold-pressed cakes enables suitable oil extraction and meal desolventization performances. Meal quality was preserved and press oil quality enhanced due to a very low phosphorus content (<10 ppm). The energy balance of cold-pressing was compared to the regular process using the flaking-cooking-pressing preparation before solvent extraction on the basis of data obtained here or from industrial crushing plants. Results showed that cold-pressing may lead to 69% energy savings in the preparation phase (40 vs. 131 kWh/t) and 32% energy savings at whole-process level (192 vs. 283 kWh/t). The scheme also has benefits in terms of greenhouse gas emissions (36.8 vs. 58.5 kg CO2 t−1). Practical applications: Industrial rapeseed oil extraction currently relies on a two-step process of preparation (conditioning, flaking, cooking, pressing) and solvent extraction (percolation, miscella distillation, meal desolventizing). Cooking and desolventizing are the biggest energy users in the process. Using cold-pressing to remove the cooking step was identified as a simple and effective way to reduce whole-process energy consumption. Our results show that pelletizing cold-pressed cakes not only avoids the adverse effects of cold-pressing on solvent extraction performances but can also lead to significant energy savings and better-quality pressing oil. Cold Pressing used as an alternative to traditional preparation allows substantial energy savings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Cerrutti N.,Terres Inovia | Pontet C.,Terres Inovia
OCL - Oilseeds and fats, Crops and Lipids | Year: 2016

In France, sunflower honey production has decreased since the nineties and professional beekeepers report important honey yield variability between years and locations. Consequently, melliferous potential of current sunflower cultivars is questioned as it is not part of traits held in breeding programs. To investigate this question, a 3-years study was conducted on two sites and attractiveness for honeybees of 13 current sunflower cultivars was assessed under natural conditions. The number of honeybee visits per plant was recorded daily during blooming period on cultivars randomly distributed on experimental plots. Sunflower genetic was a major factor influencing honeybee attendance on plots and discrepancy between most and least visited cultivars reached a factor of 3. Cultivars relative attractiveness was consistent between years and sites. Potential link between sunflower attractiveness for honeybees and its melliferous characteristics is discussed. If confirmed, farmers' choice concerning cultivars at a territory scale could contribute to enhance nectar resource for pollinators and to increase viability of apicultural activity. © 2016 N. Cerrutti and C. Pontet, published by EDP Sciences.


PubMed | Wageningen University, Terres Inovia and CREOL OLEAD
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Toasting during the production of rapeseed meal (RSM) decreases ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility. The mechanisms that determine the decrease in digestibility have not been fully elucidated. A high protein quality, low-denatured, RSM was produced and toasted up to 120min, with samples taken every 20min. The aim of this study was to characterize secondary structure and chemical changes of proteins and glucosinolates occurring during toasting of RSM and the effects on its The decrease in protein solubility and the increase of intermolecular -sheets with increasing toasting time were indications of protein aggregation. The contents of NDF and ADIN increased with increasing toasting time. Contents of arginine, lysine and Increasing the toasting time for the production of RSM causes physical and chemical changes to the proteins that decrease the rate of protein hydrolysis. The observed decrease in the rate of protein hydrolysis could impact protein digestion and utilization.

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