Suresnes, France
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Bories C.,ENSIACET | Bories C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Aouba L.,CNRS Materials and Construction Durability Laboratory | Aouba L.,Terreal Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2015

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the incorporation of renewable pore-forming agents on the properties of fired bricks. Different additives have been studied (wheat straw, sunflower seed cake and olive stone flour) at different grinding and incorporation rate. Physical properties such as linear shrinkage, loss on ignition, bulk porosity, water absorption and bulk density have been measured. Mechanical and thermal performances have also been characterized. The incorporation of 4 wt.% of sunflower seed cake, with the lowest grinding, leads to the best compromise between mechanical and thermal results compared to the reference brick. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Aouba L.,CNRS Materials and Construction Durability Laboratory | Aouba L.,Terreal Inc. | Bories C.,ENSIACET | Bories C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2016

In recent years, interest in green building materials and the valorisation of by-products from multiple industries has been increasing. As the brick industry allows various compounds to be added during the mixing procedure, much research has been conducted to highlight the impact of additions on fired clay bricks. This paper examines the significance of adding organic matter coming from agricultural solid waste (Olive Stone Flour, OSF, and Wheat Straw, WS residues) to improve thermal performance while maintaining load bearing capacity. The results show a decreasing bulk density for mixtures containing OSF, ranging from -6% to -19% compared to clay alone, and for WS mixtures, where the bulk density reduction is from -4% to -20%. Total porosity increases by 5-56% for OSF, and by 7-67% for WS, implying lower thermal conductivity for WS (-23% relative to clay alone) compared to OSF (-16%) when 5%.wt is incorporated. The compressive strength, for 5%.wt WS and 5%.wt OSF is -52% and -31% respectively. There is a significant positive correlation between the increasing amount of organic matter and the porosity. The most striking result to emerge from the data is that, for the same %.wt, WS creates higher total pore volume than OSF owing to the difference of grain size distribution. Consequently the pore size distribution of new materials containing OSF is more structured and leads to a better compressive strength than WS. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Vignes J.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | Schmidt F.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | Dusserre G.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | Dalmasso J.F.,Terreal Inc.
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2013

In the industrial process, the moisture of the clay sheet obtained by extrusion and pressed to form a tile varies in time. It depends on the nature and the mixing of the raw materials during the production. In order to model and understand the influence of the moisture on the pressing step, it is necessary to determine the parameters of the rheological and tribological laws. A study of the rheological behaviour, based on free compression tests on cylinder samples, allowed to use an elasto-visco-plastic behaviour for the extruded clay paste. The different constitutive parameters were estimated by an inverse analysis based on the experimental force/displacement curves. The identification was performed with the optimisation algorithm implemented in the commercial software Forge® 2009. The influence of the water content in the paste on the rheological parameters was identified and fitted using linear models. To understand the influence of the moisture, we simulated a compression test, using Forge® involving the shaping of a tile lug. This geometry is representative of the state of stress during the pressing of the tile, in an area currently subjected to defects. The numerical model shows that an increase of eighteen percent of the moisture, allows to decrease by half the pressing force. Copyright © 2013 Trans Tech Publications Ltd.


Vignes J.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | Schmidt F.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | Dusserre G.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | De Almeida O.,CNRS Clement Ader Institute | Dalmasso J.F.,Terreal Inc.
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2012

During the pressing step, the clay tiles undergo stresses which result in the appearance of defects. A rheological study, based on free compression tests, allowed to confirm the Elasto-viscoplastic behaviour of the clay. The different constitutive parameters were estimated by fitting the force-displacement experimental curves using the optimisation algorithm (ES Metamodel) implanted in the commercial software Forge 2009®. The influence of the tribological parameters was studied using squeezing numerical simulations of a full tile. The numerical model was validated with experimental squeezing test of technological specimen with a tile lug. Then, we have compared experimental force with the numerical one and deduced that the clay/tool interface is not perfectly sliding. A friction Tresca's law was used to model the clay/tool interface. Numerical results showed that the actual geometry of tile lug didn't allow to form correctly the tile. Several areas undergo tensile stress, air traps ,... A new geometry of tile lug was proposed in order to limit this phenomenon. Using a simplified defect criteria (Latham and Cockroft), the numerical model allowed to locate the areas where there is a risk of crack.© (2012) Trans Tech Publications.


Patent
Terreal Inc. | Date: 2014-02-26

A pavement for vehicles and pedestrians, which is formed by a conventional foundation of stones and sand on which there are placed parallel alignments of elongate construction elements having an upper part and a lower part that are connected together by a narrowed intermediate part, the space between the narrowed parts of two adjacent alignments being filled with soil or compost in which a decorative plant is planted and a mechanism being arranged to achieve the regularity of the spacing between the alignments and the stability thereof.


Trademark
Terreal Inc. | Date: 2015-06-03

Building materials, not of metal, for non-metal roofing and for constructing buildings, namely, panels and tiles of terra-cotta, concrete, asphalt, cement, and of non-metal composite or non-metal synthetic materials; sidings and wall coverings of terra-cotta, concrete, asphalt, cement, and of non-metal composite or non-metal synthetic materials, reinforced or not with fibers; non-metallic rigid pipes for building; pitch and bitumen; transportable buildings not of metal; monuments not of metal; non-metal lintels; bricks; ledges, namely, non-metal window sills and non-metal door sills; non-metallic wall tiles for construction purposes; gutters and roof gutters not of metal; shutters not of metal, chimney cowls not of metal; beams, joists, frames and cornices not of metal; roofing materials, namely, under roof tarpaulins; materials for non-metal roofing in the nature of non-metal roofing tiles and non-metal roofing panels; building materials not of metal for constructing buildings, namely, bricks, clay tiles, materials for roofing, cladding and wall covering for building made out of clay; under-roof screens not of metal, namely, roof support screens of non-metal composite or non-metal synthetic materials. Retail store services for roofing materials.


Trademark
Terreal Inc. | Date: 2014-02-04

Building elements made of terracotta. Construction, installation, maintenance and repair of public and private works and buildings; rental of construction tools and equipment; consultancy services regarding installation, maintenance and repair provided from data processing systems, computer databases or computer or telematic networks, including the Internet. Transmission, communication and telecommunication services via any means, including electronic, computer, telephone and audiovisual means; computer-aided transmission of messages and images, transmission of information held in databases; electronic and telephone mail and messaging services; electronic exchange of information; communication by computer terminals on the Internet, Extranet and Intranet networks. Consultancy services regarding construction provided from data processing systems, computer databases or computer or telematic networks, including the Internet.


Aouba L.,CNRS Materials and Construction Durability Laboratory | Aouba L.,Terreal Inc. | Coutand M.,CNRS Materials and Construction Durability Laboratory | Perrin B.,CNRS Materials and Construction Durability Laboratory | Lemercier H.,Terreal Inc.
Journal of Building Physics | Year: 2014

Fired clay masonry bricks adapt to a variety of constraints during use. Through their mass, these products provide thermal inertia and thus a good indoor climate. Thanks to their thermal insulation properties, they help to minimize heating and cooling costs. The brick industry allows different by-products to be added into the clay mixture at the beginning of the industrial cycle, and the incorporation of organic matter improves thermal insulation while reducing the weight of the bricks. This article presents an experimental and numerical method for determining the thermal resistance of fired clay bricks containing residue of wheat straw. As their thermal conductivity reaches a value 35% lower than that of clay without organic matter, the thermal transmittance of such bricks can be improved by more than 20% relative to existing values. © The Author(s) 2015.


Terreal Inc. | Entity website

TERRACOTTA STYLE TERREAL offers a comprehensive range of decorative terracotta products. Their complementarity provides a warm and harmonious touch to the interior and exterior of individual houses, whatever their style ...


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