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Gardner, MA, United States

Heron G.,TerraTherm | Lachance J.,Arcadis | Baker R.,TerraTherm
Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation | Year: 2013

This paper presents a full-scale thermal remediation of a brownfields site near San Francisco, California. In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) was used for treatment of chlorinated solvents in a tight clay below the water table. The site had contaminants in concentrations indicating that a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-rich DNAPL was present. A target volume of 5097m3 of subsurface material to a depth of 6.2m was treated for a period of 110d of heating. Energy was delivered through 126 thermal conduction heater borings, and vapors were extracted from a combination of vertical and horizontal vacuum wells. Approximately 2540kg of contaminants were recovered in the extracted vapors by the end of treatment. The PCE concentration in the clay was reduced from as high as 2700mg/kg to an average concentration of 0.012mg/kg within 110d of heating (a reduction of >99.999%). Similar effectiveness was documented for TCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and vinyl chloride. A total of 2.2million kWh of electric power was used to heat the site. Approximately 45% of this energy was used to heat the subsurface to the target temperature. Another 53% was necessary to boil approximately 41% of the groundwater within the treatment zone, creating approximately 600 pore volumes of steam by the end of the 110-d heating and treatment period. Steam generation thus occurred within the clay. Partitioning of the contaminants into the steam and its removal comprised the dominant remedial mechanism. The steam migrated laterally toward the ISTD heaters, where it encountered a small dry region adjacent to each of the heaters, which served as a preferential pathway allowing the steam to migrate upward along the heaters to the more permeable vadose zone. There the steam was captured by a system of vertical and horizontal vacuum extraction wells. This vapor removal strategy facilitated effective thermal treatment of the tight clays located below the water table. Features of a robust design are extension of the heaters at least 1.2m deeper than the treatment depth, and the installation of shallow horizontal vapor collection wells which allow for establishment of pneumatic control. © 2013, National Ground Water Association. Source

Heron G.,TerraTherm | Parker K.,TerraTherm | Fournier S.,TerraTherm | Wood P.,TerraTherm | And 3 more authors.
Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation | Year: 2015

This paper presents the largest In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) project completed to date. The redevelopment of a former aerospace manufacturing facility adjacent to a commercial airport was the main driver, requiring relatively rapid reduction of several chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) in a 3.2-acre source zone. The source zone was divided into four quadrants with differing treatment depths, heated simultaneously using a total of 907 thermal conduction heater wells. Five different depths were selected across the area, according to the depth of contaminant impact. Prior to implementation, a risk and optimization study led to placement of a vertical sheet-pile wall around the treatment zone to minimize groundwater flow, and a pilot test of a novel direct-drive method for installation of the heater casings. Because of a shallow water table, a layer of clean fill was placed over the treatment zone, and partial dewatering was necessary prior to heating. A network of vertical multiphase extraction wells and horizontal vapor extraction wells was used to establish hydraulic and pneumatic control and to capture the contaminants. The site was split into four decision units, each with a rigorous soil sampling program which included collecting a total of 270 confirmatory soil samples from locations with the highest pretreatment CVOC concentrations requiring reduction to below 1 mg/kg for each contaminant. Temperature monitoring and mass removal trends were used to trigger the sampling events. Eventually, a small area near the center of the site required the installation of four additional heaters before the soil goals were reached after 238 days of heating. The total energy usage for heating and treating the source area was 23 million kWh-slightly lower than the estimated 26.5 million kWh. Actual energy losses and the energy removal associated with the extracted steam were lower than anticipated. An estimated 13,400 kg (29,800 lbs) of CVOC mass was removed, and all soil goals were met. This paper presents the challenges associated with a project of this scale and describes the solutions to successfully complete the ISTD remedy. © 2015, National Ground Water Association. Source

Lemming G.,Technical University of Denmark | Nielsen S.G.,TerraTherm | Weber K.,NIRAS | Heron G.,TerraTherm | And 5 more authors.
Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation | Year: 2013

In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify options to reduce these adverse effects. The study identifies a number of options for environmental optimization of in situ thermal remediation. In general, environmental optimization can be achieved by increasing the percentage of heating supplied in off peak electricity demand periods as this reduces the pressure on coal-based electricity and thereby reduces the environmental impacts due to electricity production by up to 10%. Furthermore, reducing the amount of concrete in the vapor cap by using a concrete sandwich construction can potentially reduce the environmental impacts due to the vapor cap by up to 75%. Moreover, a number of technology-specific improvements were identified, for instance by the substitution of stainless steel types in wells, heaters, and liners used in thermal conduction heating, thus reducing the nickel consumption by 45%. The combined effect of introducing all the suggested improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend on the electricity production mix in the studied region. The combined improvement potential is therefore to a large extent controlled by the reduction/improvement of energy consumption. © 2013, National Ground Water Association. Source

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