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Garching bei München, Germany

Miyamoto K.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Miyamoto K.,Nikon Corporation | Ikehara S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Takei H.,Nikon Corporation | And 14 more authors.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2016

Low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatment promotes blood clot formation by stimulation of the both platelet aggregation and coagulation factors. However, the appearance of a membrane-like structure in clots after the treatment is controversial. Based on our previous report that demonstrated characteristics of the form of coagulation of serum proteins induced by LTP treatment, we sought to determine whether treatment with two plasma instruments, namely BPC-HP1 and PN-110/120TPG, formed clots only from red blood cells (RBCs). LTP treatment with each device formed clots from whole blood, whereas LTP treatment with BPC-HP1 formed clots in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 2 × 109/mL RBCs. Light microscopic analysis results showed that hemolysis formed clots consisting of materials with membrane-like structures from both whole blood and PBS-suspended RBCs. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis results showed a monotonous material with high electron density in the formed clots, presenting a membrane-like structure. Hemolysis disappeared with the decrease in the current through the targets contacting with the plasma flare and clot formation ceased. Taken together, our results and those of earlier studies present two types of blood clot formation, namely presence or absence of hemolysis capability depending on the current through the targets. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Kumagai S.,Toyota Technological Institute | Chang C.-Y.,Toyota Technological Institute | Jeong J.,Toyota Technological Institute | Kobayashi M.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2016

A device consisting of Si microwells and microplasma sources has been fabricated for plasma treatment of individual cells cultured in media. We named the device plasma-on-chip. The microwells have through-holes at the bottom where gas-liquid interfaces form when they are filled with media containing biological samples. The microplasma sources, which supply reactive species, are located on the back of each microwell. Through the gas-liquid interface, the reactive species are supplied to the cells. Chlorella cells were used to demonstrate the feasibility of the device and after three minutes of plasma treatment, the fluorescence intensity of Chlorella cells appeared to be decreased. Optical emission spectroscopy identified O and OH radicals in the plasma, which can affect the cells. In the analysis of biological samples such as human cells or tissues, this device raises the possibility of revealing the mechanisms of plasma medicine in more detail. © 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. Source

Welz C.,University of Gottingen | Emmert S.,University of Gottingen | Canis M.,University of Gottingen | Becker S.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. Despite the development of new therapeutic agents such as monoclonal antibodies, prognosis did not change for the last decades. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) presents the most promising new technology in cancer treatment. In this study the efficacy of a surface micro discharging (SMD) plasma device against two head and neck cancer cell lines was proved. Effects on the cell viability, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induction were evaluated with the MTT assay, alkaline microgel electrophoresis (comet assay) and Annexin-V/PI staining. MTT assay revealed that the CAP treatment markedly decreases the cell viability for all tested treatment times (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 s). IC 50 was reached within maximal 120 seconds of CAP treatment. Comet assay analysis showed a dose dependent high DNA fragmentation being one of the key players in anti-cancer activity of CAP. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed induction of apoptosis in CAP treated HNSCC cell lines but no significant dose dependency was seen. Thus, we confirmed that SMD Plasma technology is definitely a promising new approach on cancer treatment. © 2015 Welz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Arndt S.,University of Regensburg | Landthaler M.,University of Regensburg | Zimmermann J.L.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Zimmermann J.L.,Terraplasma GmbH | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been gaining increasing interest as a new approach for the treatment of skin diseases or wounds. Although this approach has demonstrated promising antibacterial activity, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. This study explored in vitro and in vivo whether CAP influences gene expression and molecular mechanisms in keratinocytes. Our results revealed that a 2 min CAP treatment using the Micro-PlaSter ß in analogy to the performed clinical studies for wound treatment induces expression of IL-8, TGF-ß1, and TGF-ß2. In vitro and in vivo assays indicated that keratinocyte proliferation, migration, and apoptotic mechanisms were not affected by the CAP treatment under the applied conditions. Further, we observed that antimicrobial peptides of the ß-defensin family are upregulated after CAP treatment. In summary, our results suggest that a 2 min application of CAP induces gene expression of key regulators important for inflammation and wound healing without causing proliferation, migration or cell death in keratinocytes. The induction of ß-defensins in keratinocytes describes an absolutely new plasma strategy. Activation of antimicrobial peptides supports the well-known antibacterial effect of CAP treatment, whereas the mechanism of ß-defensin activation by CAP is not investigated so far. © 2015 Arndt et al. Source

Ahlfeld B.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Li Y.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Li Y.,Terraplasma GmbH | Boulaaba A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | And 7 more authors.
mBio | Year: 2015

Human norovirus (NoV) is the most frequent cause of epidemic nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. We investigated the impact of nonthermal or cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on the inactivation of a clinical human outbreak NoV, GII.4. Three different dilutions of a NoV-positive stool sample were prepared and subsequently treated with CAPP for various lengths of time, up to 15 min. NoV viral loads were quantified by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Increased CAPP treatment time led to increased NoV reduction; samples treated for the longest time had the lowest viral load. From the initial starting quantity of 2.36×104 genomic equivalents/ml, sample exposure to CAPP reduced this value by 1.23 log10 and 1.69 log10 genomic equivalents/ml after 10 and 15 min, respectively (P<0.01). CAPP treatment of surfaces carrying a lower viral load reduced NoV by at least 1 log10 after CAPP exposure for 2 min (P<0.05) and 1 min (P<0.05), respectively. Our results suggest that NoV can be inactivated by CAPP treatment. The lack of cell culture assays prevents our ability to estimate infectivity. It is possible that some detectable, intact virus particles were rendered noninfectious. We conclude that CAPP treatment of surfaces may be a useful strategy to reduce the risk of NoV transmission in crowded environments. IMPORTANCE Human gastroenteritis is most frequently caused by noroviruses, which are spread person to person and via surfaces, often in facilities with crowds of people. Disinfection of surfaces that come into contact with infected humans is critical for the prevention of cross-contamination and further transmission of the virus. However, effective disinfection cannot be done easily in mass catering environments or health care facilities. We evaluated the efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma, an innovative airborne disinfection method, on surfaces inoculated with norovirus. We used a clinically relevant strain of norovirus from an outbreak in Germany. Cold plasma was able to inactivate the virus on the tested surfaces, suggesting that this method could be used for continuous disinfection of contaminated surfaces. The use of a clinical strain of norovirus strengthens the reliability of our results as it is a strain relevant to outbreaks in humans. © 2015 Ahlfeld et al. Source

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