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Gråbo, Sweden

Sandstrom B.,Gothenburg University | Annersten H.,Uppsala University | Tullborg E.-L.,Terralogica AB
International Journal of Earth Sciences

Red-staining of rocks due to fluid-rock interaction during hydrothermal circulation in fractures is a common feature in crystalline sequences. In this study, red-stained metagranitic rock adjacent to fractures in Forsmark, central Sweden, has been studied with emphasis on the mineral reactions and associated element mobility occurring during the alteration. The main mineral reactions associated with the hydrothermal alteration are an almost complete saussuritization of plagioclase accompanied by total chloritization of biotite. Magnetite has been partly replaced by hematite whereas quartz and K-feldspar were relatively unaffected by the hydrothermal alteration. We show that redistribution of elements on the whole rock scale was very limited and is mainly manifested by enrichment of Na 2O and volatiles and depletion of CaO, FeO and SiO 2 in the red-stained rock. However, on the microscale, element redistribution was more extensive, with both intragranular and intergranular migration of e. g. Ca, K, Na, Al, Si, Fe, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr, Ti and REEs. The altered rock shows a shift towards higher total oxidation factors, but the change is smaller than 1σ and the red-staining of the rock is due to hematite dissemination rather than a significant oxidation of the rock. An increase in the connected porosity is also observed in the altered rock. © 2008 Springer-Verlag. Source

Cvetkovic V.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Cheng H.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Byegard J.,Geosigma AB | Winberg A.,Conterra AB | And 2 more authors.
Water Resources Research

We evaluate the breakthrough curves obtained within a comprehensive experimental program for investigating the retention properties of crystalline rock, referred to as Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE). The tracer tests were conducted at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden) in two phases jointly referred to as TRUE Block Scale (TBS); the TBS tests comprise a total of 17 breakthrough curves with nonsorbing and a range of sorbing tracers. The Euclidian length scales are between 10 and 30 m, compared to 5 m for the earlier tests TRUE-1. The unlimited diffusion model is consistent with measured breakthrough curves and is adopted here for evaluation. The model has four independent parameters, two of which are related to advection and dispersion, one which is related to diffusion-sorption, and one which is related to surface sorption; the individual retention parameters or properties cannot be inferred from breakthrough curves alone and require additional constraints. The mean water residence times for the TBS tests are in the range 15-250 h, whereas the coefficient of variation of the water residence times is in the range 0.4-0.6. A consistent trend is found in the calibrated retention parameters with the sorption affinities of the tracers involved. Using Bode sensitivity functions, it is shown that sensitivity increases for the retention parameter with increasing sorption affinity; for nonsorbing tracers, diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion are shown to "compete," exhibiting similar effects; hence, their estimates are uncertain. The analysis presented here exposes a few fundamental limitations and sensitivities when evaluating diffusioncontrolled retention in the subsurface; it is general and applicable to any site with comparable tracer test data. In part 2, it will be shown how discrete fracture network simulations based on the hydrostructural information available can be used for further constraining individual retention parameters, in particular, the active specific surface area (sf) and the rock matrix porosity (θ). Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Mathurin F.A.,Linnaeus University | Astrom M.E.,Linnaeus University | Laaksoharju M.,Nova FoU | Kalinowski B.E.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company | Tullborg E.-L.,Terralogica AB
Environmental Science and Technology

The aim of this study was to assess how the excavation of the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel has impacted on sources and mixing of groundwater in fractured crystalline (granitoidic) bedrock. The tunnel is 3600 m long and extends to a depth of 460 m at a coastal site in Boreal Europe. The study builds on a unique data set consisting of 1117 observations on chloride and δ18O of groundwater collected from a total of 356 packed-off fractures between 1987 and 2011. On the basis of the values of these two variables in selected source waters, a classification system was developed to relate the groundwater observations to source and postinfiltration mixing phenomena. The results show that the groundwater has multiple sources and a complex history of transport and mixing, and is composed of at least glacial water, marine water, recent meteoric water, and an old saline water. The tunnel excavation has had a large impact on flow, sources, and mixing of the groundwater. Important phenomena include upflow of deep-lying saline water, extensive intrusion of current Baltic Sea water, and substantial temporal variability of chloride and δ18O in many fractures. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Krall L.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company | Sandstrom B.,WSP Sverige AB | Tullborg E.-L.,Terralogica AB | Evins L.Z.,Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company
Applied Geochemistry

U-bearing solid phases from Forsmark, Sweden, a proposed host for radioactive waste repositories, have been identified and characterized. Elevated dissolved U was found in some groundwater samples during the site investigations, prompting a need to study the local U geochemistry. Previous hydrochemical and whole-rock geochemical studies indicated that U was derived from local pegmatites, and mobilized and re-deposited during several geological events. In this study, down-hole gamma logs guided sampling of local pegmatites, cataclasites, and fracture fillings. Back-scattered electron-imaging, petrographic microscopy, and electron microprobe analyses were used to find and analyze U phases in thin sections. The results show that the principal U sources at Forsmark include pegmatitic uraninite (PbO up to ~22wt%) and metamict uranothorite. These primary minerals show variable degrees of alteration such as enrichment in Ca and Al and/or replacement by secondary Ca-U(VI)-silicates, haiweeite and uranophane. The haiweeite contains up to ~5wt% Al2O3, a chemical signature reflecting early (Proterozoic) events of hydrothermal fluid migration. Coffinitized, secondary uraninite is found in association with FeAl-silicates or Palaeozoic sulfide/sulfate minerals, indicating remobilization-precipitation and/or a secondary, sedimentary source of U. It is inferred that U was oxidized during geologically early periods. Later, U(IV) phases formed in fractures open to fluid circulation during the Palaeozoic. This study establishes the phases available as local U sources and/or sinks, and which will be considered in future isotopic and hydrochemical studies aimed to constrain the mechanisms and timing of water-U phase interaction. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Drake H.,Linnaeus University | Tullborg E.-L.,Terralogica AB | Hogmalm K.J.,Gothenburg University | Astrom M.E.,Linnaeus University
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

Studies of low-temperature fracture calcite in Proterozoic or Archaean crystalline rocks are very limited, mainly because this calcite usually is, first, not very abundant and second, very fine-grained or forms rims on older (and much more abundant) hydrothermal calcite and is thus difficult to distinguish. Knowledge of chemical characteristics and the correlation with groundwater chemistry is thus scarce for low-temperature calcite in these settings, and consequently, knowledge of the recent palaeohydrogeological history is limited. Boreholes drilled with triple-tube technique in the upper 1km of the Palaeoproterozoic crystalline crust at Laxemar, SE Sweden, have enabled preservation of fragile and potentially recently formed fracture minerals. Earlier investigations of these boreholes have resulted in an extensive set of groundwater chemistry data from various depths, and in detailed knowledge of the fracture mineral assemblages (ranging from 1.8Ga to present). This has made it possible to identify and sample low-temperature, potentially recently formed, calcite from water-flowing fractures for which representative groundwater chemical data exists. This, in turn, provides an opportunity to detailed comparisons of fracture calcite (age span in the order of million years, with possibility of post-glacial contributes) and groundwater (age in the order of decades to more than a million year depending on depth) in terms of both isotopic and geochemical properties, giving input to the understanding of groundwater history, partition coefficients derived in laboratory experiment, and reliability of calcite geochemistry in terms of representing the actual source fluid composition. In this study, the focus is on trace elements (Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr), stable isotopes and Sr isotopes and, for the groundwater data set, also aquatic speciation with Visual MINTEQ. An optimised step-by-step sample specific analytical procedure was used for the collection of calcite coatings. The methods used depended on the crystal homogeneity (one or several calcite generations), discerned by detailed SEM-investigations (back-scatter and cathodo-luminescence). 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios as well as δ 18O signatures in calcite are in the range expected for the precipitates from present-day groundwater, or older groundwater with similar composition (except in sections with a considerable portion of glacial water, where calcite definitely is older than the latest glaciation). Stable carbon isotopes in calcite generally show values typically associated with HCO3- originating from soil organic matter but at intermediate depth frequently with HCO3- originating from in situ microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (highly depleted δ 13C). For one of the studied metals - manganese - there was a strong correlation between the sampled calcite coatings and hypothetical calcite predicted by applying laboratory-based partition coefficients (literature data) on groundwater chemistry for sections corresponding to those where the calcites were sampled. This points to temporal and spatial stability in groundwater Mn/Ca ratios over millions of years, or even more, and show that it is possible to assess, based on laboratory-derived data on Mn partitioning, past groundwater Mn-composition from fracture calcites. For other metals - Fe, Sr, and Mg - which are expected to interact with co-precipitating minerals to a higher degree than Mn, the correlations between measured and predicted calcite were weaker for various reasons. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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