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De Smedt C.,Ghent University | Someus E.,Terra Humana Ltd | Spanoghe P.,Ghent University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015

In this review, it is demonstrated that zeolites have a potential to be used as crop protection agents. Similarly to kaolin, zeolites can be applied as particle films against pests and diseases. Their honeycomb framework, together with their carbon dioxide sorption capacity and their heat stress reduction capacity, makes them suitable as a leaf coating product. Furthermore, their water sorption capacity and their smaller particle sizes make them effective against fungal diseases and insect pests. Finally, these properties also ensure that zeolites can act as carriers of different active substances, which makes it possible to use zeolites for slow-release applications. Based on the literature, a general overview is provided of the different basic properties of zeolites as promising products in crop protection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

Postma J.,Plant Research International | Nijhuis E.H.,Plant Research International | Someus E.,Terra Humana Ltd
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2010

Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphate to plants, meanwhile re-using P from waste of the food chain. Ninety-seven bacterial isolates from different soils were tested for their potential to dissolve P from ABC. Of these isolates, 60% showed positive scores; they belonged to the genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Collimonas, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Twelve isolates from different taxonomic groups were selected for further research on growth ability and survival in ABC, and on their potential to control plant pathogens. The highest concentrations of P were dissolved by Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Bacillus pumilus, followed by Paenibacillus polymyxa, Burkholderia pyrrocinia and three Streptomyces isolates. P. chlororaphis and P. polymyxa showed strongest growth inhibition of plant pathogenic Pythium and Fusarium sp., followed by the Streptomyces spp. isolates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Postma J.,Plant Research International | Clematis F.,Plant Research International | Clematis F.,University of Turin | Nijhuis E.H.,Plant Research International | Someus E.,Terra Humana Ltd
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Four taxonomically different bacteria, with the ability to mobilize phosphate (P) and to colonize animal bone charcoal (ABC), were tested for their capacity to control plant pathogens. Tests were performed in the greenhouse with young tomato plants in (potting) soil and in rockwool. Plants were infested with Pythium aphanidermatum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) causing respectively damping off and crown and root rot. ABC is a porous, phosphorous containing waste product from the food industry, and was used as carrier to introduce the bacteria into the growing media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures showed the intensive colonization of the bacteria in the interior of ABC. Of the four tested strains, Pseudomonas chlororaphis 4.4.1 was most effective in controlling the diseases. It controlled P. aphanidermatum and FORL in tomato in each of the tests. The strain appeared to be a very good root colonizer, since 1-8% of the cultural bacterial population on the tomato roots or in rhizosphere soil consisted of the introduced strain. Population densities of P. chlororaphis 4.4.1 were 0.5-5×107CFUg-1 root or rhizosphere soil. Peanibacillus polymyxa 12.4.1 and Streptomyces pseudovenezuelae 13.4.2 significantly controlled P. aphanidermatum in two tests in potting soil, whereas Bacillus pumilus 4.4.2 was not effective. FORL could be controlled by B. pumilus 4.4.2 and S. pseudovenezuelae 13.4.2 in only part of the tests, whereas P. polymyxa 12.4.1 was not effective. ABC is a novel carrier for delivery of biocontrol bacteria into soil or substrate and combines biocontrol with recycling a phosphorous-rich waste product. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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