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San Nicolas De Los Garsas, Mexico

Ternium is a manufacturer of flat and long steel products with production centers in Argentina, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia and the United States. It is the leading steel company in Latin America with highly integrated processes to manufacture steel and value-added products. Wikipedia.


Ramirez-Argaez M.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Conejo A.N.,Morelia Technological Institute ITM | Lopez-Cornejo M.S.,Ternium
ISIJ International | Year: 2015

The sponge iron or Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) is an important feedstock in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). The main sources of iron units for the EAF can be steel scrap, DRI, hot metal and combinations of these materials. The EAF has become a melting reactor and its melting rate plays a key role in furnace productivity. In this work, the melting rate of porous metallic particles is analyzed employing CFD tools, having the computational domain of an industrial size EAF. The molten pool is comprised of two liquid phases, steel and slag. In order to compute the melting rate as a function of particle size and arc length, three sub-models were developed, one computes the instantaneous power delivery as a function of arc voltage and arc length, the second one computes the velocity and temperature fields and finally the third sub-model computes the melting rate. Comparisons of melting rates when the particles are immersed in its own melt and the case where immersion is carried out in the steel/slag system is included in the analysis. A contribution from this work is a more realistic approach to compute the convective heat transfer coefficient using the estimated values of the velocity fields. © 2015 ISIJ. Source


Musante L.,Tenaris Siderca RandD Campana 2804 | Munoz V.,Laboratorio Of Materiales Estructurales | Labadie M.H.,Ternium | Tomba Martinez A.G.,Laboratorio Of Materiales Estructurales
Ceramics International | Year: 2011

The advantages of Al2O3-MgO-C (AMC) refractories are achieved mainly by the incorporation of graphite and the formation of spinel by solid reaction between alumina and magnesia. Regarding other members of oxide-C refractories (such as MgO-C bricks) and others properties (such as the slag corrosion resistance or the PLC), the information about the mechanical behavior of this type of refractories is scarce. In this work, the mechanical behavior of commercial AMC brick used in steelmaking ladles was studied by stress-strain curves in compression at RT and 1000 °C (nitrogen atmosphere). Before the mechanical testing, a comprehensive characterization of AMC materials was performed by several techniques: XRD, DTA/TGA, SEM/EDS, aggregate size distribution analysis and densities, porosities and thermal expansion measurements. Mechanical parameters such as fracture strength and strain, yield stress and Young modulus were determined together with the main characteristics of the fracture. In order to study the transformations occurred during the stay at high temperature, the specimens tested at 1000 °C were analyzed by the same techniques used for the as-received bricks characterization (with the exception of the thermal expansion analysis). The AMC refractories displayed differences in the mechanical behavior and its dependence on the testing temperature. These results were explained considering the differences in the composition and microstructure of both refractories and in their thermal transformations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. Source


Barrios J.A.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Torres-Alvarado M.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Cavazos A.,Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon | Leduc L.,Ternium
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2011

In hot strip mills, initial controller set points have to be calculated before the steel bar enters the mill. Calculations rely on the good knowledge of rolling variables. Measurements are available only after the bar has entered the mill, and therefore they have to be estimated. Estimation of process variables, particularly that of temperature, is of crucial importance for the bar front section to fulfill quality requirements, and the same must be performed in the shortest possible time to preserve heat. Currently, temperature estimation is performed by physical modeling; however, it is highly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions, and final product changes. In order to overcome these problems, artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been proposed. In this article, neural network-based systems, including neural-based Gray-Box models, are applied to estimate scale breaker entry temperature, given its importance, and their performance is compared to that of the physical model used in plant. Several neural systems and several neural-based Gray-Box models are designed and tested with real data. Taking advantage of the flexibility of neural networks for input incorporation, several factors which are believed to have influence on the process are also tested. The systems proposed in this study were proven to have better performance indexes and hence better prediction capabilities than the physical models currently used in plant. © 2010 ASM International. Source


Labadie M.,Ternium
Journal of Materials Research and Technology | Year: 2012

In Ternium Siderar Al2O3-ZrO2-C slide gate plates are used. In this paper, it is presented the evaluation of the wear mechanisms by calcium attack and the physical, chemical, and thermal characterization of three different slide gate plates. The characterization of the slide gate plates included: determination of the bulk density and apparent porosity, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence, identification of mineralogical phases by X-ray diffraction, and DTA-TG analysis up to 1,400 C (DTG-60H equipment). Besides, there were carried out corrosion tests with SiCa and synthetic slags with 50% of calcium oxide. © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. and Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Source


Labadie M.,Ternium
Journal of Materials Research and Technology | Year: 2012

In Ternium Siderar Al2O3-ZrO2-C slide gate plates are used. In this paper, it is presented the evaluation of the wear mechanisms by calcium attack and the physical, chemical, and thermal characterization of three different slide gate plates. The characterization of the slide gate plates included: determination of the bulk density and apparent porosity, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence, identification of mineralogical phases by X-ray diffraction, and DTA-TG analysis up to 1,400 C (DTG-60H equipment). Besides, there were carried out corrosion tests with SiCa and synthetic slags with 50% of calcium oxide. © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. and Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials and Mining Association. Source

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