Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2011
Clostridium difficile infection usually manifests as pseudomembranous colitis. Infection of the small intestine is rare. C. difficile enteritis has a high mortality rate due to secondary enteric necrosis and perforation. We describe an 87-year-old woman with abdominal pain, who died from necrotizing enteritis due to a C. difficile infection. This is the first described case of small bowel involvement in the absence of known risk factors for C. difficile enteritis, i.e. bowel surgery and recent use of antibiotics. The described patient was using immunosuppressants, which in this case could have been a risk factor for small bowel colonization with C. difficile. In clinical practice it is important to be prepared for C. difficile infection, as early treatment of this infection will strongly improve the prognosis. Identification of patients at an increased risk of C. difficile infection is of great value in this respect.
Swart E.L.,VU University Amsterdam |
Slort P.R.,VU University Amsterdam |
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2012
A variety of developmental changes is of influence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam in neonatal and pediatric intensive care patients. However, dosing regimens in children are based upon rather empirical extrapolations from the dosing regimens in adults. Based on current available studies it appears that with the rising of age, the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered midazolam alter, resulting in a shorter half-life due to a higher hepatic clearance in older children as compared to newborn. Also, with the rising of age, the pharmacodynamics of intravenously administered midazolam may alter due to a decrease in density of receptors, possibly leading to a decreased clinical response. These findings implicate opposite effects and it is uncertain which of these effects are predominant. In conclusion, there is a large interindividual variability in the response to midazolam in children, which may be caused by differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Both are subject to considerable developmental changes. It remains remarkable that high-quality evidence to support the use of midazolam for continuous sedation in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care setting is lacking. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.
de Vries J.S.,Tergooiziekenhuizen
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011
Chronic lateral ankle instability occurs in 10% to 20% of people after an acute ankle sprain. Initial treatment is conservative but if this fails and ligament laxity is present, surgical intervention is considered. To compare different treatments, conservative or surgical, for chronic lateral ankle instability. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and reference lists of articles, all to February 2010. All identified randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions for chronic lateral ankle instability were included. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data from each study. Where appropriate, results of comparable studies were pooled. Ten randomised controlled trials were included. Limitations in the design, conduct and reporting of these trials resulted in unclear or high risk of bias assessments relating to allocation concealment, assessor blinding, incomplete and selective outcome reporting. Only limited pooling of the data was possible.Neuromuscular training was the basis of conservative treatment evaluated in four trials. Neuromuscular training compared with no training resulted in better ankle function scores at the end of four weeks training (Ankle Joint Functional Assessment Tool (AJFAT): mean difference (MD) 3.00, 95% CI 0.3 to 5.70; 1 trial, 19 participants; Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) data: MD 8.83, 95% CI 4.46 to 13.20; 2 trials, 56 participants). The fourth trial (19 participants) found no significant difference in the functional outcome after six weeks training programme on a cyclo-ergometer with a bi-directional compared with a traditional uni-directional pedal. Longer-term follow-up data were not available for these four trials.Four studies compared surgical procedures for chronic ankle instability. One trial (40 participants) found more nerve injuries after tenodesis than anatomical reconstruction (risk ratio (RR) 5.50, 95% CI 1.39 to 21.71). One trial (99 participants) comparing dynamic versus static tenodesis excluded 17 patients allocated dynamic tenodesis because their tendons were too thin. The same trial found that dynamic tenodesis resulted in higher numbers of people with unsatisfactory function (RR 8.62, 95% CI 1.97 to 37.77, 82 participants). One trial comparing techniques of lateral ankle ligament reconstruction (60 participants) found that operating time was shorter using the reinsertion technique than the imbrication method (MD -9.00 minutes, 95% CI -13.48 to -4.52). Two trials (70 participants) compared functional mobilisation with immobilisation after surgery. These found early mobilisation led to earlier return to work (MD -2.00 weeks, 95% CI -3.06 to -0.94; 1 trial) and to sports (MD -3.00 weeks, 95% CI -4.49 to -1.51; 1 trial). Neuromuscular training alone appears effective in the short term but whether this advantage would persist on longer-term follow-up is not known. While there is insufficient evidence to support any one surgical intervention over another surgical intervention for chronic ankle instability, it is likely that there are limitations to the use of dynamic tenodesis. After surgical reconstruction, early functional rehabilitation appears to be superior to six weeks immobilisation in restoring early function.
Muller M.C.,University of Amsterdam |
Arbous M.S.,Leiden University |
Spoelstra-De Man A.M.,Medical Center |
Vink R.,Tergooiziekenhuizen |
And 6 more authors.
Transfusion | Year: 2015
Background Prophylactic use of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) is common practice in patients with a coagulopathy undergoing an invasive procedure. Evidence that FFP prevents bleeding is lacking, while risks of transfusion-related morbidity after FFP have been well demonstrated. We aimed to assess whether omitting prophylactic FFP transfusion in nonbleeding critically ill patients with a coagulopathy who undergo an intervention is noninferior to a prophylactic transfusion of FFP. Study Design and Methods A multicenter randomized open-label trial with blinded endpoint evaluation was performed in critically ill patients with a prolonged international normalized ratio (INR; 1.5-3.0). Patients undergoing placement of a central venous catheter, percutaneous tracheostomy, chest tube, or abscess drainage were eligible. Patients with clinically overt bleeding, thrombocytopenia, or therapeutic use of anticoagulants were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to omitting or administering a prophylactic transfusion of FFP (12 mL/kg). Outcomes were occurrence of postprocedural bleeding complications, INR correction, and occurrence of lung injury. Results Due to slow inclusion, the trial was stopped before the predefined target enrollment was reached. Eighty-one patients were randomly assigned, 40 to FFP and 41 to no FFP transfusion. Incidence of bleeding did not differ between groups, with a total of one major and 13 minor bleedings (p = 0.08 for noninferiority). FFP transfusion resulted in a reduction of INR to less than 1.5 in 54% of transfused patients. No differences in lung injury scores were observed. Conclusion In critically ill patients undergoing an invasive procedure, no difference in bleeding complications was found regardless whether FFP was prophylactically administered or not. © 2014 AABB.
de Kruijk J.R.,Tergooiziekenhuizen
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde | Year: 2012
Recently the out-of-date Dutch guideline 'Mild traumatic head/brain injury' dating from 2001 was revised under the supervision of the Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement (CBO). The revised guideline gives underpinned decision rules for the referral of patients to hospital, carrying out diagnostic imaging investigations, and formulating indications for admission. Mild head-brain injury is no longer an indication for a conventional skull radiograph. Adults and children aged 6 years and older no longer have to be woken regularly if they are allowed home. The guideline can be used in both primary care and on the Emergency Departments of hospitals and is applicable to both adults and children. The guideline does not address the rehabilitation or long-term care of patients with mild traumatic head/brain injury, but it does give advice on reducing the risk of long-term symptoms. Regional implementation of the guideline in primary and secondary care is recommended.