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Hilversum, Netherlands

Faris C.,University of Southampton | Vuyk H.D.,Tergooi Hospitals
Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America | Year: 2011

Reconstruction of nasal tip and columella defects is demanding area with a range of reconstructive options, varying in complexity depending on requirements from simple skin grafting to multiple stage reconstruction with regional flaps. A framework is suggested to aid the reader in choice of reconstruction by classifying the defect based on size and the requirements of one to three layer (full thickness) reconstruction. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Kompanje E.J.O.,Erasmus Medical Center | Walgaard C.,Erasmus Medical Center | De Groot Y.J.,Erasmus Medical Center | Stevens M.,Tergooi Hospitals
Neurology | Year: 2011

Posterior circulation stroke, which includes basilar artery occlusion (BAO), accounts for approximately 20% of all ischemic strokes. Much is unclear concerning the early historical descriptions of basilar artery occlusion, and some modern authors cite the historical sources incorrectly and incompletely. The case described by the Scottish physician John Abercrombie in 1828 is probably the first description of this form of stroke. The progressive bulbar signs that Abercrombie described in his case were striking, i.e., dysphagia and speech difficulties. Many authors in the 19th century described a waxing and waning clinical course for several days before profound coma and death. They also noticed signs and symptoms such as hemiplegia without loss of sensitivity and bulbar symptoms such as swallowing and speech impairment, vertigo, and altered consciousness. After Virchows epoch-making work on embolism and thrombosis, all authors correctly described BAO as resulting from emboli and thrombosis based on arteriosclerosis instead of ossification of the arterial walls or inflammation. Around 1880, the clinical symptoms of BAO were obviously well-known to the experienced clinician. In this article we offer a chronological description of historical sources. © AAN Enterprises, Inc.

Luykx J.J.,University Utrecht | Carpay J.A.,Tergooi Hospitals
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Nervous system adverse drug reactions (NS-ADRs), such as cognitive complaints and paresthesia, are among the most frequent and clinically important ADRs of topiramate. Studying ADR profiles across disorders is clinically relevant because treatment decision-making in neuropsychiatry is highly guided by ADR profiles. Areas covered in this review: We used medline searches (until July 2009) to review the NS-ADRs of topiramate across the most investigated topiramate indications: alcohol dependence, essential tremor, binge-eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, migraine and epilepsy. We compared NS-ADRs between these disorders but did not carry out meta-analysis. What the reader will gain: ADR profiles greatly differed between disorders. Drop-outs due to ADRs highly varied between disorders: from 2% in the bulimia nervosa group to 29% in the migraine group. Paresthesia was the most common NS-ADR for all disorders but frequencies also differed between disorders. Cognitive complaints were frequent and were reported in comparable proportions. Take home message: When prescribing topiramate in neuropsychiatry, physicians should be aware that NS-ADR profiles have been found to differ between disorders. Differences in drop-out rates due to ADRs and in frequencies of specific NS-ADRs across disorders must be taken into account when evaluating the potential harm of topiramate in clinical practice. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Krinsley J.S.,Columbia University | Schultz M.J.,University of Amsterdam | Spronk P.E.,University of Amsterdam | Harmsen R.E.,University of Amsterdam | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2011

Introduction: Severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration (BG) < 40 mg/dL) is independently associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill patients. The association of milder hypoglycemia (BG < 70 mg/dL) with mortality is less clear.Methods: Prospectively collected data from two observational cohorts in the USA and in The Netherlands, and from the prospective GLUCONTROL trial were analyzed. Hospital mortality was the primary endpoint.Results: We analyzed data from 6,240 patients: 3,263 admitted to Stamford Hospital (ST), 2,063 admitted to three institutions in The Netherlands (NL) and 914 who participated in the GLUCONTROL trial (GL). The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia varied from 18% to 65% among the different cohorts. Patients with hypoglycemia experienced higher mortality than did those without hypoglycemia even after stratification by severity of illness, diagnostic category, diabetic status, mean BG during intensive care unit (ICU) admission and coefficient of variation (CV) as a reflection of glycemic variability. The relative risk (RR, 95% confidence interval) of mortality associated with minimum BG < 40, 40 to 54 and 55 to 69 mg/dL compared to patients with minimum BG 80 to 109 mg/dL was 3.55 (3.02 to 4.17), 2.70 (2.31 to 3.14) and 2.18 (1.87 to 2.53), respectively (all P < 0.0001). The RR of mortality associated with any hypoglycemia < 70 mg/dL was 3.28 (2.78 to 3.87) (P < 0.0001), 1.30 (1.12 to 1.50) (P = 0.0005) and 2.11 (1.62 to 2.74) (P < 0.0001) for the ST, NL and GL cohorts, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that minimum BG < 70 mg/dL, 40 to 69 mg/dL and < 40 mg/dL were independently associated with increased risk of mortality for the entire cohort of 6,240 patients (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 1.78 (1.39 to 2.27) P < 0.0001), 1.29 (1.11 to 1.51) P = 0.0011 and 1.87 (1.46 to 2.40) P < 0.0001) respectively.Conclusions: Mild hypoglycemia was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality in an international cohort of critically ill patients. Efforts to reduce the occurrence of hypoglycemia in critically ill patients may reduce mortality. © 2011 Krinsley et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kok M.,Tergooi Hospitals | Linn S.C.,Netherlands Cancer Institute
Netherlands Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and existing clinicopathological classifications do not fully capture the diversity in clinical disease course. Since the oestrogen receptor (ER) plays a central role in the crosstalk between different signalling pathways in breast cancer, the expression of this receptor is important for the behaviour of breast cancer cells and is reflected in gene expression patterns of breast tumours. High throughput analysis of gene expression of breast cancer has increased the insights into ER signalling, including its relation with disease outcome and therapy response. Expression of ER and its numerous downstream targets are driving patterns of gene expression and dominate unsupervised analyses in the breast cancer specimens studied to date, regardless of microarray platform or statistical approach. This paper reviews gene expression studies either attempting to unravel the functional effect of ER or describing the gene expression profiles driven by ER in breast tumours. In addition, the development of molecular signatures predicting response to endocrine treatment will be discussed. © Van Zuiden Communications B.V. All rights reserved.

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