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Blair E.E.,Beloit College | Miller R.B.,Harvard University | Ong M.,TERC | Zastavker Y.V.,Franklin W. Olin College Of Engineering
Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2017

Background: Despite long-standing initiatives to improve gender equity across STEM fields, women's representation in undergraduate engineering programs remains low. STEM faculty, as influential gatekeepers, can promote gender inclusivity in these fields. Yet, little is known about how faculty construct their responsibilities to advance gender equity. Purpose/Hypothesis: We investigated how STEM faculty teaching first-year engineering courses constructed teacher identities and responsibilities. Our research questions included: What discourses do faculty use to construct the meaning of student gender expression in their classroom? How do faculty discursively position themselves in relation to gender equity? What teacher identities and responsibilities do they construct through these discourses?. Design/Method: Utilizing a feminist, poststructural epistemology and discursive methodology, we analyzed 18 interviews with instructors in three undergraduate engineering programs. After coding data for ways instructors talked about gender in their work with students, we analyzed how faculty constructed their teacher identities in relation to each discourse and how these positions affected their promotion of gender equity. Results: Faculty used three dominant discourses to construct student gender expression and teacher identities: gender blindness, gender acknowledgment, and gender intervention. Faculty most frequently utilized discourses acknowledging gender inequity, which often limited their responsibilities to promote equity and highlights the pernicious nature of systemic gender bias. Conclusions: Findings suggest that institutions could expand discourse and better align faculty awareness of gender inequity with meaningful, pedagogical change strategies. © 2016 ASEE

Sylvan E.A.,TERC
Learning in the Disciplines: ICLS 2010 Conference Proceedings - 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences | Year: 2010

This paper introduces Online Communities of Creators, the subset of social networking sites in which the focus is sharing, developing and understanding personal creations. It proposes that two kinds of influence are important in these communities: social influence and project influence. Using multiple linear regressions the factors that predict each type of influence were identified for one Online Community of Creators called the Scratch Community web site. © ISLS.

Gal Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Gal Y.,Harvard University | Reddy S.,Harvard University | Shieber S.M.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2012

This paper describes a challenging plan recognition problem that arises in environments in which agents engage widely in exploratory behavior, and presents new algorithms for effective plan recognition in such settings. In exploratory domains, agents actions map onto logs of behavior that include switching between activities, extraneous actions, and mistakes. Flexible pedagogical software, such as the application considered in this paper for statistics education, is a paradigmatic example of such domains, but many other settings exhibit similar characteristics. The paper establishes the task of plan recognition in exploratory domains to be NP-hard and compares several approaches for recognizing plans in these domains, including new heuristic methods that vary the extent to which they employ backtracking, as well as a reduction to constraint-satisfaction problems. The algorithms were empirically evaluated on peoples interaction with flexible, open-ended statistics education software used in schools. Data was collected from adults using the software in a lab setting as well as middle school students using the software in the classroom. The constraint satisfaction approaches were complete, but were an order of magnitude slower than the heuristic approaches. In addition, the heuristic approaches were able to perform within 4% of the constraint satisfaction approaches on student data from the classroom, which reflects the intended user population of the software. These results demonstrate that the heuristic approaches offer a good balance between performance and computation time when recognizing peoples activities in the pedagogical domain of interest. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Visintainer T.,TERC
Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS | Year: 2016

This research explores processes of learning and identity construction for high school students of color as they engage in a community-based scientific research project as part of a summer science program. This research utilizes qualitative (e.g. interviews) and quantitative (e.g. surveys) data sources. Findings illustrate the emergence of an identity generative process: that engaging in science practices (e.g. presenting research) and the accompanying program resources (e.g. placing students in a position of power) generated new possibilities for students as capable science learners, scientists, and change agents. Furthermore, findings show that the instructor's perspective of science and vision for his students guided the design of program resources (e.g. pedagogy, instruction) made available that helped create these shifts. Findings show that youth of color can imagine new possibilities for who they can be in science if their science and racial identities are supported in science programs. © 2016 ISLS.

Varelas M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Pappas C.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Tucker-Raymond E.,TERC | Kane J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching | Year: 2010

In this study we explored how dramatic enactments of scientific phenomena and concepts mediate children's learning of scientific meanings along material, social, and representational dimensions. These drama activities were part of two integrated science-literacy units, Matter and Forest, which we developed and implemented in six urban primary-school (grades 1st-3rd) classrooms. We examine and discuss the possibilities and challenges that arise as children and teachers engaged in scientific knowing through such experiences. We use Halliday's (1978. Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press) three metafunctions of communicative activity-ideational, interpersonal, and textual-to map out the place of the multimodal drama genre in elementary urban school science classrooms of young children. As the children talked, moved, gestured, and positioned themselves in space, they constructed and shared meanings with their peers and their teachers as they enacted their roles. Through their bodies they negotiated ambiguity and re-articulated understandings, thus marking this embodied meaning making as a powerful way to engage with science. Furthermore, children's whole bodies became central, explicit tools used to accomplish the goal of representing this imaginary scientific world, as their teachers helped them differentiate it from the real world of the model they were enacting. Their bodies operated on multiple mediated levels: as material objects that moved through space, as social objects that negotiated classroom relationships and rules, and as metaphorical entities that stood for water molecules in different states of matter or for plants, animals, or nonliving entities in a forest food web. Children simultaneously negotiated meanings across all of these levels, and in doing so, acted out improvisational drama as they thought and talked science. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rubin A.,TERC
E-Learning and Digital Media | Year: 2014

A picture is worth a thousand words: here is several thousands words' worth of memories of the work in Alaska that provided the fodder for the book Electronic Quills.

Sylvan E.,TERC
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2010

This paper introduces the concept of Online Communities of Creators (OCOCs), which are a subset of social network sites in which the core activity is sharing personal, original creations. Next it defines two distinct types of influence, Project Influence and Social Influence. Project Influence is a measure of the degree to which the community recognizes members' work. Social Influence is a measure of how much a member is a social bridge between otherwise unconnected members. These two types of influence are studied in an online programming community called the Scratch Online Community. Two multiple linear regressions determine the factors that predict each of the two types of influence. The factors predicting each were distinct, suggesting that these are two distinct constructs in this community. © 2010 ACM.

Touretzky D.S.,Carnegie Mellon University | Marghitu D.,Auburn University | Ludi S.,Rochester Institute of Technology | Bernstein D.,TERC | Ni L.,Georgia Institute of Technology
SIGCSE 2013 - Proceedings of the 44th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education | Year: 2013

We describe a three-stage model of computing instruction beginning with a simple, highly scaffolded programming en-vironment (Kodu) and progressing to more challenging frame-works (Alice and Lego NXT-G). In moving between frame-works, students explore the similarities and differences in how concepts such as variables, conditionals, and looping are realized. This can potentially lead to a deeper under-standing of programming, bringing students closer to true computational thinking. Some novel strategies for teach-ing with Kodu are outlined. Finally, we briefly report on our methodology and select preliminary results from a pi-lot study using this curriculum with students ages 10-17, including several with disabilities. Copyright © 2013 ACM.

LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Technavio’s latest report on the global cervical cancer diagnostic testing market provides an analysis on the most important trends expected to impact the market outlook from 2016-2020. Technavio defines an emerging trend as a factor that has the potential to significantly impact the market and contribute to its growth or decline. The global cervical cancer diagnostic testing market is expected to post a CAGR of almost 7% in the forecast period. This market is mainly driven by the increasing awareness on women’s health and wellness. Pap smear is the most commonly uses testing method, accounting for 81.34% of the market in 2015. The human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is quickly gaining popularity, and is expected to showcase a steep growth curve in the forecast period. Technavio’s sample reports are free of charge and contain multiple sections of the report including the market size and forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more. The top four emerging trends driving the cervical cancer diagnostic testing market according to Technavio healthcare and life sciences research analysts are: Co-testing with HPV and pap smear is the latest trend in the market. Various agencies in the US have set guidelines for cervical cancer testing, which is being widely adopted in other countries as well. These guidelines mandate that women aged over 30 should undergo cervical cancer diagnostic tests once every five years. Talking about the emergence of new testing methodologies due to significant investments, Bharath Palada, one of the lead market research analysts at Technavio for in-vitro diagnostics research says, “Liquid-based or thin-layer preparations, computer-assisted screening methods, and new generation HPV testing methods are several new techniques used to enhance the quality and adequacy of the Pap smear test and its interpretation. These new tests will decrease the number of unsatisfactory and ambiguous results, and provide reliable results consistently.” To maximize revenue generated, global vendors are venturing into niche markets in developing countries. For instance, QIAGEN entered a partnership with Chittaranjan Cancer Institute in India to serve quality healthcare to women in low-resource areas. In addition, they also collaborated with Merck, managing to provide nearly five million free vaccines and expanding the already existing HPV test donation program. Prominent vendors like Cancer Genetics are involved in acquisition and expansion. The company acquired BioServe for its biomarker analysis, next generation sequencing, and oncology diagnostics laboratory facilities. Moves like this helps the companies to enhance their pipeline for the non-invasive cervical cancer testing facilities in developing countries, where cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women. Many leading vendors and world-acclaimed universities are investing in R&D to detect and confirm surrogate biomarkers for HPV infections. These biomarkers will allow for accurate monitoring of molecular expressions in histological or cytological specimens. Quest Diagnostics acquired a no-exclusive patent license from the National Institute of Health (NIH) to develop the telomerase RNA component (TERC) test for screening of cervical cancer, which is forecast to show more accurate and efficient results than either Pap or HPV testing. The continuous research is projected to invent new biomarkers that will make way for improved cervical cancer detection. Rise in use of HPV home-testing kits “Vendors in the market have developed innovative home-based products, which can provide quick and accurate test results. The British Medical Journal has reported that the availability and use of self-test kits had aided in diagnosing almost double the number of women affected. These tests are designed to be performed by healthcare professionals with minimal healthcare training or even by individuals,” says Bharath. For instance, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center is currently involved in development of a self-test for HPV testing cervical cancer in Ohio Appalachia. Additionally, emerging companies like GynaeHealth are focusing on launching HPV assay kits for cervical cancer screening at home. The presence of such products in the market will provide access to a greater number of women to perform HPV tests at home. This will eventually lead to an increase the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening. Become a Technavio Insights member and access all three of these reports for a fraction of their original cost. As a Technavio Insights member, you will have immediate access to new reports as they’re published in addition to all 6,000+ existing reports covering segments like oncology, women’s health, and life science research tools. This subscription nets you thousands in savings, while staying connected to Technavio’s constant transforming research library, helping you make informed business decisions more efficiently. Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. The company develops over 2000 pieces of research every year, covering more than 500 technologies across 80 countries. Technavio has about 300 analysts globally who specialize in customized consulting and business research assignments across the latest leading edge technologies. Technavio analysts employ primary as well as secondary research techniques to ascertain the size and vendor landscape in a range of markets. Analysts obtain information using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, besides using in-house market modeling tools and proprietary databases. They corroborate this data with the data obtained from various market participants and stakeholders across the value chain, including vendors, service providers, distributors, re-sellers, and end-users. If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at media@technavio.com.

News Article | August 1, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Lake Tahoe has had a record-breaking year — and not in a good way. A team of scientists from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) has revealed in a new study that Lake Tahoe is getting warmer at a rate that is 15 times faster than its historic average. In a new State of the Lake report, researchers say Lake Tahoe's rising water temperatures are threatening the lake's iconic clarity by affecting many features of its ecology. Professor Geoffrey Schladow says the incidence of rising air temperatures at the lake has been known for many years now, as well as the warming waters. But what's different this time is that scientists are seeing more aspects of Lake Tahoe's internal physics changing. "[T]hat is bound to alter the ecology," says Schladow, who is the director of the Tahoe Environmental Research Center (TERC). When researchers began keeping records of the lake's water temperature in the 1970s, the lake had an average of 50.3 degrees Fahrenheit (10.17 degrees Celsius) year round. In 2015, Lake Tahoe averaged 53.3 degrees Fahrenheit (11.83 degrees Celsius), the report says. Although the increase may appear statistically insignificant, scientists say much of the warming happened in the past decade and a half. This sign has left experts concerned. The increasing water temperatures may likely be linked to shifting air temperatures. Scientists have detected a daily air temperature increase of 4.3 degrees Fahrenheit on the northwest shore of Lake Tahoe since 1916. Waters with different temperatures mix deep in the lake during the winter. This mixing often leads to a clearer view. However, Lake Tahoe did not mix at its maximum depth this year, which scientists blame on the warmer influx of water. Water clarity dropped to 73.1 feet in 2015 — almost a 5-foot decrease in recent years. Furthermore, swimmers have observed algal blooms spread on the lake in previous years. Experts say longer algal blooms have been associated with climate change because algae likes warmer water. What is happening at Lake Tahoe is not only alarming for tourists who use the lake for recreation, but also for those concerned about the impacts of climate change to the beauty of natural resources, researchers say. Lake Tahoe is unique, but scientists explained that the forces and processes that affect it are the same as those that act in most natural ecosystems. Because of that, Lake Tahoe is a microcosm of other natural systems in the Western United States and around the world. How can residents and tourists keep the iconic lake as healthy as possible? Experts say attention to the lake's natural filtration systems as well as stormwater collection may help prevent harmful substances that accelerate the growth of algae such as phosphates out of Lake Tahoe. Darcie Goodman Collins, director of the League to Save Lake Tahoe, believes not much can be done to manipulate global warming. "But we can influence the lake's health," Goodman Collins added. Meanwhile, the UC Davis "Tahoe: State of the Lake" report can be read and downloaded (PDF) from the university's website. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

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