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Blair E.E.,Beloit College | Miller R.B.,Harvard University | Ong M.,TERC | Zastavker Y.V.,Franklin W. Olin College Of Engineering
Journal of Engineering Education | Year: 2017

Background: Despite long-standing initiatives to improve gender equity across STEM fields, women's representation in undergraduate engineering programs remains low. STEM faculty, as influential gatekeepers, can promote gender inclusivity in these fields. Yet, little is known about how faculty construct their responsibilities to advance gender equity. Purpose/Hypothesis: We investigated how STEM faculty teaching first-year engineering courses constructed teacher identities and responsibilities. Our research questions included: What discourses do faculty use to construct the meaning of student gender expression in their classroom? How do faculty discursively position themselves in relation to gender equity? What teacher identities and responsibilities do they construct through these discourses?. Design/Method: Utilizing a feminist, poststructural epistemology and discursive methodology, we analyzed 18 interviews with instructors in three undergraduate engineering programs. After coding data for ways instructors talked about gender in their work with students, we analyzed how faculty constructed their teacher identities in relation to each discourse and how these positions affected their promotion of gender equity. Results: Faculty used three dominant discourses to construct student gender expression and teacher identities: gender blindness, gender acknowledgment, and gender intervention. Faculty most frequently utilized discourses acknowledging gender inequity, which often limited their responsibilities to promote equity and highlights the pernicious nature of systemic gender bias. Conclusions: Findings suggest that institutions could expand discourse and better align faculty awareness of gender inequity with meaningful, pedagogical change strategies. © 2016 ASEE


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

To outer space and the deep ocean, add “beneath the ice” to the list of rarely charted frontiers of science exploration. There have been very few expeditions where robots dived beneath polar ice shelves to characterize and measure them. UC Davis engineering professor Alexander Forrest recently returned from one of them. Forrest led a six-member robotics team in Antarctica on the Western Ross Sea and Terra Nova Bay as part of an international expedition, LIONESS, led by the Korea Polar Research Institute. That stands for Land-Ice/Ocean Network Exploration with Semiautonomous Systems. The team spent nearly two months in January and February aboard the South Korean icebreaker R/V Araon. Their mission? Deploy two robots, or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) —  one to dive beneath the sea ice to map the bottom of the Nansen ice shelf, from which two Manhattan-sized icebergs broke last year. The other, a glider with wings named Storm Petrel, to patrol the front of the ice shelf for 10 days, looking for evidence of freshwater and capturing change over time. Why? Ultimately, to better predict how — and when — ice shelves collapse. “Ice shelves are melting,” Forrest said. “We know this. But we don’t know how fast they’re melting. To actually make on-site measurements is the next step. We’re trying to get a baseline understanding of what changes are happening in the Antarctic. As a global community, we don’t really understand what we’re losing.” From one pole to the other This July, the team will head in the opposite direction, to the Arctic’s Milne Fjord, where Forrest and colleagues plan to study the last epishelf lake in Canada. Epishelf lakes form when meltwater flowing off a glacier is trapped behind a floating ice shelf. As ice shelves in the Arctic disappear, so do the epishelf lakes dammed behind them. While Canada may soon be epishelf-free, others remain in Greenland and Antarctica. The research is intended to better explain time scales, as ice shelves are melting faster than scientists earlier predicted. “It comes down to understanding how this environment is now so we can understand how potential future climate scenarios will drive these systems in Greenland and Antarctica, as well,” Forrest said. When not swimming alongside polar ice, the Storm Petrel glider trades the ocean for freshwater. It’s currently settling in to its new home at Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California and Nevada borders. The UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center plans to deploy it in the lake early this summer. The plan is for the glider to take continuous measurements, provide real-time information to TERC’s network of instrumented buoys, chase storm events, and ultimately help round out the picture of the processes and impacts affecting Lake Tahoe. “Lakes are highly variable, both spatially and in time,” said Geoffrey Schladow, director of the UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center. “Conventional measurements cannot capture this dynamism. But with a glider operating for weeks at a time, from the surface to the very bottom, we finally have the appropriate tool.” Lake Tahoe is getting “smarter” all the time with its network of nearshore sensors, NASA buoys and good old-fashioned manual sampling from TERC’s research vessel. But the glider can do something those other tools cannot: Move around the lake in bad weather and rough conditions. And, as nearly everyone who studies freshwater lakes can attest, bad weather — with its mixing, churning, swelling and upwelling — is when everything really interesting happens in a lake. Be it at the poles, or in a California lake, the data these robots collect are helping to shape the picture of how aquatic environments are changing, and what might be expected in the years to come.


News Article | May 15, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

An iceberg off the inlet of Jang Bogo Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. (Credit: Damien Guihen/University of Tasmania) A teal ribbon of water flows on top of a glacier at Inaccessible Island, an extinct volcano and protected wildlife reserve in the South Atlantic Ocean. An uncommon sight, the researchers were unsure whether the ocean was rising over the ice, or whether freshwater was melting and flowing downward in this shot. The small black dots to the right of the teal green water are seals basking in the sun. (Credit: Damien Guihen/University of Tasmania) Adélie penguins live only in Antarctica. They are seen here with a seal in the background. Alex Forrest was amazed by Antarctica’s wildlife. He said that, unlike in the Arctic, wildlife in Antarctica have few predators, so they had little fear of humans. (Credit: Danielle Haulsee/University of Delaware) The underwater glider Storm Petrel makes its maiden voyage. After this initial round, the team processed the data and then sent it out again for its full 7-day mission. (Credit: Damien Guihen/University of Tasmania) Engineers Alex Forrest from UC Davis and Nathan Kemp (in orange) from Blue Ocean Monitoring ballast the autonomous underwater vehicle Gavia, testing its stability in calm water for later deployment in Terra Nova Bay in Antarctica. (Credit: Damien Guihen/University of Tasmania) UC Davis engineering professor Alex Forrest with the recovered underwater glider after its seven-day mission diving in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. (Credit: Damien Guihen/University of Tasmania) UC Davis engineering professor Alex Forrest, in orange jacket, and Nathan Kemp from Blue Ocean Monitoring out of Perth, Australia, do field repairs on the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) glider, Gavia. Much of their time was spent preparing and debugging the robots, which also included an AUV with wings, named “Storm Petrel.” (Credit: Damien Guihen/University of Tasmania) Fishing for a glider: Damien Guihen with the University of Tasmania and Xian Wei Wang, from New York University in Abu Dhabi, retrieve the autonomous underwater vehicle. (Credit Cassie Bongiovanni/University of New Hampshire) The R/V Araon, a South Korean icebreaker, moves through ice and ocean just offshore Jang Bogo Station in Antarctica. This shot was captured with an unmanned aerial vehicle. (Credit: Damien Guihen/University of Tasmania) A team of scientists is using robots to measure and map ice shelves in Antarctica, hoping to deepen our understanding of how the shelves collapse and change under the pressure of climate change. Alexander Forrest led a six-member robotics team in Antarctica on the Western Ross Sea and Terra Nova Bay as part of an international expedition, LIONESS, led by the Korea Polar Research Institute. That stands for Land-Ice/Ocean Network Exploration with Semiautonomous Systems. The team spent nearly two months in January and February aboard the South Korean icebreaker R/V Araon. Their mission: Deploy two robots, or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV)—one to dive beneath the sea ice to map the bottom of the Nansen ice shelf, from which two Manhattan-sized icebergs broke last year. The other, a glider with wings named Storm Petrel, to patrol the front of the ice shelf for 10 days, looking for evidence of freshwater and capturing change over time. Why? Ultimately, to better predict how—and when—ice shelves collapse. “Ice shelves are melting,” says Forrest, an engineering professor at the University of California, Davis. “We know this. But we don’t know how fast they’re melting. To actually make on-site measurements is the next step. We’re trying to get a baseline understanding of what changes are happening in the Antarctic. “As a global community, we don’t really understand what we’re losing.” This July, the team will head in the opposite direction, to the Arctic’s Milne Fjord, where Forrest and colleagues plan to study the last epishelf lake in Canada. Epishelf lakes form when meltwater flowing off a glacier is trapped behind a floating ice shelf. As ice shelves in the Arctic disappear, so do the epishelf lakes dammed behind them. While Canada may soon be epishelf-free, others remain in Greenland and Antarctica. The research is intended to better explain time scales, as ice shelves are melting faster than scientists earlier predicted. “It comes down to understanding how this environment is now so we can understand how potential future climate scenarios will drive these systems in Greenland and Antarctica, as well,” Forrest says. When not swimming alongside polar ice, the Storm Petrel glider trades the ocean for freshwater. It’s currently settling in to its new home at Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California and Nevada borders. The UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center (TERC) plans to deploy it in the lake early this summer. The plan is for the glider to take continuous measurements, provide real-time information to TERC’s network of instrumented buoys, chase storm events, and ultimately help round out the picture of the processes and impacts affecting Lake Tahoe. “Lakes are highly variable, both spatially and in time,” says Geoffrey Schladow, director of TERC. “Conventional measurements cannot capture this dynamism. But with a glider operating for weeks at a time, from the surface to the very bottom, we finally have the appropriate tool.” Lake Tahoe is getting “smarter” all the time with its network of nearshore sensors, NASA buoys, and good old-fashioned manual sampling from TERC’s research vessel. But the glider can do something those other tools cannot: Move around the lake in bad weather and rough conditions. And, as nearly everyone who studies freshwater lakes can attest, bad weather—with its mixing, churning, swelling, and upwelling—is when everything really interesting happens in a lake. Be it at the poles, or in a California lake, the data these robots collect are helping to shape the picture of how aquatic environments are changing, and what might be expected in the years to come.


This year's theme, "Research & Design for Impact," will be discussed in depth during the week-long event. The videos cover a wide range of topics including, computer science, engineering, broadening participation, workforce development, citizen science, standards, and professional development. The videos highlight initiatives for students of all ages (kindergarten through graduate school). During the event visitors to the site can participate in online conversations with the researchers who made the films and vote for their favorites through twitter and Facebook. The showcase enables projects to broadly disseminate their work and furthers NSF's goal to share cutting edge work with the public at large. Participants can filter the presentations by grade level, organization, state, keywords, or audience type. They can also vote for their favorite presentations. At the end of the conference, presentations that received the most votes will be identified as "Recognized Presentations" across three categories: Public Choice, Presenter Choice, and Facilitator Choice Recognition. Voting for Public Choice is free and open to all. "Transforming and enriching the notion of a traditional conference poster hall, the STEM for All Video Showcase combines video presentations, facilitated online discourse, and social media tools," said Joni Falk, Principal Investigator and co-director of the Center for School Reform at TERC. "The power of the showcase is that thousands of educators and researchers have access to a very broad range of projects and engage in an interactive experience, discussing the videos, exchanging ideas, and exploring the impact of the projects on STEM learning." Last year's STEM for All Video Showcase is still being accessed and to date it has had over 40,000 unique visitors from 174 countries. The STEM for All Showcase is a collaborative effort of the following NSF resource centers: MSPnet, CADRE, CAISE, CIRCL, STELAR, CS For All Teachers. It is funded by the National Science Foundation (#1642187). The Showcase is powered by the Videohall.com platform developed by TERC, a STEM-focused education research nonprofit based in Cambridge, MA. About TERC For more than fifty years, TERC has been introducing millions of students throughout the United States to the exciting and rewarding worlds of math and science learning. Led by a group of experienced, forward-thinking math and science professionals, TERC is an independent, research-based organization dedicated to engaging and inspiring all students through stimulating curricula and programs designed to develop the knowledge and skills they need to ask questions, solve problems, and expand their opportunities. www.terc.edu. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/terc-hosts-2017-stem-for-all-video-showcase-funded-by-nsf-to-highlight-innovation-in-stem-education-300457548.html


Sylvan E.A.,TERC
Learning in the Disciplines: ICLS 2010 Conference Proceedings - 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences | Year: 2010

This paper introduces Online Communities of Creators, the subset of social networking sites in which the focus is sharing, developing and understanding personal creations. It proposes that two kinds of influence are important in these communities: social influence and project influence. Using multiple linear regressions the factors that predict each type of influence were identified for one Online Community of Creators called the Scratch Community web site. © ISLS.


Gal Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Gal Y.,Harvard University | Reddy S.,Harvard University | Shieber S.M.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2012

This paper describes a challenging plan recognition problem that arises in environments in which agents engage widely in exploratory behavior, and presents new algorithms for effective plan recognition in such settings. In exploratory domains, agents actions map onto logs of behavior that include switching between activities, extraneous actions, and mistakes. Flexible pedagogical software, such as the application considered in this paper for statistics education, is a paradigmatic example of such domains, but many other settings exhibit similar characteristics. The paper establishes the task of plan recognition in exploratory domains to be NP-hard and compares several approaches for recognizing plans in these domains, including new heuristic methods that vary the extent to which they employ backtracking, as well as a reduction to constraint-satisfaction problems. The algorithms were empirically evaluated on peoples interaction with flexible, open-ended statistics education software used in schools. Data was collected from adults using the software in a lab setting as well as middle school students using the software in the classroom. The constraint satisfaction approaches were complete, but were an order of magnitude slower than the heuristic approaches. In addition, the heuristic approaches were able to perform within 4% of the constraint satisfaction approaches on student data from the classroom, which reflects the intended user population of the software. These results demonstrate that the heuristic approaches offer a good balance between performance and computation time when recognizing peoples activities in the pedagogical domain of interest. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Visintainer T.,TERC
Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS | Year: 2016

This research explores processes of learning and identity construction for high school students of color as they engage in a community-based scientific research project as part of a summer science program. This research utilizes qualitative (e.g. interviews) and quantitative (e.g. surveys) data sources. Findings illustrate the emergence of an identity generative process: that engaging in science practices (e.g. presenting research) and the accompanying program resources (e.g. placing students in a position of power) generated new possibilities for students as capable science learners, scientists, and change agents. Furthermore, findings show that the instructor's perspective of science and vision for his students guided the design of program resources (e.g. pedagogy, instruction) made available that helped create these shifts. Findings show that youth of color can imagine new possibilities for who they can be in science if their science and racial identities are supported in science programs. © 2016 ISLS.


Sylvan E.,TERC
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2010

This paper introduces the concept of Online Communities of Creators (OCOCs), which are a subset of social network sites in which the core activity is sharing personal, original creations. Next it defines two distinct types of influence, Project Influence and Social Influence. Project Influence is a measure of the degree to which the community recognizes members' work. Social Influence is a measure of how much a member is a social bridge between otherwise unconnected members. These two types of influence are studied in an online programming community called the Scratch Online Community. Two multiple linear regressions determine the factors that predict each of the two types of influence. The factors predicting each were distinct, suggesting that these are two distinct constructs in this community. © 2010 ACM.


News Article | August 1, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Lake Tahoe has had a record-breaking year — and not in a good way. A team of scientists from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) has revealed in a new study that Lake Tahoe is getting warmer at a rate that is 15 times faster than its historic average. In a new State of the Lake report, researchers say Lake Tahoe's rising water temperatures are threatening the lake's iconic clarity by affecting many features of its ecology. Professor Geoffrey Schladow says the incidence of rising air temperatures at the lake has been known for many years now, as well as the warming waters. But what's different this time is that scientists are seeing more aspects of Lake Tahoe's internal physics changing. "[T]hat is bound to alter the ecology," says Schladow, who is the director of the Tahoe Environmental Research Center (TERC). When researchers began keeping records of the lake's water temperature in the 1970s, the lake had an average of 50.3 degrees Fahrenheit (10.17 degrees Celsius) year round. In 2015, Lake Tahoe averaged 53.3 degrees Fahrenheit (11.83 degrees Celsius), the report says. Although the increase may appear statistically insignificant, scientists say much of the warming happened in the past decade and a half. This sign has left experts concerned. The increasing water temperatures may likely be linked to shifting air temperatures. Scientists have detected a daily air temperature increase of 4.3 degrees Fahrenheit on the northwest shore of Lake Tahoe since 1916. Waters with different temperatures mix deep in the lake during the winter. This mixing often leads to a clearer view. However, Lake Tahoe did not mix at its maximum depth this year, which scientists blame on the warmer influx of water. Water clarity dropped to 73.1 feet in 2015 — almost a 5-foot decrease in recent years. Furthermore, swimmers have observed algal blooms spread on the lake in previous years. Experts say longer algal blooms have been associated with climate change because algae likes warmer water. What is happening at Lake Tahoe is not only alarming for tourists who use the lake for recreation, but also for those concerned about the impacts of climate change to the beauty of natural resources, researchers say. Lake Tahoe is unique, but scientists explained that the forces and processes that affect it are the same as those that act in most natural ecosystems. Because of that, Lake Tahoe is a microcosm of other natural systems in the Western United States and around the world. How can residents and tourists keep the iconic lake as healthy as possible? Experts say attention to the lake's natural filtration systems as well as stormwater collection may help prevent harmful substances that accelerate the growth of algae such as phosphates out of Lake Tahoe. Darcie Goodman Collins, director of the League to Save Lake Tahoe, believes not much can be done to manipulate global warming. "But we can influence the lake's health," Goodman Collins added. Meanwhile, the UC Davis "Tahoe: State of the Lake" report can be read and downloaded (PDF) from the university's website. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Technavio’s latest report on the global cervical cancer diagnostic testing market provides an analysis on the most important trends expected to impact the market outlook from 2016-2020. Technavio defines an emerging trend as a factor that has the potential to significantly impact the market and contribute to its growth or decline. The global cervical cancer diagnostic testing market is expected to post a CAGR of almost 7% in the forecast period. This market is mainly driven by the increasing awareness on women’s health and wellness. Pap smear is the most commonly uses testing method, accounting for 81.34% of the market in 2015. The human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is quickly gaining popularity, and is expected to showcase a steep growth curve in the forecast period. Technavio’s sample reports are free of charge and contain multiple sections of the report including the market size and forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more. The top four emerging trends driving the cervical cancer diagnostic testing market according to Technavio healthcare and life sciences research analysts are: Co-testing with HPV and pap smear is the latest trend in the market. Various agencies in the US have set guidelines for cervical cancer testing, which is being widely adopted in other countries as well. These guidelines mandate that women aged over 30 should undergo cervical cancer diagnostic tests once every five years. Talking about the emergence of new testing methodologies due to significant investments, Bharath Palada, one of the lead market research analysts at Technavio for in-vitro diagnostics research says, “Liquid-based or thin-layer preparations, computer-assisted screening methods, and new generation HPV testing methods are several new techniques used to enhance the quality and adequacy of the Pap smear test and its interpretation. These new tests will decrease the number of unsatisfactory and ambiguous results, and provide reliable results consistently.” To maximize revenue generated, global vendors are venturing into niche markets in developing countries. For instance, QIAGEN entered a partnership with Chittaranjan Cancer Institute in India to serve quality healthcare to women in low-resource areas. In addition, they also collaborated with Merck, managing to provide nearly five million free vaccines and expanding the already existing HPV test donation program. Prominent vendors like Cancer Genetics are involved in acquisition and expansion. The company acquired BioServe for its biomarker analysis, next generation sequencing, and oncology diagnostics laboratory facilities. Moves like this helps the companies to enhance their pipeline for the non-invasive cervical cancer testing facilities in developing countries, where cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women. Many leading vendors and world-acclaimed universities are investing in R&D to detect and confirm surrogate biomarkers for HPV infections. These biomarkers will allow for accurate monitoring of molecular expressions in histological or cytological specimens. Quest Diagnostics acquired a no-exclusive patent license from the National Institute of Health (NIH) to develop the telomerase RNA component (TERC) test for screening of cervical cancer, which is forecast to show more accurate and efficient results than either Pap or HPV testing. The continuous research is projected to invent new biomarkers that will make way for improved cervical cancer detection. Rise in use of HPV home-testing kits “Vendors in the market have developed innovative home-based products, which can provide quick and accurate test results. The British Medical Journal has reported that the availability and use of self-test kits had aided in diagnosing almost double the number of women affected. These tests are designed to be performed by healthcare professionals with minimal healthcare training or even by individuals,” says Bharath. For instance, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center is currently involved in development of a self-test for HPV testing cervical cancer in Ohio Appalachia. Additionally, emerging companies like GynaeHealth are focusing on launching HPV assay kits for cervical cancer screening at home. The presence of such products in the market will provide access to a greater number of women to perform HPV tests at home. This will eventually lead to an increase the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening. Become a Technavio Insights member and access all three of these reports for a fraction of their original cost. As a Technavio Insights member, you will have immediate access to new reports as they’re published in addition to all 6,000+ existing reports covering segments like oncology, women’s health, and life science research tools. This subscription nets you thousands in savings, while staying connected to Technavio’s constant transforming research library, helping you make informed business decisions more efficiently. Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. The company develops over 2000 pieces of research every year, covering more than 500 technologies across 80 countries. Technavio has about 300 analysts globally who specialize in customized consulting and business research assignments across the latest leading edge technologies. Technavio analysts employ primary as well as secondary research techniques to ascertain the size and vendor landscape in a range of markets. Analysts obtain information using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, besides using in-house market modeling tools and proprietary databases. They corroborate this data with the data obtained from various market participants and stakeholders across the value chain, including vendors, service providers, distributors, re-sellers, and end-users. If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at media@technavio.com.

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