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Barbeau S.,IBM | Alton J.,TeraView | Igarashi M.,TeraView
Conference Proceedings from the International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis | Year: 2013

Electro Optical Terahertz Pulse Reflectometry (EOTPR), a terahertz based Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique, has been evaluated on Flip Chip (FC) and 3D packages. The reduced size and complexity of these new generations of advanced IC products necessitate non-destructive techniques with increased fault isolation accuracy. The minimum accuracy achievable with conventional TDR is approximately 1000μm. Here, we show that EOTPR is able to differentiate all of the critical features in a 3D FC package, such as μC4 and Through Silicon Via (TSV), and is capable of producing distance-to-defect accuracy of less than 20μm, a significant improvement over conventional microwave based TDR techniques. Copyright © 2013 ASM International® All rights reserved.


Bardon T.,University College London | May R.K.,TeraView | Taday P.F.,TeraView | Strlic M.,University College London
Analyst | Year: 2013

The potential of terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) as a diagnostic tool for studies of inks in historical documents is investigated in this paper. Transmission mode THz-TDS was performed on historically informed model writing and drawing inks. Carbon black, bistre and sepia inks show featureless spectra between 5 and 75 cm-1 (0.15-2.25 THz); however, their analysis still provided useful information on the interaction of terahertz radiation with amorphous materials. On the other hand, THz-TDS can be used to distinguish different iron gall inks with respect to the amount of iron(ii) sulfate contained, as sharp spectral features are observed for inks containing different ratios of iron(ii) sulfate to tannic or gallic acid. Additionally, copper sulfate was found to modify the structure of iron(ii) precipitate. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to THz-TDS spectra, highlights changes in iron gall inks during thermal degradation, during which a decrease in the sharp spectral bands associated with iron(ii) sulfate is observed. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with THz-TDS of dynamically heated ink samples indicate that this phenomenon is due to dehydration of iron(ii) sulfate heptahydrate. While this research demonstrates the potential of THz-TDS to improve monitoring of the chemical state of historical documents, the outcomes go beyond the heritage field, as it also helps to develop the theoretical knowledge on interactions between terahertz radiation and matter, particularly in studies of long-range symmetry (polymorphism) in complex molecular structures and the role played by the surrounding matrix, and also indicates the potential of THz-TDS for the optimization of contrast in terahertz imaging. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Taday P.F.,TeraView
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

Coatings are applied to pharmaceutical tablets (or pills) to for either cosmetic or release control reasons. Cosmetic coatings control the colour or to mask the taste of an active ingredient; the thickness of these coating is not critical to the performance of the product. On the other hand the thickness and uniformity of a controlled release coating has been found affect the release of the active ingredient. In this work we have obtained from a pharmacy single brand of pantoprazole tablet and mapped them using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) prior to additional dissolution testing. Three terahertz parameters were derived for univariate analysis for each layer: coating thickness, terahertz electric field peak strength and terahertz interface index. These parameters were then correlated dissolution tested. The best fit was found to be with combined coating layer thickness of the inert layer and enteric coating. The commercial tablets showed a large variation in coating thickness. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Patent
TeraView | Date: 2012-02-13

A reflectometer for allowing a test of a device, the reflectometer comprising: a source of pulsed radiation; a first photoconductive element configured to output a pulse in response to irradiation from said pulsed source; a second photoconductive element configured to receive a pulse; a transmission line arrangement configured to direct the pulse from the first photoconductive element to the device under test and to direct the pulse reflected from the device under test to the second photoconductive element; and a termination resistance provided for said transmission line configured to match the impedance of the transmission line.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Smart - Development of Prototype | Award Amount: 250.00K | Year: 2012

TeraView has developed a state-of-the-art system (Fig A2) for fault location in semiconductor packages, based on its proprietary terahertz pulse generation and detection technology. This system is used for failure analysis (FA) on semiconductor packages. Pins, balls or pads are selected for probing using a manual micropositioning system. Measurements can typically be made every few minutes, including the time required for ball/pin selection and contacting. The system works by sending a terahertz pulse into the total package along the interconnects. The magnitude and phase of subsequent reflections reveal the presence and location of open circuits, short circuits and resistive contacts. Customers include Intel and Samsung. This project will develop a prototype test equipment for fast and automated inspection of advanced Integrated Circuit (IC) packages used in mobile computing devices such as smart phones and tablet computing devices. It is estimated that 74% of 2012 semiconductor growth will be in such devices. Device miniaturisation demands much improved resolution in fault detection which current techniques are unable to offer. Further, it requires many silicon dies to be connected together in a package. The lack of reliability of the connections between two dies is an additional failure mechanism, the location of which cannot be easily determined by existing technology. This is a major problem but is one which our technology is uniquely able to solve.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 113.96K | Year: 2014

The proposed project seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing pulsed emitter/detector arrays for true broadband 3D terahertz imaging. Typically, current pulsed terahertz systems create images by raster-scanning a point source. Whilst this is acceptable to establish the potential of terahertz in providing the necessary materials characterisation, current throughput falls short of requirements for industrial quality assurance and process monitoring. Pulsed terahertz arrays are therefore seen as an enabling technology for this lucrative, high volume markets.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 127.06K | Year: 2015

New paint production processes in the automotive industry have the potential to be much more cost and materials efficient but require higher levels of process monitoring than are currently available. With its terahertz technology, TeraView Ltd has developed a Technology Demonstrator to rapidly measure simultaneously several coating layers in a non-contact manner. The prototype has been successfully trialled in car plants in the UK and USA. In this proposed project we will take the device from Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) 4 to MRL 6. Several car manufacturers have expressed interest in applying this technology to assist in monitoring and control of the painting process. The project represents a sizeable business opportunity and, in using terahertz, introduces a new sensor technology to the automotive industry.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 218.99K | Year: 2013

New paint production processes in the automative industry have the potential to be much more cost and materials efficient but require higher levels of process monitoring than are currently available. With its terahertz technology, TeraView Ltd has demonstrated the offline ability to rapidly measure simultaneously several coating layers in a non-contact manner. In this project, we will develop a technology demonstrator to monitor coating thickness in real time on the production line. Several car manufacturers including Ford UK, a consortium member, have expressed interest in applying this technology to assist in monitoring and control of the painting process. The project represents an initial £70M+ business opportunity and, in terahertz, introduces a new sensor technology to the automotive industry. Technical innovations include real time signal processing, roboting control of the terahertz sensor and creation of a ruggedised sensor suitable for industrial deployment.


Patent
TeraView | Date: 2016-01-27

A reflectometer for allowing a test of a device, the reflectometer comprising:a source of pulsed radiation;a first photoconductive element configured to output a pulse in response to irradiation from said pulsed source;a second photoconductive element configured to receive a pulse;a transmission line arrangement configured to direct the pulse from the first photoconductive element to the device under test and to direct the pulse reflected from the device under test to the second photoconductive element; anda termination resistance provided for said transmission line configured to match the impedance of the transmission line.


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