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Novara di Sicilia, Italy

Degiovanni A.,CERN | Amaldi U.,TERA Foundation
Physica Medica

In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed. © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Source

Alfonsi M.,CERN | Croci G.,CERN | Croci G.,CNR Institute for Plasma Physics Piero Caldirola | Duarte Pinto S.,CERN | And 5 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

The charging up effect is well-known in detectors containing dielectric materials and it is due to electrons and ions liberated in an avalanche and collected on the dielectric surfaces. In particular in Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors, charges can be captured by the Kapton that separates top and bottom electrodes. The collection of a substantial number of charges on the dielectric surfaces induces a modification of the field inside the GEM holes that implies important consequences on some fundamental parameters such as the electron transparency and the effective gain. The correct simulation of this effect opens new ways to the detailed study of the processes that happens in a GEM-based detector and gives the possibility to optimise the GEM geometry in order to avoid it. This paper compares results of the measurements and the simulations, with and without the introduction of the charging-up effect, of the GEM electron transparency in the case of a single GEM detector. The introduction of the charging up effect in the simulation resulted to be crucial in order to get the proper agreement with the measurements. The measurements and simulations of the GEM effective gain will be the subject of a future work. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Henriquet P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Testa E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Chevallier M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Dauvergne D.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 8 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology

Proton imaging can be seen as a powerful technique for online monitoring of ion range during carbon ion therapy irradiations. Indeed, a large number of secondary protons are created during nuclear reactions, and many of these protons are likely to escape from the patient even for deep-seated tumors, carrying accurate information on the reaction vertex position. Two detection techniques have been considered: (i) double-proton detection by means of two forward-located trackers and (ii) single-proton detection in coincidence with the incoming carbon ion detected by means of a beam hodoscope. Geant4 simulations, validated by proton yield measurements performed at GANIL and GSI, show that ion-range monitoring is accessible on a pencil-beam basis with the single-proton imaging technique. Millimetric precision on the Bragg peak position is expected in the ideal case of homogeneous targets. The uncertainties in more realistic conditions should be investigated, in particular the influence of tissue heterogeneity in the very last part of the ion path (about 20mm). © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. Source

Bucciantonio M.,TERA Foundation | Bucciantonio M.,University of Bern | Sauli F.,TERA Foundation | Sauli F.,CERN
Modern Physics Letters A

Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a diagnostic method capable of in situ imaging the three-dimensional density distribution in a patient before irradiation with charged particle beams. Proposed long time ago, this technology has been developed by several groups, and may become an essential tool for advanced quality assessment in hadrontherapy. We describe the basic principles of the method, its performance and limitations as well as provide a summary of experimental systems and of results achieved. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

Verdu-Andres S.,TERA Foundation | Verdu-Andres S.,Institute Fisica Corpuscular IFIC CSIC UV | Amaldi U.,TERA Foundation | Faus-Golfe A.,Institute Fisica Corpuscular IFIC CSIC UV
International Journal of Modern Physics A

The document summarizes the recent papers, presentations and other public information on Radio-Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerators (linacs) and Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for hadron therapy. The main focus is on technical aspects of these accelerators. This report intends to provide a general overview of the state-of-the-art in those accelerators which could be used in short and middle-term for treating cancer. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source

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