TERA Environnement

Fuveau, France

TERA Environnement

Fuveau, France
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Merlen C.,Sage | Verriele M.,Sage | Crunaire S.,Sage | Ricard V.,Tera Environnement | And 2 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2017

In the past two decades there has been increasing interest in monitoring volatile reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) in the atmosphere relatively to their unpleasant smell and their low olfactory threshold. The olfactory annoyance is considered as an important environmental issue, especially since the industrial development near residential areas. The volatile reduced sulfur compounds including mercaptans (RSH) and sulfides (RSR') are emitted from different sources as sewage, waste treatment plant and chemical industry. A preconcentration step before analysis is required in case of odor nuisance at low concentration (a few ppb). While active sampling through cartridges filled with Tenax TA® is recognized as the most suitable method for the measurements of RSCs in ambient air, any comprehensive qualification and validation of this sampling method was carried out. In this work, breakthrough volumes were determined for 6 different RSCs (methylmercaptan, ethylmercaptan, dimethylsulfide, isopropylmercaptan, tertbutylmercaptan, diethylsulfide) at ppb levels on active sampling tubes packed with 250 mg of Tenax TA®. Breakthrough volumes range from 1 to > 5 L, for an optimal flow of 25 mL min− 1. Except for methylmercaptan, for which it was estimated to < 0.2 L at 20 ppb and around 2 L at 1 ppb. No quantitative measurement could be assured for methylmercaptan due to low breakthrough volume; whereas for the 5 others RSCs, the global measurement uncertainties linked to the active sampling (matrix interferences, storage), and to the analytical performances of TD-GC-FID/FPD analysis were calculated. Analytical uncertainties don't exceed 25%: the accuracy of the standard preparation and the lack of fit of calibration are the two major contributors. However, taking into account the sampling uncertainties, global relative concentration uncertainties reach maximal values of 74 and 59% for mercaptans and sulfides respectively considering a storage at − 21 °C and a relative humidity of 85% (at 20 °C). Storage contribution was estimated to 2% for sulfides and 34% for mercaptans and relative humidity contribution between 55% and 85% for the sulfides and mercaptans at a relative humidity of 85% (at 20 °C). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Detournay A.,University of Lille Nord de France | Detournay A.,Ecole Des Mines de Douai | Sauvage S.,University of Lille Nord de France | Sauvage S.,Ecole Des Mines de Douai | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2011

Studies have shown that biogenic compounds, long chain secondary compounds and long lifetime anthropogenic compounds are involved in the formation of organic aerosols in both polluted areas and remote places. This work aims at developing an active sampling method to monitor these compounds (i.e. 6 straight-chain saturated aldehydes from C6 to C11; 8 straight-chain alkanes from C9 to C16; 6 monoterpenes: α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, limonene, α-terpinene, & γ-terpinene; and 5 aromatic compounds: toluene, ethylbenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylenes) in remote areas. Samples are collected onto multi-bed sorbent cartridges at 200 mL min-1 flow rate, using the automatic sampler SyPAC (TERA-Environnement, Crolles, France). No breakthrough was observed for sampling volumes up to 120 L (standard mixture at ambient temperature, with a relative humidity of 75%). As ozone has been shown to alter the samples (losses of 90% of aldehydes and up to 95% of terpenes were observed), the addition of a conditioned manganese dioxide (MnO 2) scrubber to the system has been validated (full recovery of the affected compounds for a standard mixture at 50% relative humidity - RH). Samples are first thermodesorbed and then analysed by GC/FID/MS. This method allows suitable detection limits (from 2 ppt for camphene to 13 ppt for octanal - 36 L sampled), and reproducibility (from 1% for toluene to 22% for heptanal). It has been successfully used to determine the diurnal variation of the target compounds (six 3 h samples a day) during winter and summer measurement campaigns at a remote site in the south of France. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Poulhet G.,University of Lille Nord de France | Dusanter S.,University of Lille Nord de France | Dusanter S.,Indiana University Bloomington | Crunaire S.,University of Lille Nord de France | And 5 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2014

While indoor air quality issues have received increasing attention the past decades, detailed investigations of primary sources of indoor pollution are still difficult to carry out. There is a lack of analytical tools and measurement procedures to identify sources of pollutants and to characterize their emissions. Formaldehyde is aubiquitous pollutant in indoor environments, which is known to lead to adverse health effects. This study describes a measurement procedure to apportion formaldehyde emissions from building and furnishing materials and presents a source apportionment study performed in French public schools. More than 29 sources of formaldehyde were characterized in each investigated classroom, with higher emissions from building materials compared to furnishing materials. Formaldehyde emission rates measured using passive flux samplers (PFS) range from 1.2 to 252μg/m2/h, highlighting several strong emitters made of wood products and foam. Interestingly, the ceiling was identified as the main source of formaldehyde in most classrooms. Measured emissions and air exchange rates were constrained in a mass balance model to evaluate the impact of formaldehyde reduction strategies. These results indicate that formaldehyde concentrations can be reduced by 87-98% by removing or replacing the main source of emission by a less emissive material and by increasing the air exchange rate to 1h-1. In addition, an intercomparison of total emissions calculated from (1) PFS measurements and from (2) measured formaldehyde concentrations and air exchange rates indicate that an unidentified sink of formaldehyde may exist in indoor environments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Poulhet G.,Sage | Dusanter S.,Sage | Dusanter S.,Indiana University Bloomington | Crunaire S.,Sage | And 3 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2015

Passive samplers have recently been proposed as simple and inexpensive tools to measure emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from building and furnishing materials. These samplers can be used to pinpoint strong emitters of targeted pollutants, including hydrocarbons and oxygenated VOCs, which is of great interest to design efficient strategies aimed at improving indoor air quality. A passive sampler consists of a small cell that is exposed on a flat surface to trap material emissions. Three Passive Flux Samplers (PFS) have been developed at Mines Douai, an engineering school from Northern France, to carry out source apportionment studies of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, xylenes, and higher molecular weight compounds. Over a 6-h exposure duration, these PFS exhibit linear responses and detection limits of a few μg m-2h-1 that are low enough for monitoring material emissions and to perform extensive source apportionment studies. A few other samplers, designed using different geometries, have also been proposed in the literature. This publication summarizes findings on the development and the use of passive samplers with the objective to highlight the potential of these new tools for indoor air quality studies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Merlen C.,Sage | Merlen C.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Verriele M.,Sage | Verriele M.,Lille University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2016

The interest in on-field ppbV level measurements of odorous compounds is growing over the last decade because of the olfactory annoyance related to industrial development near residential areas. The volatile reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) are identified as the main contributors to environmental unpleasant smells because of their low olfactory thresholds and their specific odor. The active sampling through cartridges filled with Tenax TA® is recognized as the most suitable method for the RSC measurements in ambient air. However, any comprehensive qualification and validation of this method was made. That's why, this study assesses the active sampling parameters on Tenax TA® (sampling flow and breakthrough volumes), performances (detection limit, repeatability) and the uncertainties in measurement of 6 different RSCs at ppb levels. A breakthrough volume of 1L was determined for an optimal sampling flow of 40 mL/min. Storage and humidity represent the two major contributors to the global uncertainty. Indeed, the relative uncertainty on storage at -21°C was estimated between 10% for the sulfides and 38% for the mercaptans and the relative uncertainty associated to humidity was found to be 36% for the most volatile RSCs at a relative humidity of 60% (20°C). © 2016, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Hayeck N.,Aix - Marseille University | Gligorovski S.,Aix - Marseille University | Poulet I.,TERA Environnement | Wortham H.,Aix - Marseille University
Talanta | Year: 2014

To prevent the degradation of the device characteristics it is important to detect the organic contaminants adsorbed on the wafers. In this respect, a reliable qualitative and quantitative analytical method for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds which can adsorb on wafer surfaces is of paramount importance. Here, we present a new analytical method based on Wafer Outgassing System (WOS) coupled to Automated Thermal Desorber-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (ATD-GC-MS) to identify and quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from 6, 8 and 12 wafers. WOS technique allows the desorption of organic compounds from one side of the wafers. This method was tested on three important airborne contaminants in cleanroom i.e. tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). In addition, we validated this method for the analysis and quantification of DEP, TCEP and TCPP and we estimated the backside organic contamination which may contribute to the front side of the contaminated wafers. We are demonstrating that WOS/ATD-GC-MS is a suitable and highly efficient technique for desorption and quantitative analysis of organophosphorous compounds and phthalate ester which could be found on the wafer surface. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Pic N.,STMicroelectronics | Martin C.,STMicroelectronics | Vitalis M.,STMicroelectronics | Calarnou T.,STMicroelectronics | And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

A case study of drastic photolithography defectivity reduction on i-line and Deep-UV (DUV) tools is presented. We show how this result is linked with reduction of Airborne Molecular Contamination (AMC) in clean room by combined installation of novel type of filters on tracks and on the recirculation air treatment. The root cause was identified to be the presence of acetic acid in clean room created by a reaction with the filters (mounted on track tools to exclude ammonia contamination of the process) and the photo solvent itself (here mainly 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate: PGMEA). Crucial for the project success was the use of a real time monitoring tool to detect the sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Finally, a model of chemical reaction of satellite defects creation is discussed based on a Time of Flight Static SIMS (TOF SSIMS) analysis together with new AMC specification for acetic acid for the photolithography area. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Hayeck N.,Aix - Marseille University | Maillot P.,STMicroelectronics | Vitrani T.,STMicroelectronics | Pic N.,STMicroelectronics | And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Refractory compounds such as Trimethylsilanol (TMS) and other organic compounds such as propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) used in the photolithography area of microelectronic cleanrooms have irreversible dramatic impact on optical lenses used on photolithography tools. There is a need for real-time, continuous measurements of organic contaminants in representative cleanroom environment especially in lithography zone. Such information is essential to properly evaluate the impact of organic contamination on optical lenses. In this study, a Proton-Transfer Reaction-Time-of-Flight Mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) was applied for real-time and continuous monitoring of fugitive organic contamination induced by the fabrication process. Three types of measurements were carried out using the PTR-TOF-MS in order to detect the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) next to the tools in the photolithography area and at the upstream and downstream of chemical filters used to purge the air in the cleanroom environment. A validation and verification of the results obtained with PTR-TOF-MS was performed by comparing these results with those obtained with an off-line technique that is Automated Thermal Desorber - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC-MS) used as a reference analytical method. The emerged results from the PTR-TOF-MS analysis exhibited the temporal variation of the VOCs levels in the cleanroom environment during the fabrication process. While comparing the results emerging from the two techniques, a good agreement was found between the results obtained with PTR-TOF-MS and those obtained with ATD-GC-MS for the PGMEA, toluene and xylene. Regarding TMS, a significant difference was observed ascribed to the technical performance of both instruments. © 2014 SPIE.


Hayeck N.,Aix - Marseille University | Ravier S.,Aix - Marseille University | Gemayel R.,Aix - Marseille University | Gligorovski S.,Aix - Marseille University | And 3 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2015

Microelectronic wafers are exposed to airborne molecular contamination (AMC) during the fabrication process of microelectronic components. The organophosphate compounds belonging to the dopant group are one of the most harmful groups. Once adsorbed on the wafer surface these compounds hardly desorb and could diffuse in the bulk of the wafer and invert the wafer from p-type to n-type. The presence of these compounds on wafer surface could have electrical effect on the microelectronic components. For these reasons, it is of importance to control the amount of these compounds on the surface of the wafer. As a result, a fast quantitative and qualitative analytical method, nondestructive for the wafers, is needed to be able to adjust the process and avoid the loss of an important quantity of processed wafers due to the contamination by organophosphate compounds. Here we developed and validated an analytical method for the determination of organic compounds adsorbed on the surface of microelectronic wafers using the Direct Analysis in Real Time-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (DART-ToF-MS) system. Specifically, the developed methodology concerns the organophosphate group. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | TERA Environnement, Aix - Marseille University and Lebanese University
Type: | Journal: Talanta | Year: 2015

Microelectronic wafers are exposed to airborne molecular contamination (AMC) during the fabrication process of microelectronic components. The organophosphate compounds belonging to the dopant group are one of the most harmful groups. Once adsorbed on the wafer surface these compounds hardly desorb and could diffuse in the bulk of the wafer and invert the wafer from p-type to n-type. The presence of these compounds on wafer surface could have electrical effect on the microelectronic components. For these reasons, it is of importance to control the amount of these compounds on the surface of the wafer. As a result, a fast quantitative and qualitative analytical method, nondestructive for the wafers, is needed to be able to adjust the process and avoid the loss of an important quantity of processed wafers due to the contamination by organophosphate compounds. Here we developed and validated an analytical method for the determination of organic compounds adsorbed on the surface of microelectronic wafers using the Direct Analysis in Real Time-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (DART-ToF-MS) system. Specifically, the developed methodology concerns the organophosphate group.

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