Teollisuuden Voima Oyj is a Finnish nuclear power company owned by a consortium of power and industrial companies. The biggest shareholders are Pohjolan Voima and Fortum. The company operates Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant, which consists of two BWRs , an EPR which is still under construction, and one half of a coal-fired power plant along with a wind farm.The third reactor at Olkiluoto was expected to be ready in 2009, but last estimate is 2018. TVO has filed compensation claim for delays.On 21 April 2010, the Government of Finland decided to grant a permit for construction of fourth reactor at Olkiluoto. The decision was approved by the Parliament on 1 July 2010.In January 2015 TVO announced plans to save around $17.7 million per year through 'efficiency-related structural changes' which are expected to cause up to 110 job cuts. The CEO of TVO, Jarmo Tanhua, explained the reasons as:The competitiveness of the electricity produced in Olkiluoto has declined during the recent years and the outlook of the future is uncertain. Electricity market price has dropped and there are no signs of improvement in the foreseeable future ... In addition, costs related to nuclear power production have increased and the delay of Olkiluoto 3 project has caused remarkable additional costs. Wikipedia.
Small J.S.,National Nuclear Laboratory |
Nykyri M.,Safram Oy |
Vikman M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland |
Itavaara M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland |
Heikinheimo L.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2017
Gas generation from low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (LILW) is an important process related to the safety of near surface and geological nuclear waste repositories. Generation of a gas phase has the potential to transport gaseous radionuclides such as 14C to the biosphere. Furthermore, pressurisation and gas phase formation can affect the engineered barrier system and water flow, which can affect the transport of radionuclides and other soluble contaminants in water. Microbial gas generation is coupled with a wider range of biogeochemical processes that are also relevant to the safety of LILW repositories through effects on pH, Eh and organic complexation. The large scale Gas Generation Experiment (GGE), located at the VLJ repository, Olkiluoto, Finland has been in operation for 18 years to study processes of gas generation from cellulose-containing low-level waste (LLW) from the Olkiluoto power plants. Here we provide an update of the experiment data set that records, over a period of 18 years, the neutralisation of the initial pH 10–11 conditions in the water filled regions of the experiment that were buffered by a concrete container, of relatively small mass, by acidity generated by degradation of cellulose LLW materials. The neutralisation of pH below pH 9 coincides with a doubling of the generation rate of a CH4-rich gas to around 1 m3 per year. Aqueous sulfide is also present at low levels (<3 × 10−6 M) at this time, consistent with equilibrium with mackinawite (FeS). Dissolved organic carbon attained a peak concentration of 8 mM during the early stages of the experiment, prior to the higher gas generation rate, but after 9 years declined. After 18 years the Eh of the tank water measured by a Pt electrode is consistent with that calculated for the S(-2)/S(6) and methanogenesis redox couples suggesting equilibration of redox processes. Carbonate concentration has increased steadily to around 15 mM. After 7 years CO2 gas and aqueous and solid carbonates are also close to equilibrium. The experimental data has been interpreted with the aid of a biogeochemical model that represents the coupled processes of organic waste degradation, pH buffering and microbial gas generation. The model simulates that the majority of the gas is generated by H2 and organic consuming methanogenic processes in the waste drums. The increase in CH4 generation is simulated to be the result of methanogenic processes that consume soluble cellulose degradation products that diffuse into the tank water from the waste drums. It is expected that under the steady state conditions now established, resulting from gas/liquid/solid equilibrium and diffusion processes, that gas generation should continue until the cellulose and steel materials are exhausted. The experimental data and biogeochemical model can be used to predict the rate of CH4-rich gas generation from the VLJ and other repositories with higher proportions of cementitious materials. In addition the study has shed further light on the role of microbial processes in affecting pH buffering of cementitious conditioned LILW. © 2017 The Authors
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA | Phase: Fission-2013-2.1.1 | Award Amount: 10.28M | Year: 2013
Preparing NUGENIA for HORIZON 2020 The objective of the NUGENIA\ project is to support the NUGENIA Association in its role to coordinate and integrate European research on safety of the Gen II and III nuclear installations in order to better ensure their safe long term operation, integrating private and public efforts, and initiating international collaboration that will create added value in its activity fields. The project consists of two parts, the first part being a Coordination and Support Action and the second part a Collaborative Project. The aim of the first part, the Coordination and Support Action, is to establish an efficient, transparent and high quality management structure to carry out the planning and management of R&D including project calls, proposal evaluation, project follow-up dissemination and valorisation of R&D results in the area of safety of existing Gen II and future Gen III nuclear installations. The preparatory work will encompass governance, organizational, legal and financial work, as well as the establishment of annual work plans, with the aim to structure public-public and/or private-public joint programming enabling NUGENIA to develop into the integrator of the research in the respective field in Europe. The management structure will build on the existing organisation of the NUGENIA Association, currently grouping over 70 nuclear organisations from research and industry (utilities, vendors and small and medium enterprises) active in R&D. In the second part, the Collaborative project, one thematic call for research proposals will be organized among the technical areas of plant safety and risk assessment, severe accident prevention and management, core and reactor performance, integrity assessment of systems, structures and components, innovative Generation III design and harmonisation of procedures and methods. The call will take place one year after the start of the project. The call will implement the priorities recognised in the NUGENIA Roadmap, in line with the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) strategies. The research call which is going to be organised within the project is open to all eligible organisations. The NUGENIA\ project will benefit from the experience of the NUGENIA Association member organisations on managing national research programmes and from the track record of the NUGENIA project portfolio.
News Article | January 18, 2016
The big news is that two Chinese state owned nuclear firms have announced plans to build floating nuclear power plants in the 100-300 MW range. (WNA) A demonstration floating nuclear power plant based on China National Nuclear Corporation’s (CNNC’s) ACP100S small reactor will be built by 2019. The move comes just days after China General Nuclear (CGN) said it will build a prototype offshore plant by 2020. CGN announced (next story) on 12 January that development of its ACPR50S reactor design had recently been approved by China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) as part of the 13th Five-Year Plan for innovative energy technologies. CNNC said that its ACP100S reactor – a marine version of its ACP100 small modular reactor (SMR) design – had also been approved by the NDRC as part of the same plan. CNNC said its Nuclear Power Institute of China subsidiary had completed a preliminary design for a floating nuclear power plant featuring the ACP100S reactor as well as “all the scientific research work.” Construction of a demonstration unit is to start by the end of this year, with completion set for 2019. (WNA) China General Nuclear (CGN) expects to complete construction of a demonstration small modular offshore multi-purpose reactor by 2020. CGN said development of its ACPR50S reactor design had recently been approved by China’s National Development and Reform Commission as part of the 13th Five-Year Plan for innovative energy technologies. The company said it is currently carrying out preliminary design work for a demonstration ACPR50S project. Construction of the first floating reactor is expected to start next year with electricity generation to begin in 2020. The 60 MWe reactor has been developed for the supply of electricity, heat and desalination and could be used on islands or in coastal areas, or for offshore oil and gas exploration, according to CGN. The Chinese company said it is also working on the ACPR100 small reactor for use on land. This reactor will have an output of some 450 MWt (140 MWe) and would be suitable for providing power to large-scale industrial parks or to remote mountainous areas. CGN said the development of small-scale offshore and onshore nuclear power reactors will complement its large-scale plants and provide more diverse energy options. (WNA) A US House of Representatives committee has approved a bipartisan bill to support federal research and development (R&D) and stimulate private investment in advanced nuclear reactor technologies. The Committee on Science, Space, and Technology approved the Nuclear Energy Innovation Capabilities Act. The bill was introduced by energy subcommittee chairman Randy Weber (R-Texas), along with full committee ranking member Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-Texas) and chairman Lamar Smith (R-Texas). The legislation directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to set priorities for federal R&D infrastructure that will enable the private sector to invest in advanced reactor technologies and provide a clear path forward to attract private investment for prototype development at DOE laboratories. It enables the private sector to partner with national laboratories for the purpose of developing novel reactor concepts, leverages DOE’s supercomputing infrastructure to accelerate nuclear energy R&D, and provides statutory direction for a DOE reactor-based fast neutron source that will operate as an open-access user facility. It also authorizes DOE to enable the private sector to construct and operate privately-funded reactor prototypes at DOE sites. In addition, the bill requires DOE to present a transparent, strategic, ten-year plan for prioritizing nuclear R&D programs. (NucNet) The global nuclear security system still has “major gaps” that prevent it from being truly comprehensive and effective, the Washington-based Nuclear Threat Initiative says in its 2016 Index. The index, which assesses nuclear materials security conditions in 24 countries with one kilogramme or more of weapons-usable nuclear materials, says there is no common set of international standards and best practices, there is no mechanism for holding states with lax security accountable, and the legal foundation for securing nuclear materials is neither complete nor universally observed. In addition to assessing the risks posed by vulnerable nuclear materials and insufficient security policies in states that don’t have materials, the index assesses for the first time the potential risks to nuclear facilities posed by sabotage and cyberattack. It says cyberattacks are increasing and a growing number of states are exploring nuclear energy even though they lack the legal, regulatory, and security frameworks to ensure that their facilities are secure as well as safe. (NucNet) Westinghouse Electric Company’s Springfields facility in the UK has reached the requirements necessary to manufacture Westinghouse small modular reactor (SMR) fuel, Westinghouse said. This milestone is “a key first” for the UK’s SMR programme and an important part of Westinghouse’s proposed partnership with the UK government to deploy SMR technology. Westinghouse Springfields achieved the milestone following a readiness assessment based upon fabrication data for two proprietary SMR fuel assemblies manufactured at the company’s Columbia fuel fabrication facility in the US state of South Carolina. Mick Gornall, managing director of Westinghouse Springfields, said manufacturing Westinghouse SMR fuel at Springfields will “secure the future of a strategic national asset” of nuclear fuel manufacturing capability. (WNA) The first of four reactor coolant pumps for the initial AP1000 unit at the Haiyang site in China’s Shandong province has been transported by road from Curtiss-Wright’s manufacturing facility in Cheswick, Pennsylvania, to the port of Philadelphia ahead of shipment to China, State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation announced yesterday. The first two such pumps for Sanmen 1 in Zhejiang province – expected in September to be the first AP1000 to start up – arrived on the site on 30 December. (NucNet) Testing of the instrumentation and control (I&C) systems has begun at Teollisuuden Voima’s (TVO) Olkiluoto-3 nuclear plant with an application for an operating licence likely to be submitted in April, TVO said. The I&C systems will be used for operating, monitoring and controlling the 1,600-MW EPR unit. In December 2015 TVO said system commissioning of the plant is expected to begin in the spring of 2016 with regular electricity generation beginning in “more than three years. TVO said the estimated schedule came from plant supplier Areva-Siemens. Commissioning of the plant is about nine years behind schedule and costs are almost three times over budget. Market Reform Essential For Nuclear In US, Says NEI (NucNet) Market reform is essential to ensure that the reliability, environmental and economic benefits of nuclear power are not taken for granted, and that reactor operators are compensated for these attributes in the same way as other low-carbon sources, Alex Flint, the Washington-based Nuclear Energy Institute’s senior vice-president for governmental affairs, said in an interview published on the NEI’s website. Mr Flint said there has been “movement to address the issue”. He said at the national level, the NEI is working with the Edison Electric Institute and the Electric Power Supply Association to make officials at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency aware of the potential challenges to grid reliability and the administration’s clean air goals. In 2015, FERC and a number of regional transmission organizations took significant steps to address flaws in electricity markets that fail to provide the price signals needed to support investment in new or existing nuclear power plants. Mr Flint said, “Urged on by the NEI and a number of energy associations, FERC has begun a rulemaking to address price suppression and promises to address other issues in future. In an encouraging sign, Exelon Corporation cited positive regional reforms in deferring decisions on the potential closing of its Clinton nuclear station in Illinois and the Ginna nuclear station in New York.” Late last year Entergy Corporation said it would close its Pilgrim-1 and Fitzpatrick reactors because of poor economic conditions for nuclear.
Inkinen J.,Satakunta University of Applied Sciences |
Kaunisto T.,Satakunta University of Applied Sciences |
Kaunisto T.,Prizztech Ltd. WANDER Nordic Water and Materials Institute |
Pursiainen A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare |
And 6 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2014
Complex interactions existing between water distribution systems' materials and water can cause a reduction in water quality and unwanted changes in materials, aging or corrosion of materials and formation of biofilms on surfaces. Substances leaching from pipe materials and water fittings, as well as the microbiological quality of water and formation of biofilms were evaluated by applying a Living Lab theme i.e. a research in a real life setting using a full scale system during its first year of operation. The study site was a real office building with one part of the building lined with copper pipes, the other with cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes thus enabling material comparison; also differences within the cold and hot water systems were analysed. It was found that operational conditions, such as flow conditions and temperature affected the amounts of metals leaching from the pipe network. In particular, brass components were considered to be a source of leaching; e. g. the lead concentration was highest during the first few weeks after the commissioning of the pipe network when the water was allowed to stagnate. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbially available phosphorus (MAP) were found to leach from PEX pipelines with minor effects on biomass of the biofilm. Cultivable and viable biomass (heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) levels in biofilms were higher in the cold than in the hot water system whereas total microbial biomass (total cell count (DAPI)) was similar with both systems. The type of pipeline material was not found to greatly affect the microbial biomass or Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria profiles (16s rRNA gene copies) after the first one year of operation. Also microbiological quality of water was found to deteriorate due to stagnation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 4.71M | Year: 2015
The multidisciplinary project will address key technical issues that must be tackled to support the implementation of planned geological disposal projects for higher-level radioactive wastes across the EU. Our current understanding of the impact of microbial metabolism on the safety of geological repositories remains tenuous, even though microorganisms may have controlling influences on wasteform evolution in situ, multibarrier integrity and ultimately radionuclide migration from the repository. This proposal targets a number of high urgency and high importance topics identified in the most recent IGD-TP Strategic Research Agenda, focusing specifically on the influence of microbial processes on waste forms and their behavior, and the technical feasibility and long-term performance of repository components. The project will bring together, for the first time, 15 European groups working on the impact of microbial processes on safety cases for geological repositories across the EU, focusing on key questions posed by waste management organisations. The emphasis will be on quantifying specific measureable impacts of microbial activity on safety cases under repository-relevant conditions, thus altering the current view of microbes in repositories and leading to significant refinements of safety case models currently being implemented to evaluate the long-term evolution of radwaste repositories. The integration of society and policy oriented studies in the project will also extend the impact of the project outside the scientific and technical domain, while a study of expert conceptualization, public perception and risk communication concerning microbial influences in geological disposal, will improve awareness of microbial issues on a broader level. The programme will help the EU claim international leadership in the understanding of the impact of microbial processes on geodisposal, and indeed other technological areas pertinent to the exploitation of the subsurface.
Karvinen R.,Tampere University of Technology |
Karvinen R.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy |
Karvinen T.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy
Journal of Heat Transfer | Year: 2012
A method and practical results are presented for finding the geometries of fixed volume plate fins for maximizing dissipated heat flux. The heat transfer theory used in optimization is based on approximate analytical solutions of conjugated heat transfer, which couple conduction in the fin and convection from the fluid. Nondimensional variables have been found that contain thermal and geometrical properties of the fins and the flow, and these variables have a fixed value at the optimum point. The values are given for rectangular, convex parabolic, triangular, and concave parabolic fin shapes for natural and forced convection including laminar and turbulent boundary layers. An essential conclusion is that it is not necessary to evaluate the convection heat transfer coefficients because convection is already included in these variables when the flow type is specified. Easy-to-use design rules are presented for finding the geometries of fixed volume fins that give the maximum heat transfer. A comparison between the heat transfer capacities of different fins is also discussed. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Tuulensuu H.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy
PSAM 2014 - Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management | Year: 2014
For Olkiluoto 1 (OL1) and Olkiluoto 2 (OL2) nuclear power plant units, planned outages are done annually. Every second year a refuelling outage (duration about 1 week) and every second year a maintenance outage (duration about 2-3 weeks) is performed. To ensure nuclear safety in such short outage times, well planned outage schedules are required. Because of this, a PRA application to support the outage schedule planning has been developed. The PRA application for outage risk management has six goals: (1) to support outage schedule planning, (2) to assess plant modifications during outage, (3) to estimate core damage and radioactive release frequencies of the outage, (4) to identify "weak points" of the outage, (5) to teach risk-informed thinking to the outage schedule coordinators and (6) to develop the outage PRA models. The PRA application is performed hour by hour throughout the whole outage. A risk profile for the outage as a function of time is the main result of the analysis. The assessment is updated when outage schedule is updated. Based on the results, the PRA application to support outage schedule planning is an efficient way to improve risk management during outages.
Tunturivuori L.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy
11th International Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management Conference and the Annual European Safety and Reliability Conference 2012, PSAM11 ESREL 2012 | Year: 2012
The probabilistic fire risk assessment (fire PRA) of the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPP units has been updated in the beginning of the year 2011. In the updated version, the fire frequency of each component group is evaluated using a Bayesian approach with NUREG/CR-6850 data as a prior and using historical fire events at the NPP as evidence. The resulting total fire frequency estimate in the PRA model of the units is 10 % higher than the historical fire frequency of the NPP units. However, the fire frequency estimate for certain rooms changed by orders of magnitude due to the transition to the usage of component based fire frequencies. Especially, the fire frequency estimate of rooms housing components with exceptionally high fire frequency, like main feed water pumps, large amount of electric equipment, like relay rooms and rooms with hydrogen systems increased in the updated evaluation. In the analysis, the safety related components are mapped to their locations. Furthermore, the cable routing database is used in order to locate the power and control cables of the safety related components. Also the locations of cables transmitting measuring data to the reactor protection system are assessed. The resulting fire scenarios with similar consequences are grouped into tens of initial events using conservative assumptions. The update of the fire PRA increased the CDF by 16 %. After the update, the CDF originating from firerelated initiating events constitutes of 20 % of the total CDF. The fire PRA demonstrates that in a highredundant NPP unit, such as the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPP units, which has four redundant divisions, each of 50 % capacity, a fire affecting two redundancies increases the conditional core damage probability by a factor of ten compared to a scenario in which only one redundancy is affected by the fire, demonstrating the significance of physical separation between safety significant equipment and active fire suppression systems in rooms housing two redundancies.
Lemmetty M.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy
International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants 2010, ICAPP 2010 | Year: 2010
Most Nordic-type BWRs rely on sea water for the final heat sink. This paper discusses the situation where the both ends of the sea water inlet must be closed, which results in the loss of the final heat sink. We propose an accident mitigation strategy which guarantees that the rooms containing the most important safety-related pumps can be cooled. It is shown that the accident will not result in a large emission of radioactive substances.
Lemmetty M.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy |
Sandback I.,Teollisuuden Voima Oy
International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants, ICAPP 2014 | Year: 2014
The paper discusses the actions taken at the units 1 and 2 of the Olkiluoto NPP to improve the electrical protection of the main recirculation pumps (RCP). As a high overvoltage in the medium-voltage busbars might cause the RCP trip and a transient fuel dry-out, such overvoltage events must be prevented, while simultaneously maintaining the capability of the plant to ride through grid fault transients without decreasing the voltage load. The solution selected involves, inter alia single-failure proof communication between the nearby transmission grid switchyard unit circuit breaker and the plant generator breaker. Its safety implications are discussed in detail. The case presented shows that the grid-induced electrical transients can be accounted for in the NPP design only when the communication and technical cooperation between the transmission system operator and the NPP design are well established.