Sapporo, Japan
Sapporo, Japan

Tenshi College is a private university in Higashi-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. The predecessor of the school, a women's vocational school, was founded in 1947. It was chartered as a junior college in 1950. In 2000 it became coeducational, adopting the present name at the same time. This school has its roots in a hospital started by 7 nuns from Europe who built a hospital for the poor in Sapporo. Wikipedia.

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Kajimura S.,University of California at San Francisco | Saito M.,Tenshi College
Annual Review of Physiology | Year: 2014

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat as a defense against cold and excessive feeding. Interest in the field of BAT biology has exploded in the past few years because of the therapeutic potential of BAT to counteract obesity and obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance. Much progress has been made, particularly in the areas of BAT physiology in adult humans, developmental lineages of brown adipose cell fate, and hormonal control of BAT thermogenesis. As we enter into a new era of brown fat biology, the next challenge will be to develop strategies for activating BAT thermogenesis in adult humans to increase whole-body energy expenditure. This article reviews the recent major advances in this field and discusses emerging questions. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Matsushita M.,Tenshi College | Yoneshiro T.,Hokkaido University | Aita S.,Hakodate Junior College | Kameya T.,LSI Sapporo Clinic | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2014

Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is involved in the regulation of whole-body energy expenditure and adiposity. Some clinical studies have reported an association between BAT and blood glucose in humans. Objective: To examine the impact of BAT on glucose metabolism, independent of that of body fatness, age and sex in healthy adult humans. Methods: Two hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (184 males and 76 females, 20-72 years old) underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and computed tomography after 2 h of cold exposure to assess maximal BAT activity. Blood parameters including glucose, HbA1c and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured by conventional methods, and body fatness was estimated from body mass index (BMI), body fat mass and abdominal fat area. The impact of BAT on body fatness and blood parameters was determined by logistic regression with the use of univariate and multivariate models. Results: Cold-activated BAT was detected in 125 (48%) out of 260 subjects. When compared with subjects without detectable BAT, those with detectable BAT were younger and showed lower adiposity-related parameters such as the BMI, body fat mass and abdominal fat area. Although blood parameters were within the normal range in the two subject groups, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in the BAT-positive group. Blood glucose also tended to be lower in the BAT-positive group. Logistic regression demonstrated that BAT, in addition to age and sex, was independently associated with BMI, body fat mass, and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas. For blood parameters, multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex and body fatness revealed that BAT was a significantly independent determinant of glucose and HbA1c. Conclusion: BAT, independent of age, sex and body fatness, has a significant impact on glucose metabolism in adult healthy humans. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Yoneshiro T.,Hokkaido University | Aita S.,Tenshi College | Kawai Y.,LSI Sapporo Clinic | Iwanaga T.,Hokkaido University | Saito M.,Tenshi College
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Capsinoids - nonpungent capsaicin analogs - are known to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure (EE) in small rodents. BAT activity can be assessed by [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in humans. Objectives: The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of capsinoid ingestion on EE and to analyze its relation to BAT activity in humans. Design: Eighteen healthy men aged 20-32 y underwent FDG-PET after 2 h of cold exposure (19°C) while wearing light clothing. Whole-body EE and skin temperature, after oral ingestion of capsinoids (9 mg), were measured for 2 h under warm conditions (27°C) in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Results: When exposed to cold, 10 subjects showed marked FDG uptake into adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT-positive group), whereas the remaining 8 subjects (BAT-negative group) showed no detectable uptake. Under warm conditions (27°C), the mean (±SEM) resting EE was 6114 ± 226 kJ/d in the BAT-positive group and 6307 ± 156 kJ/d in the BAT-negative group (NS). EE increased by 15.2 ± 2.6 kJ/h in 1 h in the BAT-positive group and by 1.7 ± 3.8 kJ/h in the BAT-negative group after oral ingestion of capsinoids (P < 0.01). Placebo ingestion produced no significant change in either group. Neither capsinoids nor placebo changed the skin temperature in various regions, including regions close to BAT deposits. Conclusion: Capsinoid ingestion increases EE through the activation of BAT in humans. This trial was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as UMIN 000006073. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


Saito M.,Tenshi College
Obesity Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the major site of sympathetically activated adaptive thermogenesis during cold exposure and after spontaneous hyperphagia, thereby controlling whole-body energy expenditure and body fat. Recent radionuclide studies have demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in healthy adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure, being positively correlated to cold-induced increases in energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT is lower in older and obese individuals. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. In fact, either repeated cold exposure or daily ingestion of some food ingredients acting on transient receptor potential channels recruited BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fat even in individuals with low BAT activities before the treatment. Thus, BAT is a promising therapeutic target for combating human obesity and related metabolic disorders. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yoneshiro T.,Hokkaido University | Saito M.,Tenshi College
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold exposure activates brown adipose tissue (BAT), the major site of sympathetically activated nonshivering thermognenesis, via transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Capsaicin and its nonpungent analogue (capsinoids) are agonists for a vanilloid subtype one of TRP, and have the potential to increase whole-body energy expenditure and reduce body fat. This article reviews the regulatory roles of BAT for energy expenditure and body fat in humans, particularly focusing on food ingredients activating the TRP-BAT axis. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute cold exposure increased energy expenditure in humans with metabolically active BAT, but not those without it. Quite similar responses were found after a single oral ingestion of either capsinoids or an alcohol extract of Guinea pepper seeds, indicating that these food ingredients activate BAT and thereby increase energy expenditure. When individuals without active BAT were exposed to cold every day for 6 weeks, BAT was recruited in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fat. A 6-week daily ingestion of capsinoids mimicked the effects of repeated cold exposure. These findings indicate that human BAT can be reactivated/recruited, thereby increasing energy expenditure and decreasing body fat. SUMMARY: Human BAT recruited by prolonged ingestion of a vanilloid subtype one of TRP agonists increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat. In addition to capsinoids, there are numerous food ingredients acting as TRP agonists, which are expected to activate BAT and so be useful for the prevention of obesity in daily life. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Saito M.,Tenshi College
Diabetes and Metabolism Journal | Year: 2013

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is recognized as the major site of sympathetically activated nonshivering thermogenesis during cold exposure and after spontaneous hyperphagia, thereby controling whole-body energy expenditure and body fat. In adult humans, BAT has long been believed to be absent or negligible, but recent studies using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, in combination with computed tomography, demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in healthy adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure, being positively correlated to cold-induced increases in energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT differs among individuals, being lower in older and obese individuals. Thus, BAT is recognized as a regulator of whole-body energy expenditure and body fat in humans as in small rodents, and a hopeful target combating obesity and related disorders. In fact, there are some food ingredients such as capsaicin and capsinoids, which have potential to activate and recruit BAT via activity on the specific receptor, transient receptor potential channels, thereby increasing energy expenditure and decreasing body fat modestly and consistently. © 2013 Korean Diabetes Association.


Saito M.,Tenshi College
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2014

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the site of sympathetically activated adaptive thermognenesis during cold exposure and after hyperphagia, thereby controlling whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat. Radionuclide imaging studies have demonstrated that adult humans have metabolically active BAT composed of mainly beige/brite adipocytes, recently identified brown-like adipocytes. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT is, because of its energy dissipating activity, protective against body fat accumulation in humans as it is in small rodents. In fact, either repeated cold exposure or daily ingestion of some food ingredients acting on transient receptor potential channels recruits BAT in parallel with increased EE and decreased body fat. In addition to the sympathetic nervous system, several endocrine factors are also shown to recruit BAT. Thus, BAT is a promising therapeutic target for combating human obesity and related metabolic disorders. © The Japan Endocrine Society.


Yoneshiro T.,Hokkaido University | Saito M.,Tenshi College
Annals of Medicine | Year: 2015

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the site of sympathetically activated adaptive thermogenesis during cold exposure and after hyperphagia, thereby controlling whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat. BAT thermogenesis is primarily dependent on the energy-dissipating activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). There are two types of UCP1-expressing adipocyte, classical brown and beige/brite adipocytes. Recent radionuclide studies have demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT composed of mainly beige/brite adipocytes in adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure, being positively correlated to cold-induced increases in EE. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy-dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. In fact, either repeated cold exposure or daily ingestion of some food ingredients acting on transient receptor potential channels recruited BAT in association with increased EE and decreased body fat. Moreover, possible contribution of BAT to glucose tolerance has been suggested. In addition to the sympathetic nervous system, some endocrine factors also have potential for activation/recruitment of BAT. Thus, BAT is a promising therapeutic target for combating human obesity and related metabolic disorders. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Yoneshiro T.,Tenshi College | Aita S.,Tenshi College | Matsushita M.,Tenshi College | Kameya T.,LSI Sapporo Clinic | And 3 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2011

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be identified by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in adult humans. Thirteen healthy male volunteers aged 20-28 years underwent FDG-PET after 2-h cold exposure at 19°C with light-clothing and intermittently putting their legs on an ice block. When exposed to cold, 6 out of the 13 subjects showed marked FDG uptake into adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT-positive group), whereas the remaining seven showed no detectable uptake (BAT-negative group). The BMI and body fat content were similar in the two groups. Under warm conditions at 27°C, the energy expenditure of the BAT-positive group estimated by indirect calorimetry was 1,446 97kcal/day, being comparable with that of the BAT-negative group (1,434 246kcal/day). After cold exposure, the energy expenditure increased markedly by 410 293 (P 0.05) and slightly by 42 114kcal/day (P = 0.37) in the BAT-positive and-negative groups, respectively. A positive correlation (P 0.05) was found between the cold-induced rise in energy expenditure and the BAT activity quantified from FDG uptake. After cold exposure, the skin temperature in the supraclavicular region close to BAT deposits dropped by 0.14°C in the BAT-positive group, whereas it dropped more markedly (P 0.01) by 0.60°C in the BAT-negative group. The skin temperature drop in other regions apart from BAT deposits was similar in the two groups. These results suggest that BAT is involved in cold-induced increases in whole-body energy expenditure, and, thereby, the control of body temperature and adiposity in adult humans. © 2010 The Obesity Society.


Saito M.,Tenshi College | Yoneshiro T.,Hokkaido University
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Capsaicin and its nonpungent analog (capsinoids) are known to be food ingredients that increase energy expenditure and decrease body fat. This article reviews the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) for the thermogenic effect of these compounds in humans and proposes the possibility of some other antiobesity food ingredients. RECENT FINDINGS: A single oral ingestion of capsinoids increases energy expenditure in human individuals with metabolically active BAT, but not those without it, indicating that capsinoids activate BAT and thereby increase energy expenditure. This finding gave a rational explanation for discrepant results of the effects of capsinoids in the previous studies. Human BAT may be largely composed of inducible 'beige' adipocytes more than typical brown adipocytes because its gene expression patterns are similar to beige cells isolated from murine white fat depots. In fact, preadipocytes isolated from supraclavicular fat deposits - where BAT is often detected - are capable of differentiating into brown-like adipocytes in vitro, providing evidence of inducible brown adipogenesis in adult humans. SUMMARY: As human BAT may be inducible, a prolonged ingestion of capsinoids would recruit active BAT and thereby increase energy expenditure and decrease body fat. In addition to capsinoids, there are numerous food ingredients that are expected to activate BAT and so be useful for the prevention of obesity in daily life. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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