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Metropolitan Government of Nashville-Davidson (balance), TN, United States

Khan B.A.,Indiana University | Khan B.A.,Regenstrief Institute | Fadel W.F.,Indiana University | Tricker J.L.,Wishard Health Services | And 11 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Objectives: Mechanically ventilated critically ill patients receive significant amounts of sedatives and analgesics that increase their risk of developing coma and delirium. We evaluated the impact of a "Wake-up and Breathe Protocol" at our local ICU on sedation and delirium. Design: A pre/post implementation study design. Setting: A 22-bed mixed surgical and medical ICU. Patients: Seven hundred two consecutive mechanically ventilated ICU patients from June 2010 to January 2013. Interventions: Implementation of daily paired spontaneous awakening trials (daily sedation vacation plus spontaneous breathing trials) as a quality improvement project. Measurements and Main Results: After implementation of our program, there was an increase in the mean Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale scores on weekdays of 0.88 (p < 0.0001) and an increase in the mean Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale scores on weekends of 1.21 (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, race, gender, severity of illness, primary diagnosis, and ICU, the incidence and prevalence of delirium did not change post implementation of the protocol (incidence: 23% pre vs 19.6% post; p = 0.40; prevalence: 66.7% pre vs 55.3% post; p = 0.06). The combined prevalence of delirium/coma decreased from 90.8% pre protocol implementation to 85% postimplementation (odds ratio, 0.505; 95% CI, 0.299-0.853; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Implementing a "Wake Up and Breathe Program" resulted in reduced sedation among critically ill mechanically ventilated patients but did not change the incidence or prevalence of delirium. Copyright © 2014 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Patrick S.W.,Vanderbilt University | Patrick S.W.,Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research | Dudley J.,Vanderbilt University | Martin P.R.,Vanderbilt University | And 10 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although opioid pain relievers are commonly prescribed in pregnancy, their association with neonatal outcomes is poorly described. Our objectives were to identify neonatal complications associated with antenatal opioid pain reliever exposure and to establish predictors of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). METHODS: We used prescription and administrative data linked to vital statistics for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011. A random sample of NAS cases was validated by medical record review. The association of antenatal exposures with NAS was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for maternal and infant characteristics. RESULTS: Of 112 029 pregnant women, 31 354 (28%) filled ≥1 opioid prescription. Women prescribed opioid pain relievers were more likely than those not prescribed opioids (P < .001) to have depression (5.3% vs 2.7%), anxiety disorder (4.3% vs 1.6%) and to smoke tobacco (41.8% vs 25.8%). Infants with NAS and opioid-exposed infants were more likely than unexposed infants to be born at a low birth weight (21.2% vs 11.8% vs 9.9%; P < .001). In a multivariable model, higher cumulative opioid exposure for short-acting preparations (P , .001), opioid type (P < .001), number of daily cigarettes smoked (P < .001), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (odds ratio: 2.08 [95% confidence interval: 1.67-2.60]) were associated with greater risk of developing NAS. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription opioid use in pregnancy is common and strongly associated with neonatal complications. Antenatal cumulative prescription opioid exposure, opioid type, tobacco use, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increase the risk of NAS. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Page V.J.,Intensive Care Unit | Page V.J.,Imperial College London | Ely E.W.,Vanderbilt University | Ely E.W.,Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Delirium is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Haloperidol is the most commonly used drug for delirium despite little evidence of its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to establish whether early treatment with haloperidol would decrease the time that survivors of critical illness spent in delirium or coma. Methods: We did this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial in a general adult intensive care unit (ICU). Critically ill patients (≥18 years) needing mechanical ventilation within 72 h of admission were enrolled. Patients were randomised (by an independent nurse, in 1:1 ratio, with permuted block size of four and six, using a centralised, secure web-based randomisation service) to receive haloperidol 2·5 mg or 0·9% saline placebo intravenously every 8 h, irrespective of coma or delirium status. Study drug was discontinued on ICU discharge, once delirium-free and coma-free for 2 consecutive days, or after a maximum of 14 days of treatment, whichever came first. Delirium was assessed using the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). The primary outcome was delirium-free and coma-free days, defined as the number of days in the first 14 days after randomisation during which the patient was alive without delirium and not in coma from any cause. Patients who died within the 14 day study period were recorded as having 0 days free of delirium and coma. ICU clinical and research staff and patients were masked to treatment throughout the study. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Registry, number ISRCTN83567338. Findings: 142 patients were randomised, 141 were included in the final analysis (71 haloperidol, 70 placebo). Patients in the haloperidol group spent about the same number of days alive, without delirium, and without coma as did patients in the placebo group (median 5 days [IQR 0-10] vs 6 days [0-11] days; p=0·53). The most common adverse events were oversedation (11 patients in the haloperidol group vs six in the placebo group) and QTc prolongation (seven patients in the haloperidol group vs six in the placebo group). No patient had a serious adverse event related to the study drug. Interpretation: These results do not support the hypothesis that haloperidol modifies duration of delirium in critically ill patients. Although haloperidol can be used safely in this population of patients, pending the results of trials in progress, the use of intravenous haloperidol should be reserved for short-term management of acute agitation. Funding: National Institute for Health Research. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Janz D.R.,Vanderbilt University | Abel T.W.,Vanderbilt University | Jackson J.C.,Vanderbilt University | Gunther M.L.,Vanderbilt Center for Health Services Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Critical Care | Year: 2010

Purpose: Delirium affects 50% to 80% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Given the paucity of data reporting the neuropathologic findings in ICU patients experiencing delirium, the purpose of this pilot, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate brain autopsies in ICU patients who suffered from delirium to explore possible neuroanatomical correlates. Materials and Methods: Using delirium databases at Vanderbilt University, we identified patients who had delirium in the ICU and subsequently died and received a brain autopsy during the same hospitalization. Brain autopsy reports were collected retrospectively on all 7 patients who met these criteria. Results: Patients' mean age was 55 (SD ± 8.4) years, and median number of days spent with delirium was 7 (±5 interquartile range). In 6 (86%) of 7 patients, pathologic lesions normally attributed to hypoxia or ischemia were noted in the hippocampus, pons, and striatum. Hippocampal lesions represented the most common neuropathologic site of injury, present in 5 (71%) of 7 patients. Conclusions: Hypoxic ischemic injury in multiple locations of the brain was a common finding. The biological plausibility of hippocampal lesions as a contributor to long-term cognitive impairment warrants postmortem investigation on a larger scale with comparison to patients not experiencing ICU delirium. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Morandi A.,Geriatric Research Group | Morandi A.,Vanderbilt University | Bellelli G.,Geriatric Research Group | Bellelli G.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2013

Objectives: Rehospitalizations for elderly patients are an increasing health care burden. Nonetheless, we have limited information on unplanned rehospitalizations and the related risk factors in elderly patients admitted to in-hospital rehabilitation facilities after an acute hospitalization. Setting: In-hospital rehabilitation and aged care unit. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Participants: Elderly patients 65 years or older admitted to an in-hospital rehabilitation hospital after an acute hospitalization between January 2004 and June2011. Measurements: The rate of 30-day unplanned rehospitalization to hospitals was recorded. Risk factors for unplanned rehospitalization were evaluated at rehabilitation admission: age, comorbidity, serum albumin, number of drugs, decline in functional status, delirium, Mini Mental State Examination score, and length of stay in the acute hospital. A multivariable Cox proportional regression model was used to identify the effect of these risk factors for time to event within the 30-day follow-up. Results: Among 2735 patients, with a median age of 80 years (interquartile range 74-85), 98 (4%) were rehospitalized within 30 days. Independent predictors of 30-day unplanned rehospitalization were the use of 7 or more drugs (hazard ratio [HR], 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-9.54; P= .002) and a significant decline in functional status (56 points or more at the Barthel Index) compared with the month before hospital admission (HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.35-5.27; P= .005). Additionally, a length of stay in the acute hospital of 13 days or more carried a twofold higher risk of rehospitalization (HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.39-5.10); P= .003). Conclusions: The rate of unplanned rehospitalization was low in this study. Polypharmacy, a significant worsening of functional status compared with the month before acute hospital admission, and hospital length of stay are important risk factors. © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc.

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