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Green D.M.,Tennessee | Breslow N.E.,BiostatisticsUniversity of WashingtonSeattle | D'Angio G.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Malogolowkin M.H.,Midwest Childrens Cancer Center at Childrens Hospital of WisconsinMilwaukee | And 9 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Intra-operative tumor spill increases the risk of local recurrence of Wilms tumor, and adversely impacts relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Methods: Surgical checklists, operative notes, institutional pathology reports, central pathology review and flow sheets of 602 patients registered between August 1986 and September 1994 on National Wilms Tumor Study-4 as randomized, followed or switched and coded as Final Stage II, favorable histology (FH) were reviewed. RFS and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using the Cox model and tested for statistical significance by the log-rank test. Results: Four hundred ninety-nine patients were found after review to have Stage II, FH Wilms tumor. The 8-year RFS percentages were 85.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 81.1%, 88.1%) for those with no spill compared to 75.7% (65.8%, 83.2%) for those with spill. The 8-year OS percentages were 95.6% (93.1%, 97.3%) for those with no spill compared to 90.3% (82.2%, 94.9%) for those with spill. The HR for relapse among those with spill was 1.55 ((95%CI: 0.97,2.51), P=0.067) and the HR for death was 1.94 ((0.92,4.09), P=0.077). Conclusions: RFS and OS were lower for patients who had intra-operative tumor spill. The majority of NWTS Stage II, FH patients with intra-operative tumor spill have an overall excellent outcome when treated with two drug chemotherapy (vincristine and actinomycin D) and no abdominal irradiation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Weaver M.S.,Tennessee | Reeve B.B.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Baker J.N.,Tennessee | Martens C.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Symptoms arising from disease or treatment are subjective experiences. Insight into pediatric oncology treatment side effects or symptoms is ideally obtained from direct inquiry to the ill child. A concept-elicitation phase in a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument design provides an opportunity to elicit children's voices to shape cancer symptom selection and terminology. METHODS: Through semistructured, one-on-one, voice-recorded interviews, symptom data were collected from 96 children with cancer between the ages of 7 and 20 years who were undergoing oncologic treatment at 7 pediatric oncology sites in the United States and Canada. RESULTS: The mean number of symptoms reported per child over the prior 7 days was 1.49 (range, 0-7; median, 1; standard deviation, 1.56). The most common symptoms across all age groups were tiredness or fatigue, nausea or vomiting, aches or pains, and weakness. There was not a statistically significant correlation between self-reported wellness and the number of reported symptoms (r=-0.156, n=65, P=.215) or the number of symptoms reported by age group or diagnosis type. Forty participants reported experiencing a change in their body in the past week, with one-third of these changes unanticipated. Only through direct questions about feelings were emotional symptoms revealed because 90.6% of interviewees who discussed feelings (48 of 53) did so only in the context of direct questioning on feelings. Adolescents were more likely than younger children to discuss feelings as part of the interview. CONCLUSIONS: Concept elicitation from children and adolescents has the potential to enable researchers to develop age-appropriate, accurately representative PRO measures. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Source

Weaver M.S.,Tennessee | Gattuso J.S.,Tennessee
Cancer | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with cancer cite the opinions of others and expected impact on others as formative for their care preferences and decisions. The current study first explores how the concepts of being a good child and being a good patient may exist for adolescents with cancer and determines how adolescents describe and apply these concepts. The study then investigates parental actions and clinician behaviors perceived by adolescents with cancer as supportive in helping them to achieve their defined good child and good patient roles. METHODS: In a prospective study conducted at 2 cancer treatment centers over the course of 10 months, 40 adolescents with cancer responded to 10 open-ended questions. Semantic content analysis was used. An adolescent focus group validated the findings. RESULTS: Of the 40 participants in the current study, 39 confirmed 1 or both concepts; the good patient responses yielded 112 codes and 5 themes: cooperation, adherence, communication, self-care, and care for others. The good child responses revealed 88 codes and 7 themes: cooperation and respect, positivity, lightening others' burdens, taking treatment seriously, recognizing mutual impact, communication, and acknowledging mortality. Of 589 interview phrases, 184 (31%) depicted themes of care for others and 58 (10%) spoke of tolerating treatment in the hope of a better future for one's self or others. The benefits and challenges of living up to these definitions were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians may consider asking adolescents about their "good child" and "good patient" descriptions to learn more about the perceived roles carried by adolescents with cancer and how these roles may impact their decision making, medication adherence, and social interactions. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Source

BACKGROUND: Bereaved parents experience significant psychosocial and health sequelae, suggesting that this population may benefit from the ongoing extension of support and resources throughout the grief journey. The interaction of hospital staff with patients and families at the end of a child's life and after death profoundly affects parental grief, offering a unique opportunity for the medical community to positively impact the bereavement experience. The current study was conducted to explore the role of the health care team and medical institutions in the grief journeys of parents whose child died a cancer-related death. METHODS: Eleven bereaved parents participated in 2 focus groups. Responses to each of the 3 main prompts were coded and analyzed independently using semantic content analysis techniques. RESULTS: Four main concepts were identified within the parental narratives, including the importance of strong and ongoing relationships between providers and bereaved families, the importance of high-quality communication, the effect of negative experiences between providers and families on parental grief, and the importance of the institution's role in the grief journeys of bereaved parents. CONCLUSIONS: Bereaved parents consistently identified the critical role played by medical staff and medical institutions throughout the grief journey. Key components of bereavement support identified by parents should serve to guide the actions of providers as well as provide a template for the development of a comprehensive bereavement program within an institution. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Source

Nazemi K.J.,Oregon Health And Science University | Shen V.,Childrens Hospital of Orange County Cancer Institute Orange | Finlay J.L.,Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles Neuro Oncology Program Los Angeles | Boyett J.,Tennessee | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: The outcomes with high-risk central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors remain relatively poor despite aggressive treatment. The purposes of this study using postirradiation myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue (ASCR) were to document feasibility and describe toxicities of the regimen, establish the appropriate dose of thiotepa, and estimate the overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). Procedure: The Children's Cancer Group conducted this pilot study in children and adolescents with CNS embryonal tumors. The treatment consisted of induction chemotherapy to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells, chemoradiotherapy, and myeloablative consolidation chemotherapy with ASCR. Results: The study accrued 25 subjects in 40 months and was closed early due to toxicity, namely, veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver, more recently termed sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS). Of 24 eligible subjects, three of 11 (27%) receiving thiotepa Dose Level 1 (150 mg/m2/day × 3 days) and three of 12 (25%) receiving de-escalated Dose Level 0 (100 mg/m2/day × 3 days) experienced VOD/SOS. One additional subject experienced toxic death attributed to septic shock; postmortem examination revealed clinically undiagnosed VOD/SOS. The 2-year EFS and OS were 54 ± 10% and 71 ± 9%, respectively. The 5-year EFS and OS were 46 ± 11% and 50 ± 11%. Conclusions: The treatment regimen was deemed to have an unacceptable rate of VOD/SOS. There was complete recovery in all six cases. The overall therapeutic strategy using a regimen less likely to cause VOD/SOS may merit further evaluation for the highest risk patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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