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Temple, PA, United States

Temple University, commonly referred to as Temple, is a comprehensive public research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The University was founded in 1884 by Russell Conwell. As of 2014, more than 37,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students are enrolled in over 400 academic degree programs offered at seven campuses and sites in Pennsylvania, and international campuses in Rome, Tokyo, Singapore and London. Temple is among the nation's largest providers of professional education , preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Wikipedia.


This Controversies in Research article discusses the hypothesis that protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the Ryanodine Receptor (RyR) at a single serine (RyRS2808) is essential for normal sympathetic regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility and is responsible for the disturbed Ca 2+ regulation that underlies depressed contractility in heart failure. Studies supporting this hypothesis have associated hyperphosphorylation of RyRS2808 and heart failure progression in animals and humans and have shown that a phosphorylation defective RyR mutant mouse (RyRS2808A) does not respond normally to sympathetic agonists and does not exhibit heart failure symptoms after myocardial infarction. Studies to confirm and extend these ideas have failed to support the original data. Experiments from many different laboratories have convincingly shown that PKA-mediated RyRS2808 phosphorylation does not play any significant role in the normal sympathetic regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release or cardiac contractility. Hearts and myocytes from RyRS2808A mice have been shown to respond normally to sympathetic agonists, and to increase Ca2+ influx, Ca2+ transients, and Ca2+ efflux. Although the RyR is involved in heart failure-related Ca2+ disturbances, this results from Ca 2+-calmodulin kinase II and reactive oxygen species-mediated regulation rather than by RyR2808 phosphorylation. Also, a new study has shown that RyRS2808A mice are not protected from myocardial infarction. Collectively, there is now a clear consensus in the published literature showing that dysregulated RyRs contribute to the altered Ca2+ regulatory phenotype of the failing heart, but PKA-mediated phosphorylation of RyRS2808 has little or no role in these alterations. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Issa J.P.,Temple University
Blood | Year: 2013

The myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal disorder characterized by increased stem cell proliferation coupled with aberrant differentiation resulting in a high rate of apoptosis and eventual symptoms related to bone marrow failure. Cellular differentiation is an epigenetic process that requires specific and highly ordered DNA methylation and histone modification programs. Aberrant differentiation in MDS can often be traced to abnormal DNA methylation (both gains and losses of DNA methylation genome wide and at specific loci) as well as mutations in genes that regulate epigenetic programs (TET2 and DNMT3a, both involved in DNA methylation control; EZH2 and ASXL1, both involved in histone methylation control). The epigenetic nature of MDS may explain in part the serendipitous observation that it is the disease most responsive to DNA methylation inhibitors; other epigenetic-acting drugs are being explored in MDS as well. Progression in MDS is characterized by further acquisition of epigenetic defects as well as mutations in growth-controlling genes that seem to tip the proliferation/apoptosis balance and result in the development of acute myelogenous leukemia. Although MDS is clinically and physiologically heterogeneous, a case can be made that subsets of the disease can be largely explained by disordered stem cell epigenetics. Source


Spano F.C.,Temple University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2010

Electronic excitations in small aggregates, thin films, and crystals of conjugated organic molecules play a fundamental role in the operation of a wide array of organic-based devices including solar cells, transistors, and light-emitting diodes. Such excitations, or excitons, are generally spread out over several molecules: a balance between the delocalizing influence of resonant intermolecular coupling and the localizing influence of static and dynamic disorder determines the coherence range of the exciton. Because of the "soft" nature of organic materials, significant nuclear relaxation in the participating molecules also accompanies the electronic excitations. To properly understand energy or charge transport, one must treat intermolecular (excitonic) coupling, electron-vibrational coupling, and disorder on equal footing. In this Account, we review the key elements of a theoretical approach based on a multiparticle representation that describes electronic excitations in organic materials as vibronic excitations surrounded by a field of vibrational excitations. Such composite excitations are appropriately called Frenkel excitonic polarons. For many conjugated molecules, the bulk of the nuclear reorganization energy following electronic excitation arises from the elongation of a symmetric vinyl stretching mode with energy ∼1400 cm-1. To appreciate the impact of aggregation, we study how the vibronic progression of this mode, which dominates the isolated (solvated) molecule absorption and emission spectra, is distorted when molecules are close enough to interact with each other. As we demonstrate in this Account, the nature of the distortion provides a wealth of information about how the molecules are packed, the strength of the excitonic interactions between molecules, the number of molecules that are coherently coupled, and the nature of the disorder. We show that the aggregation-induced deviations from the Poissonian distribution of vibronic peak intensities take on two extremes identified with ideal H- and J-aggregates. The sign of the nearest neighbor electronic coupling, positive for H and negative for J, distinguishes the two basic aggregate forms. For several decades, researchers have known that H-aggregates exhibit blue-shifted absorption spectra and are subradiant while J-aggregates exhibit the opposite behavior (red-shifted absorption and superradiance). However, the exact inclusion of exciton-vibrational coupling reveals several more distinguishing traits between the two aggregate types: in H(J)-aggregates the ratio of the first two vibronic peak intensities in the absorption spectrum decreases (increases) with increasing excitonic coupling, while the ratio of the 0-0 to 0-1 emission intensities increases (decreases) with disorder and increases (decreases) with increasing temperature. These two extreme behaviors provide the framework for understanding absorption and emission in more complex morphologies, such as herringbone packing in oligo(phenylene vinylene)s, oligothiophenes and polyacene crystals, as well as the polymorphic packing arrangements observed in carotenoids. Figure Presented © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source


Pavlou P.A.,Temple University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011

While information privacy has been studied in multiple disciplines over the years, the advent of the information age has both elevated the importance of privacy in theory and practice, and increased the relevance of information privacy literature for Information Systems, which has taken a leading role in the theoretical and practical study of information privacy. There is an impressive body of literature on information privacy in IS, and the two Theory and Review articles in this issue of MIS Quarterly review this literature. By integrating these two articles, this paper evaluates the current state of the IS literature on information privacy (where are we now?) and identifies promising research directions for advancing IS research on information privacy (where should we go?). Additional thoughts on further expanding the information privacy research in IS by drawing on related disciplines to enable a multidisciplinary study of information privacy are discussed. Source


Genomic instability is a hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) resulting in BCR-ABL1 mutations encoding resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and/or additional chromosomal aberrations leading to disease relapse and/or malignant progression. TKI-naive and TKI-treated leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and leukemia progenitor cells (LPCs) accumulate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative DNA damage. To determine the role of TKI-refractory LSCs in genomic instability, we used a murine model of CML-CP where ROS-induced oxidative DNA damage was elevated in LSCs, including quiescent LSCs, but not in LPCs. ROS-induced oxidative DNA damage in LSCs caused clinically relevant genomic instability in CML-CP-like mice, such as TKI-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations (E255K, T315I, H396P), deletions in Ikzf1 and Trp53, and additions in Zfp423 and Idh1. Despite inhibition of BCR-ABL1 kinase, imatinib did not downregulate ROS and oxidative DNA damage in TKI-refractory LSCs to the levels detected in normal cells, and CML-CP-like mice treated with imatinib continued to accumulate clinically relevant genetic aberrations. Inhibition of class I p21-activated protein kinases by IPA3 downregulated ROS in TKI-naive and TKI-treated LSCs. Altogether, we postulate that genomic instability may originate in the most primitive TKI-refractory LSCs in TKI-naive and TKI-treated patients. Source

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