Temple University, commonly referred to as Temple, is a comprehensive public research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The University was founded in 1884 by Russell Conwell. As of 2014, more than 37,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students are enrolled in over 400 academic degree programs offered at seven campuses and sites in Pennsylvania, and international campuses in Rome, Tokyo, Singapore and London. Temple is among the nation's largest providers of professional education , preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Wikipedia.
Temple University | Date: 2016-08-12
An alginate and stearic acid composition is described, including methods of molding it into tablets further comprising a drug, and methods of controlling the drug release from the tablets.
Temple University | Date: 2016-09-09
The dynamic positioning of sensors, which exploit the mechanical and physiological changes in tissues, can significantly increase the performance in characterization of tumors. Here, we disclose the Optical Dynamic Imaging (ODI) System for tumor characterization. ODI System estimates size, depth, elastic modulus and optical properties of embedded objects. The ODI System consists of a tactile imaging sensor (TIS), and a near infrared diffuse spectral imaging. To obtain mechanical properties of the target, we compress the region of interest with the probe, then the light from the probe is scattered and captured by the camera as a tactile image. On the other hand, using a light source and the camera as a detector, we obtain the diffuse spectral images. From these images, we compute the absorption coefficient of the embedded tumor phantom. We move the source-detector simultaneously and collect optical information. We termed this maneuver as dynamic positioning. Optical Dynamic Imaging System also provides position and orientation of the light source and the detectors. The combination of the absorption coefficient and tactile data along with location information improves the size, depth, and elastic modulus estimation.
Temple University and Onconova Therapeutics, Inc. | Date: 2017-03-08
Temple University | Date: 2016-11-29
Methods are presented for the therapeutic administration of angiocidin in the treatment of cancers such as glioma, breast cancer, and leukemia. Methods are also presented for inducing growth arrest and/or apoptosis of tumor cells, as well as inducing differentiation of tumor cells to inhibit tumorigenicity and to confer a non-tumor or healthy phenotype.
Temple University | Date: 2017-02-15
The present invention relates to compositions comprising ionic compounds surrounded by organic matrices, and methods for producing such compositions. In various embodiments, the compositions of the present invention are co- crystals of an organic compound and a salt. The organic compound forms matrices with channel structures, wherein the organic matrices interact relatively poorly with the salt, thus allowing for excellent ion mobility through the channel structures. In one embodiment, the compositions are soft-solid electrolytes, comprising ions such as lithium or sodium, which can be used in batteries or other electrochemical devices. The electrolyte compositions of the present invention exhibit relatively high ionic conductivities with a negligible activation barrier for ion migration, i.e., the compositions exhibit barrierless ion conduction. In addition, the compositions exhibit good conductivities at very low temperatures, making them useful in a variety of low temperature applications. In one embodiment, the present invention further relates to free-standing films comprising the co-crystals of the present invention, and methods for preparing such films.
Temple University | Date: 2017-01-18
The present invention provides compositions and methods of treating cancer by inducing the cellular differentiation activity of angiocidin.
Role of RyR2 phosphorylation in heart failure and arrhythmias: Protein kinase A-mediated hyperphosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor at serine 2808 does not alter cardiac contractility or cause heart failure and arrhythmias
Houser S.R.,Temple University
Circulation Research | Year: 2014
This Controversies in Research article discusses the hypothesis that protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the Ryanodine Receptor (RyR) at a single serine (RyRS2808) is essential for normal sympathetic regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility and is responsible for the disturbed Ca 2+ regulation that underlies depressed contractility in heart failure. Studies supporting this hypothesis have associated hyperphosphorylation of RyRS2808 and heart failure progression in animals and humans and have shown that a phosphorylation defective RyR mutant mouse (RyRS2808A) does not respond normally to sympathetic agonists and does not exhibit heart failure symptoms after myocardial infarction. Studies to confirm and extend these ideas have failed to support the original data. Experiments from many different laboratories have convincingly shown that PKA-mediated RyRS2808 phosphorylation does not play any significant role in the normal sympathetic regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release or cardiac contractility. Hearts and myocytes from RyRS2808A mice have been shown to respond normally to sympathetic agonists, and to increase Ca2+ influx, Ca2+ transients, and Ca2+ efflux. Although the RyR is involved in heart failure-related Ca2+ disturbances, this results from Ca 2+-calmodulin kinase II and reactive oxygen species-mediated regulation rather than by RyR2808 phosphorylation. Also, a new study has shown that RyRS2808A mice are not protected from myocardial infarction. Collectively, there is now a clear consensus in the published literature showing that dysregulated RyRs contribute to the altered Ca2+ regulatory phenotype of the failing heart, but PKA-mediated phosphorylation of RyRS2808 has little or no role in these alterations. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Issa J.P.,Temple University
Blood | Year: 2013
The myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal disorder characterized by increased stem cell proliferation coupled with aberrant differentiation resulting in a high rate of apoptosis and eventual symptoms related to bone marrow failure. Cellular differentiation is an epigenetic process that requires specific and highly ordered DNA methylation and histone modification programs. Aberrant differentiation in MDS can often be traced to abnormal DNA methylation (both gains and losses of DNA methylation genome wide and at specific loci) as well as mutations in genes that regulate epigenetic programs (TET2 and DNMT3a, both involved in DNA methylation control; EZH2 and ASXL1, both involved in histone methylation control). The epigenetic nature of MDS may explain in part the serendipitous observation that it is the disease most responsive to DNA methylation inhibitors; other epigenetic-acting drugs are being explored in MDS as well. Progression in MDS is characterized by further acquisition of epigenetic defects as well as mutations in growth-controlling genes that seem to tip the proliferation/apoptosis balance and result in the development of acute myelogenous leukemia. Although MDS is clinically and physiologically heterogeneous, a case can be made that subsets of the disease can be largely explained by disordered stem cell epigenetics.
Spano F.C.,Temple University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2010
Electronic excitations in small aggregates, thin films, and crystals of conjugated organic molecules play a fundamental role in the operation of a wide array of organic-based devices including solar cells, transistors, and light-emitting diodes. Such excitations, or excitons, are generally spread out over several molecules: a balance between the delocalizing influence of resonant intermolecular coupling and the localizing influence of static and dynamic disorder determines the coherence range of the exciton. Because of the "soft" nature of organic materials, significant nuclear relaxation in the participating molecules also accompanies the electronic excitations. To properly understand energy or charge transport, one must treat intermolecular (excitonic) coupling, electron-vibrational coupling, and disorder on equal footing. In this Account, we review the key elements of a theoretical approach based on a multiparticle representation that describes electronic excitations in organic materials as vibronic excitations surrounded by a field of vibrational excitations. Such composite excitations are appropriately called Frenkel excitonic polarons. For many conjugated molecules, the bulk of the nuclear reorganization energy following electronic excitation arises from the elongation of a symmetric vinyl stretching mode with energy ∼1400 cm-1. To appreciate the impact of aggregation, we study how the vibronic progression of this mode, which dominates the isolated (solvated) molecule absorption and emission spectra, is distorted when molecules are close enough to interact with each other. As we demonstrate in this Account, the nature of the distortion provides a wealth of information about how the molecules are packed, the strength of the excitonic interactions between molecules, the number of molecules that are coherently coupled, and the nature of the disorder. We show that the aggregation-induced deviations from the Poissonian distribution of vibronic peak intensities take on two extremes identified with ideal H- and J-aggregates. The sign of the nearest neighbor electronic coupling, positive for H and negative for J, distinguishes the two basic aggregate forms. For several decades, researchers have known that H-aggregates exhibit blue-shifted absorption spectra and are subradiant while J-aggregates exhibit the opposite behavior (red-shifted absorption and superradiance). However, the exact inclusion of exciton-vibrational coupling reveals several more distinguishing traits between the two aggregate types: in H(J)-aggregates the ratio of the first two vibronic peak intensities in the absorption spectrum decreases (increases) with increasing excitonic coupling, while the ratio of the 0-0 to 0-1 emission intensities increases (decreases) with disorder and increases (decreases) with increasing temperature. These two extreme behaviors provide the framework for understanding absorption and emission in more complex morphologies, such as herringbone packing in oligo(phenylene vinylene)s, oligothiophenes and polyacene crystals, as well as the polymorphic packing arrangements observed in carotenoids. Figure Presented © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Crino P.B.,Temple University
Acta Neuropathologica | Year: 2013
Over the past decade, there have been numerous advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Following the identification of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes, a link to regulatory control of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has paved the way for new therapeutic interventions, and now even approved therapies for TSC. Gene identification has permitted establishment of cell lines and conditional knockout mouse strains to assay how abnormalities in brain structure lead to enhanced excitability, seizures, cognitive disabilities, and other neuropsychological disorders in TSC. Furthermore, work in in vitro systems and analysis of rodent models and human tissue has allowed investigators to study how brain lesions form in TSC. Evolving questions over the next decade include understanding the high clinical variability of TSC, defining why there is a lack of clear genotype-phenotype correlations, and identifying biomarkers for prognosis and stratification. The study of TSC has in many ways reflected a paradigm "bench-to-bedside" success story that serves as a model of many other neurological disorders. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.