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Temple, TX, United States

Raston P.L.,University of Wyoming | Raston P.L.,University of Adelaide | Kettwich S.C.,University of Wyoming | Kettwich S.C.,Temple College | Anderson D.T.,University of Wyoming
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2015

We present Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the IR-induced Cl + H2(v = 1) → HCl + H reaction in a parahydrogen (pH2) matrix aimed at distinguishing between two proposed reactions mechanisms; direct-IR and vibron-mediated. The Cl atom reactants are produced via 355 nm in situ photolysis of a Cl2 doped pH2 matrix. After photolysis is complete, a long-pass IR filter in the FTIR beam is removed and we measure the ensuing IR-induced reaction kinetics using rapid scan FTIR spectroscopy. We follow both the decay of the Cl atom reactant and growth of the HCl product using the Cl spin-orbit (SO) + Q1(0) and HCl R1(0) transitions, respectively. We show the IR-induced reaction mechanism depends on the spectral profile of the IR radiation; for IR spectral profiles that have significant IR intensities between 4000 and 5000 cm-1 we observe first-order kinetics that are assigned to a vibron-mediated mechanism and for spectral profiles that have significant IR intensities that include the Cl SO + Q1(0) transition near 5094 cm-1 we observe bi-exponential kinetics that are dominated by the direct-IR mechanism at early reaction times. We can distinguish between the two mechanisms using the observed kinetics. We investigate the reaction kinetics for different FTIR optical setups, for a range of sample conditions, and start and stop the IR-induced reaction to investigate the importance of secondary H atom reactions. We also study the IR-induced reaction in Br/Cl co-doped pH2 samples and show the presence of the Br atom quenches the vibron-mediated reaction kinetics presumably because the Br-atoms serve as efficient vibron traps. This paper indicates that in a highly enriched pH2 matrix the H atoms that are produced by the IR-induced Cl atom reaction likely do not play a significant role in the measured reaction kinetics which implies these secondary H atom reactions are highly selective. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Troy J.R.,Texas State University | Troy J.R.,Temple College | Holmes N.D.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Veech J.A.,Texas State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management | Year: 2014

The Newell’s shearwater, or ‘A’o Puffinus newelli, is endemic to the main islands of the Hawaiian Archipelago and is listed as endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List and as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Using abiotic and biotic environmental variables, we developed a terrestrial habitat suitability model for this species on Kauai to predict habitat that could be suitable in the absence of anthropogenic threats. In addition, we developed a habitat/threat-isolation index incorporating information from our suitability model to identify regions of structurally suitable habitat with less exposure to certain anthropogenic threats (relative to other portions of the island). The habitat suitability model suggests that slope, density of rock fragments within the soil, and native vegetation cover are important factors associated with the current known distribution of the Newell’s shearwater on Kauai, and that a moderate portion of the sloped interior terrain of Kauai could potentially be suitable nesting habitat for this species. The habitat/threat-isolation index identified the mountains on the north-central portion of the island as structurally suitable habitat most isolated from a combination of major anthropogenic disturbances (relative to other portions of the island). Much of this region, however, is privately owned and not designated as an official reserve, which could indicate a need for increased conservation action in this region in the future. This information is important for conservation biologists and private landowners because expanding efforts to control nonnative predators, as well as management of additional lands as reserves, may be necessary for the protection and preservation of the Newell’s shearwater. Citation of the source, as given above, is requested. Source


Locklin J.L.,Baylor University | Locklin J.L.,Temple College | Vodopich D.S.,Baylor University
Odonatologica | Year: 2010

Eugregarine parasites infect a wide variety of invertebrates. Some authors suggest that eugregarines are rather harmless, but recent studies suggest otherwise. Among odonate-eugregarine investigations, Zygoptera have been more frequently studied than Anisoptera. Adult dragonfly populations were surveyed for eugregarines at a constructed, flow-through wetland system and the fitness cost of infection was assessed in a common and widespread dragonfly host sp., E simplicicollis. Populations were sampled weekly throughout the flight season. Host fitness parameters measured included wing load, egg size, clutch size, and total egg count. Of the 22 host spp. surveyed, 8 hosted eugregarines and 2 of these odon. spp. were previously undocumented as hosts. While eugregarine parasitism has been shown to exhibit seasonality, parasite prevalence and intensity in E. simplicicollis in this study showed no seasonal trend. The fitness parameters measured were not correlated with the presence or intensity of eugregarines. These findings suggest that either eugregarines do not affect wing loading and egg production in E. simplicicollis, or that virulence depends on parasite intensity and/or the specific eugregarine spp. infecting the hosts. Source


Troy J.R.,Texas State University | Troy J.R.,Temple College | Holmes N.D.,Hawaii Pacific University | Joyce T.,Hawaii Pacific University | And 3 more authors.
Waterbirds | Year: 2016

Small-scale environmental characteristics associated with nesting burrows of the Newell's Shearwater (Puffinus newelli) and Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) were documented in mesic and wet montane forest on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, USA. Most plots containing burrows were located on steep slopes, ranging from 28° to 48° (median = 39°) for the Newell's Shearwater and 0° to 67° (median = 34.5°) for the Hawaiian Petrel. Plots generally contained > 20% to 40% up to > 80% to 100% estimated vegetation cover 0-1 m above ground and > 0% to 20% up to > 60% to 80% cover 1-2 m above ground. Plots were also associated with estimated canopy cover from > 0% to 10% up to > 80% to 90% for the Newell's Shearwater and 0% up to > 70% to 80% for the Hawaiian Petrel. Soil in Newell's Shearwater plots tended to be harder 7.62-22.86 cm below ground, which might provide increased burrow stability. Additionally, maximum vegetation height tended to be greater above Newell's Shearwater plots (median = 6.00 m) than Hawaiian Petrel plots (median = 3.25 m). Taller trees may serve as climbing structures helping Newell's Shearwaters become airborne in thickly vegetated regions that are farther from ridgelines and associated with lighter wind speeds aloft. Source


Kettwich S.C.,Temple College | Kettwich S.C.,University of Wyoming | Anderson D.T.,University of Wyoming | Walker M.A.,Manly Astrophysics | Tuntsov A.V.,Manly Astrophysics
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2015

We report laboratory measurements of the absorption coefficient of solid para-H2, within the wavelength range from 1 to 16.7 μm, at high spectral resolution. In addition to the narrow rovibrational lines of H2 which are familiar from gas-phase spectroscopy, the data manifest double transitions and broad phonon branches that are characteristic specifically of hydrogen in the solid phase. These transitions are of interest because they provide a spectral signaturewhich is independent of the impurity content of the matrix.We have used our data, in combination with a model of the ultraviolet absorptions of the H2 molecule, to construct the dielectric function of solid para-H2 over a broad range of frequencies. Our results will be useful in determining the electromagnetic response of small particles of solid hydrogen. The dielectric function makes it clear that pure H2 dust would contribute to infrared (IR) extinction predominantly by scattering starlight, rather than absorbing it, and the characteristic IR absorption spectrum of the hydrogen matrix itself will be difficult to observe. Source

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