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Hanseth O.,University of Oslo | Nielsen P.,Telenor Norway
International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research

This article addresses issues related to how to enable broadest possible innovative activities by infrastructural technology design. The authors focus on the development of high level services based on mobile telecommunication technologies. The focus of their analysis is how features of the technology enable or constrain innovations. They do so by looking at embryos of the Mobile Internet (primarily the Norwegian CPA platform, but also two pre-CPA platforms in Norway and Japan's i-mode) through the concepts of end-to-end architecture, programmability of terminals and generativity. This analysis illustrates that the change from closed infrastructures like MobilInfo and SMSinfo to more open ones like CPA and i-mode increased the speed and range of innovations substantially. At the same time the differences between CPA and i-mode regarding programmability of terminals, and the billing service provided by the CPA network enabling the billing of individual transactions, also contributed to basically the same speed and range of innovations around CPA as i-mode in spite of the huge differences in investments into the networks made by the owners. The analysis also points out important differences between the Internet and the existing Mobile Internet regarding technological constrains on innovations. It points out important ways in which powerful actors' strategies inhibit innovations and how they embed their strategies into the technology and creates technological barriers for innovation. Copyright © 2013, IGI Global. Source

Thorsteinsen K.,University of Tromso | Vitterso J.,University of Tromso | Svendsen G.B.,Telenor Norway
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications

The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool. © 2014 Kjærsti Thorsteinsen et al. Source

Osterbo O.,Telenor Norway
Proceedings of the 2011 23rd International Teletraffic Congress, ITC 2011

Due to the variation of radio condition in LTE the obtainable bitrate for active users will vary. The two most important factors for the radio conditions are fading and pathloss. By including both fast fading and shadowing and attenuation due to distance we have developed analytical models to investigate obtainable bitrates for the basic resource unit in LTE. In addition we estimate the total cell throughput/capacity by taking scheduling into account. Particularly, the cell throughput is investigated for three types of scheduling algorithms; Round Robin, Proportional Fair and Max SINR (signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio) were also fairness among users is part of the analysis. In addition models for cell throughput/capacity for a mixture of Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) and Non-GBR greedy users are derived. Numerical examples show that multi-user gain is large for the Max-SINR algorithm, but also the Proportional Fair algorithm gives relative large gain relative to plain Round Robin. The Max-SINR has the weakness that it is highly unfair when it comes to capacity distribution among users. Further, the model visualize that use of GBR with high rates may cause problems in LTE due to the high demand for radio resources for users with low SINR, i.e. at cell edge. Hence, for GBR sources the allowed guaranteed rate should be limited. © 2011 ITC. Source

Humlum O.,University of Oslo | Humlum O.,University Center in Svalbard | Solheim J.-E.,University of Oslo | Stordahl K.,Telenor Norway
Global and Planetary Change

Analytic climate models have provided the means to predict potential impacts on future climate by anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition. However, future climate development will not only be influenced by anthropogenic changes, but also by natural variations. The knowledge on such natural variations and their detailed character, however, still remains incomplete. Here we present a new technique to identify the character of natural climate variations, and from this, to produce testable forecast of future climate. By means of Fourier and wavelet analyses climate series are decomposed into time-frequency space, to extract information on periodic signals embedded in the data series and their amplitude and variation over time. We chose to exemplify the potential of this technique by analysing two climate series, the Svalbard (78°N) surface air temperature series 1912-2010, and the last 4000. years of the reconstructed GISP2 surface temperature series from central Greenland. By this we are able to identify several cyclic climate variations which appear persistent on the time scales investigated. Finally, we demonstrate how such persistent natural variations can be used for hindcasting and forecasting climate. Our main focus is on identifying the character (timing, period, amplitude) of such recurrent natural climate variations, but we also comment on the likely physical explanations for some of the identified cyclic climate variations. The causes of millennial climate changes remain poorly understood, and this issue remains important for understanding causes for natural climate variability over decadal- and decennial time scales. We argue that Fourier and wavelet approaches like ours may contribute towards improved understanding of the role of such recurrent natural climate variations in the future climate development. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

This article develops the concept of quality of user experience by focusing on requirements for its measurement and communication for use in industry. Whereas more typical work involves either modeling media quality based on technical measures or user subjective assessment of media quality, it is argued that QoE measurement should include objective measures of the process and outcomes of usage. Also, subjective measures should be collected as quantitative data rather than qualitative data as is currently common, because quantitative data enables combined analyses of objective and subjective measures for deriving global QoE ratings. Global ratings are important for optimizing the communicability of results to target audiences. Examples of measures and scales are provided. A structured approach to defining and measuring QoE in relation to QoS is explained and illustrated. © 2010 IEEE. Source

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