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Fredriksen S.B.,Norner AS | Jens K.-J.,Telemark Technological R and D Institute | Jens K.-J.,Telemark University College
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

Alkanolamine based post-combustion capture processes (PCC) are currently the most attractive technologies for CO2 capture. Solvents are degraded in this service by flue gas components, for example oxygen. Solvent degradation can be classified into two reaction types: 1) amine oxidative degradation through a) autoxidation pathways, b) oxidation in the presence of metal ions and 2) thermal degradation including reactions in the presence of CO2. This study represents a literature survey of oxidative degradation (reaction type 1a) of 2-Amino-1-ethanol (MEA), 2-Amino-2-methyl-1- propanol (AMP), N,N-Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl-amine (MDEA), and Piperazine (Pz). Thermal degradation products (reaction type 2) are included where appropriate in order to contribute to a more complete degradation overview of these compounds. Source


Ding S.,Telemark Technological R and D Institute | Ding S.,Xian University of Architecture and Technology | Rotter J.M.,University of Edinburgh | Ooi J.Y.,University of Edinburgh | Enstad G.,Telemark University College
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2011

The filling process of particulate solids in silos presents a numerical challenge in finite element analysis because of the addition of unstressed material on top of stressed material. A novel progressive filling approach is adopted in this paper to represent the filling process. It was used here to explore the development of the pressure pattern on the wall of a steep axisymmetric conical hopper during the filling process. The loads are interpreted as normal pressure and frictional traction. The results are compared with those from an analysis that used the conventional 'switched-on gravity' filling. The results of both analyses are then compared with calculations based on classical theories for the pressures acting on the wall of a steep hopper. The close agreement found between the different treatments indicates that the chosen progressive filling numerical strategy is useful for applications where analytical solutions are limited. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yan R.,Telemark University College | Mylvaganam S.,Telemark University College | Mylvaganam S.,Telemark Technological R and D Institute
Proceedings of IEEE Sensors | Year: 2011

Electrical Capacitance Tomometric (ECTm) approach is attractive for measurement and control applications in the process industries, although work in process tomography stretching from the inception years up to now had the main focus on tomograms and their refinements. By using the time series of raw capacitance values C(x,y,t) obtained from Electrical Capacitance Tomographic (ECT) modules, it is shown in this paper how the interface height in a pipe transporting oil and gas can be directly read from wavelet based decomposition and reconstruction of raw capacitances. A combination of wavelet based analysis and neural network can accelerate the measurement process and facilitating the ECTm approach in real time control applications especially in the oil and gas industries and in the process industries in general. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Ru Y.,Telemark University College | Mylvaganam S.,Telemark University College | Mylvaganam S.,Telemark Technological R and D Institute
SAS 2011 - IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, Proceedings | Year: 2011

Ultrasonic sensors are used in a plethora of industrial and medical applications, such as flow and level measurements in the process industries, blood flow measurements and tomography in medicine. The ultrasonic sensor design is very often very critical in circumventing problems associated with beam width, transmitting power and matching to the media to be interrogated by the ultrasonic signals. Surface vibrations of ultrasonic transducers depend on various design parameters and influence their directional characteristics and very often can help in diagnosing malfunctioning of the transducer due to improper bonding of active elements. A proper understanding of the form of surface vibrations can help to modify the transducer design to achieve a set of desired characteristics. This paper presents some results of vibration monitoring of ultrasonic transducers using laser vibrometry. Various transducers are probed using the laser and their performances are compared based on their membrane displacements in the order of nm. The real time analysis of laser vibrometer measurements are done by an integration of PULSE and a VI called TRANSPROBE. The focus in this paper is the integration of these programs and the analysis of the data obtained using these based on laser probing of the membrane surfaces. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Pradeep C.,Telemark University College | Ru Y.,Telemark University College | Mylvaganam S.,Telemark University College | Mylvaganam S.,Telemark Technological R and D Institute
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2012

Pipe separators are currently being assessed as substitutes for conventional separators in the oil and gas industry for the separation of gas, oil, and water. In the process of separation, the interface levels between the different media are important measurands to be monitored to optimize the separation process. Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) without too much focus on tomograms can be used to detect the interfaces in a separator with enough accuracy for control purposes. With the easing of the CPU time needed for image processing, the possibility of getting enough information from reduced number of electrodes has also to be looked into, in view of reducing the processing time. The performance of the ECT system with reduced number of electrodes is studied in this paper using inferential methods based on artificial neural networks. Performance of a 12-electrode ECT system is assessed by studying its performance with only 6, 5, and 4 electrodes. The detection/estimation of interfaces is done effectively and in much shorter time compared to the processing of data with tomograms using a 12-electrode system. The inferential method can handle nonlinearity, and results from it can be easily integrated into other control algorithms addressing the actuators used in separators. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

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