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Arkun F.E.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Edwall D.D.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Ellsworth J.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Douglas S.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2017

Recent advances in growth of Hg1−xCdxTe films on large-area (7 cm × 7.5 cm) CdZnTe (CZT) substrates is presented. Growth of Hg1−xCdxTe with good uniformity on large-area wafers is achieved using a Riber 412 molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) tool designed for growth of Hg1−xCdxTe compounds. The reactor is equipped with conventional CdTe, Te, and Hg sources for achieving uniform exposure of the wafer during growth. The composition of the Hg1−xCdxTe compound is controlled in situ by employing a closed-loop spectral ellipsometry technique to achieve a cutoff wavelength (λco) of 14 μm at 78 K. We present data on the thickness and composition uniformity of films grown for large-format focal-plane array applications. The composition and thickness nonuniformity are determined to be <1% over the area of a 7 cm × 7.5 cm wafer. The films are further characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and Hall measurements. Additionally, defect maps show the spatial distribution of defects generated during the epitaxial growth of the Hg1−xCdxTe films. Microdefect densities are in the low 103 cm−2 range, and void defects are below 500 cm−2. Dislocation densities less than 5 × 105 cm−2 are routinely achieved for Hg1−xCdxTe films grown on CZT substrates. HgCdTe 4k × 4k focal-plane arrays with 15 μm pitch for astronomical wide-area infrared imagers have been produced using the recently developed MBE growth process at Teledyne Imaging Sensors. © 2017 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society


News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: phys.org

"The delivery of these detector systems is a milestone for what we hope will be an extremely exciting mission, the first space mission dedicated to going after the mysterious dark energy," said Michael Seiffert, the NASA Euclid project scientist based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, which manages the development and implementation of the detector systems. Euclid will carry two instruments: a visible-light imager (VIS) and a near-infrared spectrometer and photometer (NISP). A special light-splitting plate on the Euclid telescope enables incoming light to be shared by both instruments, so they can carry out observations simultaneously. The spacecraft, scheduled for launch in 2020, will observe billions of faint galaxies and investigate why the universe is expanding at an accelerating pace. Astrophysicists think dark energy is responsible for this effect, and Euclid will explore this hypothesis and help constrain dark energy models. This census of distant galaxies will also reveal how galaxies are distributed in our universe, which will help astrophysicists understand how the delicate interplay of the gravity of dark matter, luminous matter and dark energy forms large-scale structures in the universe. Additionally, the location of galaxies in relation to each other tells scientists how they are clustered. Dark matter, an invisible substance accounting for over 80 percent of matter in our universe, can cause subtle distortions in the apparent shapes of galaxies. That is because its gravity bends light that travels from a distant galaxy toward an observer, which changes the appearance of the galaxy when it is viewed from a telescope. Euclid's combination of visible and infrared instruments will examine this distortion effect and allow astronomers to probe dark matter and the effects of dark energy. Detecting infrared light, which is invisible to the human eye, is especially important for studying the universe's distant galaxies. Much like the Doppler effect for sound, where a siren's pitch seems higher as it approaches and lower as it moves away, the frequency of light from an astronomical object gets shifted with motion. Light from objects that are traveling away from us appears redder, and light from those approaching us appears bluer. Because the universe is expanding, distant galaxies are moving away from us, so their light gets stretched out to longer wavelengths. Between 6 and 10 billion light-years away, galaxies are brightest in infrared light. JPL procured the NISP detector systems, which were manufactured by Teledyne Imaging Sensors of Camarillo, California. They were tested at JPL and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, before being shipped to France and the NISP team. Each detector system consists of a detector, a cable and a "readout electronics chip" that converts infrared light to data signals read by an onboard computer and transmitted to Earth for analysis. Sixteen detectors will fly on Euclid, each composed of 2040 by 2040 pixels. They will cover a field of view slightly larger than twice the area covered by a full moon. The detectors are made of a mercury-cadmium-telluride mixture and are designed to operate at extremely cold temperatures. "The U.S. Euclid team has overcome many technical hurdles along the way, and we are delivering superb detectors that will enable the collection of unprecedented data during the mission," said Ulf Israelsson, the NASA Euclid project manager, based at JPL. Delivery to ESA of the next set of detectors for NISP is planned in early June. The Centre de Physique de Particules de Marseille, France, will provide further characterization of the detector systems. The final detector focal plane will then be assembled at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, and integrated with the rest of NISP for instrument tests. More information: For more information about Euclid, visit sci.esa.int/Euclid


Billman C.A.,U.S. Army | Almeida L.A.,U.S. Army | Smith P.,U.S. Army | Arias J.M.,U.S. Army | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2011

The effects of microvoid defects on the performance of mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) HgCdTe-based diodes were examined. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was utilized to deposit indium-doped, Hg 0.68Cd 0.32Te on 2 cm × 3 cm, (211)B-oriented, bulk Cd 0.96Zn 0.04Te substrates. These epilayers generally exhibited state-of-the-art material properties with a notable exception: high and nonuniform microvoid defect densities (mid 10 4 cm -2 to low 10 6 cm -2). Diodes were fabricated by ion implantation of arsenic to form planar p-n junctions. Dark current-voltage (I-V) curves were measured and analyzed as a function of operating temperature. There was an inverse correlation between wafer-level microvoid defect density and device operability. On each wafer, devices with the smallest implants exhibited higher operability than devices with larger implants. By removal of pad metal and examination of defects within each implant area, it was found that the presence of one or more microvoids within the junction usually caused tunneling or other high-current mechanisms. Diodes free from microvoids exhibited diffusion-limited behavior down to 150 K, the test set limit. © 2011 TMS (outside the USA).


Stoltz A.J.,U.S. Army | Benson J.D.,U.S. Army | Carmody M.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Farrell S.,U.S. Army | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2011

HgCdTe, because of its narrow band gap and low dark current, is the infrared detector material of choice for several military and commercial applications. CdZnTe is the substrate of choice for HgCdTe as it can be lattice matched, resulting in low-defect-density epitaxy. Being often small and not circular, layers grown on CdZnTe are difficult to process in standard semiconductor equipment. Furthermore, CdZnTe can often be very expensive. Alternative inexpensive large circular substrates, such as silicon or gallium arsenide, are needed to scale production of HgCdTe detectors. Growth of HgCdTe on these alternative substrates has its own difficulty, namely a large lattice mismatch (19% for Si and 14% for GaAs). This large mismatch results in high defect density and reduced detector performance. In this paper we discuss ways to reduce the effects of dislocations by gettering these defects to the edge of a reticulated structure. These reticulated surfaces enable stress-free regions for dislocations to glide to. In the work described herein, HgCdTe-on-Si diodes have been produced with R 0 A 0 of over 400 Ω cm 2 at 78 K and cutoff of 10.1 μm. Further, these diodes have good uniformity at 78 K at both 9.3 μm and 10.14 μm. © 2011 TMS (outside the USA).


Grein C.H.,Episensors, Inc. | Grein C.H.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Flatte M.E.,Episensors, Inc. | Flatte M.E.,University of Iowa | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

Type-II strained layer superlattices (SLSs) offer a broad range of design degrees of freedom to help optimize their properties as absorber layers of infrared photon detectors. We theoretically examine a new class of mid-wavelength infrared (2-5 μm bandpass) Type-II structures with two-layer InGaSb/InPSb and four-layer InAs/GaSb/InAs/InPSb SLS periods. Phosphorous-containing SLSs are a promising approach to improving infrared photon detector performance due to providing a new set of material properties, including favorable valence band offsets. P-based SLSs of four-layer type InAs/GaSb/InAs/InPSb were found to be among the best 5-μm gap SLSs that we have modeled. Among the studied designs, the lowest dark current in an ideal structure is predicted for a four-layer 23.6 Å InAs/20 Å GaSb/23.6 Å InAs/60 Å InP0.62Sb0.38 SLS. Its predicted ideal dark current is about 35 times lower than an n-type HgCdTe-based photodiode absorber and six times lower than a p-type HgCdTe one for the same bandgap, temperature, and dopant concentration. We also discuss a defect mitigation strategy that involves positioning the SLS gap in an energy range that avoids defect levels and show how this applies to the aforementioned P-containing SLS. © 1995-2012 IEEE.


Vurgaftman I.,U.S. Navy | Canedy C.L.,U.S. Navy | Jackson E.M.,U.S. Navy | Nolde J.A.,U.S. Navy | And 6 more authors.
Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

We discuss the current performance of long-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II superlattices, and the projected characteristics for diffusion-limited operation. For optimized architectures such as graded-gap and abrupt-heterojunction designs, the dark currents are strongly dominated by Shockley-Read (SR) rather than Auger processes. A factor of 10 improvement over the demonstrated SR lifetimes would lead to a factor of 4 lower dark current than state-of-the-art HgCdTe devices. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Piquette E.C.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | McLevige W.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Auyeung J.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Wong A.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

We describe progress in the development and demonstration of Teledyne's new high resolution large format FPA for astronomy, the H4RG-10 IR. The H4RG-10 is the latest in Teledyne's H×RG line of sensors, in a 4096×4096 format using 10 micron pixels. It is offered as a hybrid sensor using either a silicon p-i-n detector array (HyViSI) or a HgCdTe photodiode array with standard infrared cutoff wavelength of 1.75μm, 2.5μm, or 5.3μm (with custom cutoff wavelengths also available). The HgCdTe sensor arrays are fully substrate removed to provide high quantum efficiency, response to visible wavelengths, and minimize cosmic ray and fringing mitigation. Packaging using either CE6 or SiC bases is available. Teledyne is currently fabricating H4RG-10 SWIR FPAs for NASA's WFIRST space telescope instrument. Initial array performance has been tested and will be presented. Key results include the demonstration of low dark current (array mean dark current of <0.01e-/s/pixel at 100K), low noise (<10 e-/CDS read noise), and high array operability (>99% pixels). The paper discusses the sensor configuration and features, the performance achieved to date including QE, dark current, noise maps and histograms, and the remaining challenges. © 2014 SPIE.


Hood A.D.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Evans A.J.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Ikhlassi A.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Lee D.L.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors | Tennant W.E.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2010

Strained-layer superlattices (SLS) based on type II InAs/Ga(In)Sb materials are a rapidly maturing technology and are theoretically predicted to exceed the dark-current performance of state-of-the-art HgCdTe. A substantial effort is underway at Teledyne Imaging Sensors in the development of SLS materials for infrared focal-plane arrays. In this paper, we describe state-of-the-art materials, device research and characterization, along with testing results for long-wavelength infrared SLS devices based on double-heterostructure and p+-B-n architectures, having n-on-p and p-on-n polarities, respectively. Detector materials exhibited excellent morphological and crystalline characteristics, and electro-optical characterization demonstrated performance comparable to the state of the art. © 2010 TMS.


Tennant W.E.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2010

"Rule 07" was proposed 2 years ago as a convenient rule of thumb to estimate the dark current density for state-of-the-art planar, ion-implanted, p/n HgCdTe photodiodes fabricated in layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The best reported HgCdTe devices from other laboratories had dark currents no lower than the rule and often higher. In the intervening time we have continued to compare the rule with performance obtained by ourselves and others to see if it stands the test of time. We also examined why it succeeds in approximating the dark current density over the thermal infrared wavebands (>4.6 μm cutoff). It turns out that the rule has held up well, still predicting dark current density values within 0.4× to 2.5× over about 13 orders of magnitude. At least at mid-wavelength infrared-long- wavelength infrared wavelengths, where the dependence is exponential with inverse cutoff and temperature, the behavior can be explained by Auger 1 processes and the diode architecture. This has significant implications for high-operating-temperature devices. Copyright; © 2010 TMS.


Tennant W.E.,Teledyne Imaging Sensors
Progress in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper analyses the electro-optical behavior of simple, near-optimal MWIR HgCdTe photodiodes. These devices operate near fundamental materials limits making them both excellent in quality and ideal for understanding the most basic aspects of infrared photodiode performance. Measurements of representative diodes are explained by models that are simple but still accurate in describing optical and electrical properties. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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