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D'Aria D.,ARESYS | Ferretti A.,Tele Rilevamento Europa TRE | Ferretti A.,TRE Canada Inc. | Guarnieri A.M.,ARESYS | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2010

We propose a calibration method suitable for a set of repeated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquisitions that uses both absolute calibrated devices (such as corner reflectors) and stable targets identified in the scene [the permanent scatterers (PSs)]. Precisely, the role of the PS is to extend the initial calibration sequence by monitoring the radiometric stability of the system throughout the whole mission life span. At a first step, this paper approaches the problem of PS-based normalization by an iterative maximum-likelihood method that exploits the stack of complex interferometric SAR images. Two solutions are given based on different assumptions on the PS phases. As a second step, the merging of these estimates with the available calibration information is discussed. Results achieved by experimental acquisitions are shown in two different SAR systems: 1) a C-band spaceborne SAR and 2) a Ku-band ground-based SAR. © 2009 IEEE.

Rucci A.,Polytechnic of Milan | Vasco D.W.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Novali F.,Tele Rilevamento Europa TRE
Geophysics | Year: 2010

Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based on these changes, we have estimated diffusive traveltimes associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage of the approach based on traveltimes, as opposed to one based on the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. The formulation has been applied to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is found to be approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly spaced images of range change, we have calculated the diffusive traveltimes associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints were incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30% to 40%. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

Frattini P.,University of Milan Bicocca | Crosta G.B.,University of Milan Bicocca | Allievi J.,Tele Rilevamento Europa TRE
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The slow movement of active deep-seated slope gravitational deformations (DSGSDs) and deep-seated rockslides can cause damage to structures and infrastructures. We use Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (PSInSAR™) displacement rate data for the analysis of DSGSD/rockslide activity and kinematics and for the analysis of damage to buildings. We surveyed the degree of damage to buildings directly in the field, and we tried to correlate it with the superficial displacement rate obtained by the PSInSAR™ technique at seven sites. Overall, we observe that the degree of damage increases with increasing displacement rate, but this trend shows a large dispersion that can be due to different causes, including: the uncertainty in the attribution of the degree of damage for buildings presenting wall coatings; the complexity of the deformation for large phenomena with different materials and subjected to differential behavior within the displaced mass; the absence of differential superficial movements in buildings, due to the large size of the investigated phenomena; and the different types of buildings and their position along the slope or relative to landslide portions. © 2013 by the authors.

Ferretti A.,Tele Rilevamento Europa TRE | Fumagalli A.,R and D | Novali F.,R and D | Prati C.,Polytechnic of Milan | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Permanent Scatterer SAR Interferometry (PSInSAR) aims to identify coherent radar targets exhibiting high phase stability over the entire observation time period. These targets often correspond to point-wise, man-made objects widely available over a city, but less present in non-urban areas. To overcome the limits of PSInSAR, analysis of interferometric data-stacks should aim at extracting geophysical parameters not only from point-wise deterministic objects (i.e., PS), but also from distributed scatterers (DS). Rather than developing hybrid processing chains where two or more algorithms are applied to the same data-stack, and results are then combined, in this paper we introduce a new approach, SqueeSAR, to jointly process PS and DS, taking into account their different statistical behavior. As it will be shown, PS and DS can be jointly processed without the need for significant changes to the traditional PSInSAR processing chain and without the need to unwrap hundreds of interferograms, provided that the coherence matrix associated with each DS is properly squeezed to provide a vector of optimum (wrapped) phase values. Results on real SAR data, acquired over an Alpine area, challenging for any InSAR analysis, confirm the effectiveness of this new approach. © 2011 IEEE.

Heleno S.I.N.,University of Lisbon | Oliveira L.G.S.,University of Lisbon | Oliveira L.G.S.,National Laboratory for Civil Engineering | Henriques M.J.,National Laboratory for Civil Engineering | And 7 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2011

Results from the application of Persistent Scatterers Interferometry in Lisbon Metropolitan Area revealed two previously unknown subsiding urban areas: one (Laranjeiras) is located in the center of Lisbon; another (Vialonga) is to be found toward the North, in an industrial region crossed by Lisbon's main highway and railway lines. The two subsiding sectors are bordered by sharp velocity gradients, and the subsidence pattern appears partially delimited by mapped geologic faults. Surface geology and urbanization alone are unable to explain the phenomena. In the Vialonga area, the historical record of water pore pressure shows a clear decline of the levels (up to 65. m in 27. years), providing evidence of over-exploitation of groundwater resources. Limited information from wells drilled inside and outside the subsidence area points to a spatial correlation between the subsidence and the water pressure levels, and suggests that faults could be acting as hydraulic barriers in the aquifer system. The surface subsidence detected is probably caused by compaction of a clay-rich Oligocene-aged aquitard, led by over-exploitation of adjacent aquifers. The same Oligocene aquitard layer is present in the Laranjeiras area, immediately bellow a multi-layered sand-clay-limestone Miocene aquifer, but further work is needed to diagnose the possibility of over-exploitation of groundwater here. In this work we were able to independently confirm the PSI results, by comparing autonomous PSI results processed for the same geographical areas, and by comparing PSI with leveling and continuous GPS derived subsidence velocities, whose close match provided further ground validation of the space-borne PSI technique. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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