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Yoshida C.A.,Nagasaki University | Komori H.,Nagasaki University | Maruyama Z.,Nagasaki University | Maruyama Z.,University of Tokyo | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

RUNX2 and SP7 are essential transcription factors for osteoblast differentiation at an early stage. Although RUNX2 inhibits osteoblast differentiation at a late stage, the function of SP7 at the late stage of osteoblast differentiation is not fully elucidated. Thus, we pursued the function of SP7 in osteoblast differentiation. RUNX2 induced Sp7 expression in Runx2 -/- calvarial cells. Adenoviral transfer of sh-Sp7 into primary osteoblasts reduced the expression of Alpl, Col1a1, and Bglap2 and mineralization, whereas that of Sp7 reduced Bglap2 expression and mineralization at a late stage of osteoblast differentiation. Sp7 transgenic mice under the control of 2.3 kb Col1a1 promoter showed osteopenia and woven-bone like structure in the cortical bone, which was thin and less mineralized, in a dose-dependent manner. Further, the number of processes in the osteoblasts and osteocytes was reduced. Although the osteoblast density was increased, the bone formation was reduced. The frequency of BrdU incorporation was increased in the osteoblastic cells, while the expression of Col1a1, Spp1, Ibsp, and Bglap2 was reduced. Further, the osteopenia in Sp7 or Runx2 transgenic mice was worsened in Sp7/Runx2 double transgenic mice and the expression of Col1a1 and Bglap2 was reduced. The expression of Sp7 and Runx2 was not increased in Runx2 and Sp7 transgenic mice, respectively. The expression of endogenous Sp7 was increased in Sp7 transgenic mice and Sp7-transduced cells; the introduction of Sp7 activated and sh-Sp7 inhibited Sp7 promoter; and ChIP assay showed the binding of endogenous SP7 in the proximal region of Sp7 promoter. These findings suggest that SP7 and RUNX2 inhibit osteoblast differentiation at a late stage in a manner independent of RUNX2 and SP7, respectively, and SP7 positively regulates its own promoter. © 2012 Yoshida et al. Source

Shen X.-L.,Tianjin University | Takimoto-Kamimura M.,Teijin Institute for Biomedical Research | Wei J.,Tianjin University | Gao Q.-Z.,Tianjin University
Journal of Molecular Modeling | Year: 2012

1α,25(OH) 2D 3, which is directly mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), exerts a wide variety of biological actions. However, the treatment with 1α,25(OH) 2D 3 is limited because of its side effects. Many analogs and several nonsteroidal mimics with potent biological activity have been reported so far, and our rationale for designing the VDR agonists was on the basis of computer-aided drug design method by de novo design of A-ring and C/D-ring position of 1α,25(OH) 2D 3. Pyrimidine-2,4-diamine was selected as A-ring, and naphthalene and benzene were chosen as C/D-ring. By linking different components, a virtue compound library was obtained. To evaluate the contribution to activity of each component, we performed a series of automated molecular docking operations. Results revealed that the 19-dimethyl derivatives (the C-19 position correspond to C-20 in 1α,25(OH) 2D 3) show the favorable docking affinity to VDR. Moreover, the docking results are quite robust when further validated by molecular dynamics simulations. In addition, by free energy analysis using molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method, the driving force of the binding between VDR and the ligands is proved to be hydrophobic interactions. Thus, a possible strategy to design new series of VDR agonists is proposed. The strategy can be successfully applied to explain the high potential activities of the 19-dimethyl derivatives. It is anticipated that the findings reported here may provide useful information for designing effective VDR agonists as well as the therapeutic treatment of VDR-related diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Fujino A.,Teijin Institute for Biomedical Research | Fukushima K.,Teijin Institute for Biomedical Research | Namiki N.,Teijin Institute for Biomedical Research | Kosugi T.,Teijin Institute for Biomedical Research | Takimoto-Kamimura M.,Teijin Institute for Biomedical Research
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2010

Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK2) is a Ser/Thr kinase from the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway and plays an important role in inflammatory diseases. The crystal structure of the complex of human MK2 (residues 41-364) with the potent MK2 inhibitor TEI-I01800 (pKi = 6.9) was determined at 2.9 Å resolution. The MK2 structure in the MK2-TEI-I01800 complex is composed of two domains, as observed for other Ser/Thr kinases; however, the Gly-rich loop in the N-terminal domain forms an -helix structure and not a β-sheet. TEI-I01800 binds to the ATP-binding site as well as near the substrate-binding site of MK2. Both TEI - I01800 molecules have a nonplanar conformation that differs from those of other MK2 inhibitors deposited in the Protein Data Bank. The MK2-TEI-I01800 complex structure is the first active MK2 with an -helical Gly-rich loop and TEI - I01800 regulates the secondary structure of the Gly-rich loop. © © 2010 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved. Source

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