Tehran University of Medical science is the largest, "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran. In September 2008, the health minister of Iran called TUMS a pioneer in research throughout the country with a noticeable lead over its counterpart universities.Located in Tehran adjacent to the main University of Tehran campus, it was founded as part of Dar ol-Fonoon, and later absorbed into Tehran University in 1934. It finally separated from Tehran University by parliamentary legislation in 1986, coming under the new Ministry of Health and Medical Education.TUMS is ranked as one of Iran's top research universities, with an annual research budget of over 300 billion Rials from the government. The school trains over 13,000 students in over 80 postgraduate programs. The school operates 15 teaching hospitals, is equipped with over 40 libraries, and publishes 34 journals, some in collaboration with academic societies.The university operates The National Museum of Medical science History as well.TUMS is accredited by Accreditation Service for International Colleges and Universities Wikipedia.
Sobhani Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011
Potential applications of carbon nanotubes have attracted many researchers in the field of drug delivery systems. In this study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were first functionalized using hyperbranched poly citric acid (PCA) to improve their hydrophilicity and functionality. Then, paclitaxel (PTX), a potent anticancer agent, was conjugated to the carboxyl functional groups of poly citric acid via a cleavable ester bond to obtain a MWNT-g-PCA-PTX conjugate. Drug content of the conjugate was about 38% (w/w). The particle size of MWNT-g-PCA and MWNT-g-PCA-PTX was approximately 125 and 200 nm, respectively. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed a curved shape for MWNT-g-PCA and MWNT-g-PCA-PTX, which was in contrast with the straight or linear conformation expected from carbon nanotubes. It seems that the high hydrophilicity of poly citric acid and high hydrophobicity of MWNTs led to conformational changes from a linear state to a curved state. Paclitaxel can be released from the MWNT-g-PCA-PTX conjugates faster at pH 6.8 and 5.0 than at pH 7.4, which was suitable for the release of the drug in tumor tissues and tumor cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies were evaluated in the A549 and SKOV3 cell lines. MWNT-g-PCA had an insignificant cytotoxic effect on both cell lines. MWNT-g-PCA-PTX had more of a cytotoxic effect than the free drug over a shorter incubation time (eg, 24 hours versus 48 hours), which suggests improved cell penetration of MWNT-g-PCA-PTX. Therefore, paclitaxel conjugated to MWNT-g-PCA is promising for cancer therapeutics.
Shirkoohi R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Cancer Science | Year: 2013
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a pathologic phenomenon in cancer, has a twin in the embryonic period of life. In the first one, its promotion will cause metastasis to become a life-threatening stage of cancer, while in the second it will lead to organogenesis, which is necessary for all living creatures. There is one more from this phenomenon, which occurs during the wound healing process and if dys-regulated can lead to fibrosis. In both there are stimulants in common and one that are different. Stages start from cell-cell junction dissociation followed by morphological changes and behavioral and essence alterations. To control the EMT as a bizarre disturbance in cancer and metastasis, initially it is better to understand the wonder of natural gestational orchestration in early life. In this review, first the structure of the two heads of the spectrum is described followed by the cellular and micro-environmental alterations during this phenomenon. Understanding cellular behavior in this process and what makes them invasive resistant stemness cells will be of great importance in highlighting roads to cancer treatment. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.
Mogharabi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Faramarzi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2014
Laccase, a blue multicopper oxidase, has recently received considerable attention because of its usefulness in oxidizing phenolic and non-phenolic compounds, as well as its suitability for organic synthesis, environmental pollutant treatment, and other biotechnological applications. This review covers recent studies on the structural properties, occurrence, reaction mechnisms, redox mediators of laccases and their application in organic synthesis procedures, such as dimerization, polymerization, oxidation, and amination. We also present a brief discussion on laccase activity in non-aqueous media. Given that the development of green protocols for the synthesis of pure compounds is one of the main goals of sustainable chemistry, the exploitation of laccases is expected to remain one of the most popular directions in future biocatalysis research. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mahdavi-Mazdeh M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Kidney International | Year: 2012
Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the Achilles heel of the model. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology.
Jabbarvand M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
American journal of ophthalmology | Year: 2013
To evaluate the effect of mechanical implantation of a continuous intrastromal ring in keratoconus. Prospective, interventional, nonrandomized, case series. The MyoRing (Dioptex GmbH) was implanted after creation of an intrastromal pocket for 95 eyes of 95 patients with moderate and advanced keratoconus. All patients had at least 12 months of follow-up. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, keratometry, aberrometry, and refraction were the main outcome measures of the study. A significant improvement in uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity was observed 1 month after surgery, which was consistent with the significant reduction in sphere (5.74 diopters [D]) and cylinder (3.02 D). No significant changes were detected in these parameters afterward. Furthermore, a significant corneal flattening of a mean value of 9.78 D was found. Both spherical myopia and astigmatism underwent reduction, but the reduction in myopia was more remarkable than astigmatism. Higher-order aberrations and coma-like aberrations decreased significantly, but spherical aberrations increased after surgery. No significant change in central corneal thickness was observed at any point after operation. There were no significant differences between 2 keratometry groups (higher or lower than 53 D) in visual gain after the procedure. There were no major complications during or after surgery. MyoRing explantation was performed in 4 eyes (4%). The refraction, visual acuity, and corneal topography returned to the preoperative status 1 month later for all 4 eyes. MyoRing implantation has an acceptable efficacy profile in moderate and advanced keratoconus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonab M.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Current stem cell research & therapy | Year: 2012
Despite updating knowledge and a growing number of medications for multiple sclerosis (MS), no definite treatment is available yet for patients suffering from progressive forms of the disease. Autologous bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation is a promising method proposed as a therapy for MS. Although the safety of these cells has been confirmed in hematological, cardiac and inflammatory diseases, its efficacy in MS treatment is still under study. Patients with progressive MS (expanded disability status scale score: 4.0 -6.50) unresponsive to conventional treatments were recruited for this study. Twenty-five patients [f/m: 19/6, mean age: 34.7±7] received a single intrathecal injection of ex-vivo expanded MSCs (mean dose: 29.5×10(6) cells). We observed their therapeutic response for 12 months. Associated short-term adverse events of injection consisted of transient low-grade fever, nausea /vomiting, weakness in the lower limbs and headache. No major delayed adverse effect was reported. 3 patients left the study for personal reasons. The mean (SD) expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score of 22 patients changed from 6.1 (0.6) to 6.3 (0.4). Clinical course of the disease (measured by EDSS) improved in 4, deteriorated in 6 and had no change in 12 patients. In MRI evaluation, 15 patients showed no change, whereas 6 patients showed new T2 or gadolinium enhanced lesions (1 lost to follow-up). It seems that MSC therapy can improve/stabilize the course of the disease in progressive MS in the first year after injection with no serious adverse effects. Repeating the study with a larger sample size, booster injections and longer follow-up using a controlled study design is advised.
Dinarvand R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011
The effectiveness of anticancer agents may be hindered by low solubility in water, poor permeability, and high efflux from cells. Nanomaterials have been used to enable drug delivery with lower toxicity to healthy cells and enhanced drug delivery to tumor cells. Different nanoparticles have been developed using different polymers with or without surface modification to target tumor cells both passively and/or actively. Polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a biodegradable polyester approved for human use, has been used extensively. Here we report on recent developments concerning PLGA nanoparticles prepared for cancer treatment. We review the methods used for the preparation and characterization of PLGA nanoparticles and their applications in the delivery of a number of active agents. Increasing experience in the field of preparation, characterization, and in vivo application of PLGA nanoparticles has provided the necessary momentum for promising future use of these agents in cancer treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side effects.
Ai J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011
Nanotechnology has wide applications in many fields, especially in the biological sciences and medicine. Nanomaterials are applied as coating materials or in treatment and diagnosis. Nanoparticles such as titania, zirconia, silver, diamonds, iron oxides, carbon nanotubes, and biodegradable polymers have been studied in diagnosis and treatment. Many of these nanoparticles may have toxic effects on cells. Many factors such as size, inherent properties, and surface chemistry may cause nanoparticle toxicity. There are methods for improving the performance and reducing toxicity of nanoparticles in medical design, such as biocompatible coating materials or biodegradable/biocompatible nanoparticles. Most metal oxide nanoparticles show toxic effects, but no toxic effects have been observed with biocompatible coatings. Biodegradable nanoparticles are also used in the efficient design of medical materials, which will be reviewed in this article.
Mohebali M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distribut- ed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasi- tological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and geno type/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers≥1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (≥ 1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized pa tients with DAT positive (≥1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers≥1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild ca nines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologic ally positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an ap propriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero- epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines.
Abdollahi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology | Year: 2015
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic chronic, relapsing inflammation of the bowel which is caused by dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Polyphenols as the secondary plant metabolites universally present in vegetables and fruits and are the most abundant antioxidants in the human diet. There is evidence demonstrating the beneficial health effects of dietary polyphenols. This review criticizes the potential of commonly used polyphenols including apple polyphenol, bilberry anthocyanin, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols, naringenin, olive oil polyphenols, pomegranate polyphenols and ellagic acid, quercetin, as well as resveratrol specifically in IBD with an emphasis on cellular mechanisms and pharmaceutical aspects. Scientific research confirmed that dietary polyphenols possess both protective and therapeutic effects in the management of IBD mediated via down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, enhancing antioxidant defense, and suppressing inflammatory pathways and their cellular signaling mechanisms. Further preclinical and clinical studies are needed in order to understand safety, bioavailability and bioefficacy of dietary polyphenols in IBD patients.