Tehran, Iran

Tehran University of Medical science is the largest, "most distinguished", and most highly ranked medical school of Iran. In September 2008, the health minister of Iran called TUMS a pioneer in research throughout the country with a noticeable lead over its counterpart universities.Located in Tehran adjacent to the main University of Tehran campus, it was founded as part of Dar ol-Fonoon, and later absorbed into Tehran University in 1934. It finally separated from Tehran University by parliamentary legislation in 1986, coming under the new Ministry of Health and Medical Education.TUMS is ranked as one of Iran's top research universities, with an annual research budget of over 300 billion Rials from the government. The school trains over 13,000 students in over 80 postgraduate programs. The school operates 15 teaching hospitals, is equipped with over 40 libraries, and publishes 34 journals, some in collaboration with academic societies.The university operates The National Museum of Medical science History as well.TUMS is accredited by Accreditation Service for International Colleges and Universities Wikipedia.

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Moradi L.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Vasei M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Dehghan M.M.,University of Tehran | Majidi M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2017

The meniscus has poor intrinsic regenerative capacity and its damage inevitably leads to articular cartilage degeneration. We focused on evaluating the effects of Polyvinyl alcohol/Chitosan (PVA/Ch) scaffold seeded by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) and articular chondrocytes (AC) in meniscus regeneration. The PVA/Ch scaffolds with different molar contents of Ch (Ch1, Ch2, Ch4 and Ch8) were cross-linked by pre-polyurethane chains. By increasing amount of Ch tensile modulus was increased from 83.51 MPa for Ch1 to 110 MPa for Ch8 while toughness showed decrease from 0.33 mJ/mm3 in Ch1 to 0.11 mJ/mm3 in Ch8 constructs. Moreover, swelling ratio and degradation rate increased with an increase in Ch amount. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was performed for pore size measurement and cell attachment. At day 21, Ch4 construct seeded by AC showed the highest expression with 24.3 and 22.64 folds increase in collagen II and aggrecan (p ≤ 0.05), respectively. Since, the mechanical properties, water uptake and degradation rate of Ch4 and Ch8 compositions had no statistically significant differences, Ch4 was selected for in vivo study. New Zealand rabbits were underwent unilateral total medial meniscectomy and AC/scaffold, ASC/scaffold, AC-ASC (co-culture)/scaffold and cell-free scaffold were engrafted. At 7 months post-implantation, macroscopic, histologic, and immunofluorescent studies for regenerated meniscus revealed better results in AC/scaffold group followed by AC-ASC/scaffold and ASC/scaffold groups. In the cell-free scaffold group, there was no obvious meniscus regeneration. Articular cartilages were best preserved in AC/scaffold group. The best histological score was observed in AC/scaffold group. Our results support that Ch4 scaffold seeded by AC alone can successfully regenerate meniscus in tearing injury and ASC has no significant contribution in the healing process. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Sen T.,University of Central Lancashire | Polshettiwar V.,Tata Institute of Fundamental Research | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mahmoudi M.,Harvard University
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2017

The contributors to this special issue are from early carrier researchers to experts in their relative areas from across the world and represent a current and up to date research overview on functional nanomaterials in energy / environmental for a better society and nano-catalysis for green technology. The topics were the two important themes in our 1st International symposium entitled Functional Nanomaterials in Industrial Applications: Academic - Industry Meet (29-31 March 2016), University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom. A special focus issue on theme 2 (Nanomedicine for Health and Diagnostics) will be published in the journal "Nanomedicine" by Future Medicine in November 2016. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aghabiklooei A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sangsefidi J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2017

Aim: Acute intentional benzodiazepine poisoning is marked by a significant loss of consciousness, aspiration pneumonia, and increased rates of mortality and morbidity, especially in older patients with underlying heart or lung disease. These patients may need flumazenil to reverse the respiratory effects of benzodiazepines. The positive effects of aminophylline on respiration and neonatal apnea improvement have been shown previously. However, its possible effects on increasing the level of consciousness have never been evaluated. Methods: In a placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effectiveness of aminophylline on increasing the level of consciousness. Results: Time to full awakening was significantly shorter in those who received aminophylline (72 min vs. 881 min, p = 0.001), compared to those who received a placebo. Conclusion: When "flumazenil" is contraindicated or unavailable, intravenous aminophylline can be used as a second choice. © The Author(s) 2016.

Akil H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Falavarjani K.G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Falavarjani K.G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sadda S.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Sadun A.A.,University of California at Los Angeles
Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research | Year: 2017

Different diseases of the optic disc may be caused by or lead to abnormal vasculature at the optic nerve head. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel technology that provides high resolution mapping of the retinal and optic disc vessels. Recent studies have shown the ability of OCTA to visualize vascular abnormalities in different optic neuropathies. In addition, quantified OCTA measurements were found promising for differentiating optic neuropathies from healthy eyes.

Rashighi M.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Rashighi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Harris J.E.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Dermatologic Clinics | Year: 2017

The pathogenesis of vitiligo involves interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic melanocyte defects, innate immune inflammation, and T-cell–mediated melanocyte destruction. The goal of treatment is to not only halt disease progression but also promote repigmentation through melanocyte regeneration, proliferation, and migration. Treatment strategies that address all aspects of disease pathogenesis and repigmentation are likely to have greatest efficacy, a strategy that may require combination therapies. Current treatments generally involve nontargeted suppression of autoimmunity, whereas emerging treatments are likely to use a more targeted approach based on in-depth understanding of disease pathogenesis, which may provide higher efficacy with a good safety profile. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Kianmehr E.,University of Tehran | Pakbaznia A.,University of Tehran | Faghih N.,University of Tehran | Foroumadi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tetrahedron | Year: 2017

A straightforward acylaltion of pyridine derivatives has been developed using K2S2O8 as the oxidant and water as a green solvent. The corresponding 2-acylpyridines were synthesized with high chemo- and regioselectivity in good to high yields. This efficient and practical method could serve as a new tool for the convenient synthesis of 2-benzoylpyridines of interest for future pharmaceutical and chemical applications. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Tabatabaei S.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Retina | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:: To report 30 patients with bird attack–related eye injuries. METHODS:: This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. RESULTS:: Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. CONCLUSION:: The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes. © 2017 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.

Fakhri A.,Kashan University of Medical Sciences | Harris P.,University of Sydney | Maleki M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Public Health Policy | Year: 2016

For others wishing to develop Health Impact Assessment (HIA) guides (manuals) and to adjust them to conditions in their countries, we draw lessons from developing an HIA guide in Iran. We derive the lessons from our research comparing HIA guides found in the international literature and our experiences in adapting international experience to an HIA model for Iran that incorporates Iranian experts' opinions. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Mazloum V.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Sobhani V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services | Year: 2017

Background and Objective: Posterolateral hip musculature weakness and impaired knee joint proprioception can be seen in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of this study was to investigate core muscle strength and dynamic balance in such patients and to compare them with healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two individuals (Mean ± SD: Age 25.3±3.9 yrs.; Height 178.6±8.7 cm; Weight 82.4±8.9 kg); including 16 patients with PFPS and 16 healthy persons entered in our study. Bent knee lowering test and Y balance test were utilized to evaluate core muscle strength and dynamic balance. To analyze the data, Independent Samples t Test was used. Results: The average core muscle strength was significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to the patients with PFPS (P<0.01); however, despite the better dynamic balance scores in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions in healthy individuals compared to the patients, this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Compared to healthy controls, core muscle strength was weakened in patients with PFPS. There was no difference in dynamic balance between such patients and healthy individuals. © 2017, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. All rights reserved.

Mohsen O.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Fereshteh N.,University of Applied Science and Technology of Iran
Safety Science | Year: 2017

Process equipment failures (PEFs) are recognized as one of the leading causes of process accidents. Failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) as a risk assessment technique, has widely been used in a variety of process industries. The conventional form of FMEA uses three parameters of severity (S), occurrence (O), and detection (D) as risk factors to calculate a risk priority number (R.P.N) and rank the failure modes based on this number. But several shortcomings associated with the FMEA have limited its applicability. This study aims at the development of an extension of FMEA that could efficiently handle the vagueness and uncertainty exists in the experts’ judgments in process of failure modes ranking in conventional FMEA. In this paper we used the concept of the Z number to capture the inherent uncertainty exists in the experts’ judgments. In addition, we used Shannon entropy concept to deploy objective weights to adjust subjective weights assigned by experts. Furthermore, the fuzzy VIKOR technique applied to rank and prioritize the failure modes based on the minimum individual regret and the maxi group utility. A numerical example is presented to illustrate an application of the proposed method in a geothermal power plant (GPP). Results are also compared with the conventional FMEA. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to validate the obtained results. Findings indicate that the application of the proposed approach (subjective-objective ranking) in fuzzy environment can improve the applicability of the conventional FMEA method. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Rezaei S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shahverdi A.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Faramarzi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2017

The aim of the present work was to study the ability of a halophilic bacterial laccase to efficient delignification in extreme conditions. Here, a highly stable extracellular laccase showing ligninolytic activity from halophilic Aquisalibacillus elongatus is described. The laccase production was strongly influenced by NaCl and CuSO4 and under optimal conditions reached 4.8 U mL−1. The monomeric enzyme of 75 kDa was purified by a synthetic affinity column with 68.2% yield and 99.8-fold purification. The enzyme showed some valuable features viz. stability against a wide range of organic solvents, salts, metals, inhibitors, and surfactants and specificity to a wide spectrum of substrates diverse in structure and redox potential. It retained more than 50% of the original activity at 25–75 °C and pH 5.0–10.0. Furthermore, the enzyme was found to be effective in the delignification of sugar beet pulp in an ionic liquid that makes it useful for industrial applications. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Tahereh J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mahin A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mojtaba R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2017

Low-fat Mozzarella with 6% fat was produced by using fat replacers at three levels of protein concentrations including 35% (Dairy-Lo), 53% (Simpless) and 90% (LSI907). The effects of fat substitution and cream homogenization on rheological and sensory properties of cheese were investigated after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of storage at 4C. Data showed that meltability and stretchability increased on 14th day, then reduced while hardness decreased on 28th day of storage. It was quite obvious that the lowest moisture content was belonged to full-fat cheese and the highest one was belonged to low-fat cheese which was produced by homogenized cream. Results showed that addition of fat replacers, rather than the actual properties of fat, probably had the greatest influence on the composition, rheological and sensory properties of low fat Mozzarella. Except stretchability, homogenization had a favorable effect on rheological properties. Practical Aplications: Due to increasing rate of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and especially obesity, it has become more important to reduce dietary intake. But cheese is a good source of protein and calcium. So by reducing in fat content of cheese, it could be easier to access healthier food without any concern about high calorie intake. Whey protein fat replacer has known as an appropriate substitute for fat in low fat Mozzarella. It could be possible to reduce fat content of Mozzarella without undesirable rheological and sensory properties besides protein and calcium intake by whey protein concentrate substitution. It could be better to use promoting technique such as homogenization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Saghazadeh A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Saghazadeh A.,Universal Scientific Education and Research Network | Rezaei N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rezaei N.,Universal Scientific Education and Research Network
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets | Year: 2017

Introduction: The potential roles of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in immunopathogenesis of Ebola virus disease should be unraveled to provoke possible prophylactic or therapeutic implications of TLRs for EVD. Areas covered: The Ebola virus (EBOV) infection virtually paralyses all the main mechanisms responsible for induction of type I interferon (IFN-I) response. To summarize, EBOV infection interferes with: a) the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) pathway that is mediated by TLR3 and TLR4 signaling; b) the interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) pathway that is stimulated by TLR7 and TLR9; c) the intracellular signaling that is induced by retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs); and d) the autocrine/paracrine feedback loop that is mediated by the IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex. Upon infection with EBOV infection, TLR4 plays a key role in production of proinflammatory mediators. Expert opinion: It is theoretically possible that use of TLRs 3, 4, 7, and 9 agonists would be beneficial to improve the IFN-I response, despite their systemic side effects. Also, antagonist of TLR4 can be utilized to prevent production of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, it is highly recommended to design future investigations aimed at determining if the utilization of IFN-I would be beneficial for prophylactic/therapeutic programs of Ebola. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Mohammadrezaei N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Seyedhosseini J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Vahidi E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
American Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2017

Background: Tendon ruptures are common musculoskeletal injuries all around the world. Correct and timely diagnosis of tendon injuries is obviously important for improving the treatment and minimizing the community costs. Ultrasound is now being considered as one of useful modalities in this area. Objective: The preset study is going to validate the diagnostic ability of ultrasound in tendon injuries induced by penetrating extremity trauma. Methods: In this prospective, observational study, patients with penetrating extremity trauma and suspicion of tendon injuries were enrolled in our study. A team of emergency medicine (EM) residents performed ultrasound examination in these cases after attending the specific workshop and acquiring necessary skills in normal and abnormal tendon ultrasound examination. Then another team of either EM or orthopedic residents explored patients' wounds and determined intact or injured tendons under direct visual observation. The results were analyzed to validate sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound as an alternative diagnostic test. Results: Seventy-one patients were enrolled in our study and 11 patients were excluded during one year in 2014. Sixty patients, 11 with lower extremity and 49 with upper limb injuries were evaluated, among them 32 patients had extensor zone and 28 patients had flexure zone injuries. The overall sensitivity and specificity were calculated 94.4% (95% CI 72.7-99.8%) and 100% (95% 91.5-100.0%) respectively. Conclusions: Our results were similar to previous findings. Ultrasound can effectively differentiate injured from intact tendons in penetrating extremity trauma. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Noudoost B.,Montana State University | Nategh N.,Montana State University | Clark K.,Montana State University | Esteky H.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Esteky H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2017

One goal of our nervous system is to form predictions about the world around us to facilitate our responses to upcoming events. One basis for such predictions could be the recently encountered visual stimuli, or the recent statistics of the visual environment. We examined the effect of recently experienced stimulus statistics on the visual representation of face stimuli by recording the responses of face-responsive neurons in the final stage of visual object recognition, the inferotemporal (IT) cortex, during blocks in which the probability of seeing a particular face was either 100% or only 12%. During the block with only face images, 30% of IT neurons exhibit enhanced anticipatory activity before the evoked visual response. This anticipatory modulation is followed by greater activity, broader view tuning, more distributed processing, and more reliable responses of IT neurons to the face stimuli. These changes in the visual response were sufficient to improve the ability of IT neurons to represent a variable property of the predictable face images (viewing angle), as measured by the performance of a simple linear classifier. These results demonstrate that the recent statistics of the visual environment can facilitate processing of stimulus information in the population neuronal representation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Neurons in inferotemporal (IT) cortex anticipate the arrival of a predictable stimulus, and visual responses to an expected stimulus are more distributed throughout the population of IT neurons, providing an enhanced representation of second-order stimulus information (in this case, viewing angle). The findings reveal a potential neural basis for the behavioral benefits of contextual expectation. © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

Akrami S.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Pediatric Genetics | Year: 2012

Consanguineous marriage, marriage between close biological kin, especially that between first cousins, is socially favored in some parts of North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. An increased rate of congenital anomalies and autosomal recessive disorders are significantly associated with such practice. In such communities, misunderstanding and external attempts to discourage such marriage without proper genetic counseling seem to be inappropriate and unsuccessful. Update in knowledge of clinicians especially pediatricians is the aim of this paper regarding importance and issues behind consanguineous marriage. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors.

Hashemi S.M.R.,Firoozgar Hospital | Mahmoodi R.,Firoozgar Hospital | Amirjamshidi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Surgical Neurology International | Year: 2013

Background: It is not well known whether the distributions of variations of circle of Willis (CW) are different in different populations. Previous studies have indicated: (a) The variations of the structure of the CW in different populations and ethnic and (b) some correlation between those congenital anatomical variations and possible cerebrovascular diseases. The frequency of such anatomical variations has not been evaluated sufficiently in the Iranian population. The aim of this study is to find the variations of the anatomy of the vessels in the CW in sample population of Iranian people and compare it with other available studies in the literature, providing a new grouping for variations. Methods: Samples were obtained from 200 autopsies in different ages, all retrieved in the department of Forensic Medicine, Tehran university of Medical Sciences after achieving permission from the Department of Ethics and Medico-legal Sciences. The CW was examined directly, using magnification, at the base of the brain. The cerebral vessels were observed for their configuration and their calibers were measured directly. Variations were noted and grouped into different categories. Results: Out of the 200 specimens examined, 69 (34.5%) were compatible with the typical anatomy of the CW. In the remaining 65.5% of the specimens, there were variations in the CW. Hypoplasia of the posterior communicating arteries was the most common variation in our study. One of the autopsies showed the presence of an aneurysm (0.5%). Conclusion: The anatomical variations found in our study were not significantly different from those reported in the literature. Based on the available data; (a) there is no evidence that the distribution of the variations of the anatomy of the CW is different in various societies and (b) the prevalence of the congenital aneurysmal changes in this region is not low in the Iranian population. © 2013 Hashemi SMR.

Samaei-Daryan S.,University of Tehran | Goliaei B.,University of Tehran | Ebrahim-Habibi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Molecular Recognition | Year: 2017

Structural properties of carbohydrate surface binding sites (SBSs) were investigated with computational methods. Eighty-five SBSs of 44 enzymes in 119 Protein Data Bank (PDB) files were collected as a dataset. On the basis of SBSs shape, they were divided into 3 categories: flat surfaces, clefts, and cavities (types A, B, and C, respectively). Ligand varieties showed the correlation between shape of SBSs and ligands size. To reduce cut-off differences in each SBSs with different ligand size, molecular docking were performed. Molecular docking results were used to refine SBSs classification and binding sites cut-off. Docking results predicted putative ligands positions and displayed dependence of the ligands binding mode to the structural type of SBSs. Physicochemical properties of SBSs were calculated for all docking results with YASARA Structure. The results showed that all SBSs are hydrophilic, while their charges could vary and depended to ligand size and defined cut-off. Surface binding sites type B had highest average values of solvent accessible surface area. Analysis of interactions showed that hydrophobic interactions occur more than hydrogen bonds, which is related to the presence of aromatic residues and carbohydrates interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Azadi B.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education | Mojab F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants | Year: 2017

The essential oil composition of flowering aerial parts of Centaurea imperialis Hausskn. ex Bornm. (Asteraceae) from Iran was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the first time. Thirty seven constituents constituting 88.6% of the total oil were detected. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons had the highest contribution. The main compounds were caryophyllene oxide (23.2%), germacrene D (19.7%) and β-caryophyllene (14.1%). © 2017 Har Krishan Bhalla & Sons

Karami E.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Sobati M.A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Khodaei B.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Abdi K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2017

In the present work, the ultrasound-assisted oxidation of benzothiophene (BT) in toluene as model light fuel oil has been studied. Hydrogen peroxide-formic acid oxidation system was used. Response surface methodology, Box-Behnken design, has been applied to study the influences of various operating parameters of the ultrasound-assisted oxidation process. In the present study, the effects of hydrogen peroxide to sulfur molar ratio (10–50), formic acid to sulfur molar ratio (150–400), oxidation temperature (40–70 °C) on the benzothiophene (BT) conversion were investigated. A valid quadratic correlation was obtained for the prediction of BT conversion. The effects of sonication time and ultrasound power on the BT conversion have been also studied separately. More than 98% sulfur conversion has been achieved under the following conditions (i.e., hydrogen peroxide to sulfur molar ratio of 10.82, formic acid to sulfur molar ratio of 379.75, temperature of 52 °C, sonication time of 15 min, and ultrasound power of 70 W). It was also found that the BT oxidation reaction can be represented by pseudo-first order kinetic model. The performance of the present UAOD process was also examined for the kerosene feedstock and the obtained results (i.e., over 95% sulfur removal) were satisfactory. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Samiei E.F.,Payame Noor University | Boojar M.M.A.,Kharazmi University | Moradi-Sardareh H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry | Year: 2017

Objective: Colony stimulating factors (CSFs) are endogenous cytokines that have key roles in proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and in regulation of mature blood cells performance. The CSFs families members are widely used for therapeutic purposes in many field include microbial infections, in cancer chemotherapy, alzheimer disease, hematopoiesis process, and for some neutropenia- related pathologies. Crown ethers are chemical compounds with therapeutic application that can affect the colony formation in vitro. The primary objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of TDN (novel crown ether) on colony formation of red bone marrow cells in incubation with lung tissues cells. Method: In this study, bone marrow cells and lung tissue cells of Balb/C were used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells and a source to production colony-stimulating factors, respectively. These cells were incubated with TDN separately and together. Results: Briefly, the results of this study show that the effects of TDN has excitatory in concentrations lower than 50 µg/ml on colony formation and greater than 50 µg/ml is toxic to cells and it was inhibited the colony formation. Maximum stimulatory and inhibitory effects are shown in 50 and 400 µg/ml of crown ether and no colony was observed in the latter concentration. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that TDN significantly able to stimulate the colon formation while increased concentrations of TDN is inhibited colony formation by induction toxic effects due to excessive production of free radicals. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sarzaeem M.M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Jabalameli M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Jabalameli M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery | Year: 2017

Background: This is to assess one of the rare complications after total knee replacement and to assess risk factors of failure. Methods: 11 patients with varus knee and an average age of 67 years underwent TKA between 2005 and 2013. All patients returned with a sudden sharp knee pain, disability to walk and significant decrease in ROM about 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Radiographic examination revealed a lateral femoral condylar stress fracture. Results: After analyzing the images, we found common characteristics among all patients, which might be attributable to the later fracture including varus deformity>25, femoral component lateralization, and valgus correction. Conclusion: Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors to consider before, during, and after surgery.

Mollazadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Eslami M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Tehran University Heart Center | Year: 2017

A 29-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to exacerbation in dyspnea on exertion and easy fatigability. A known case of congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels and congenital complete heart block, she had already received a permanent single-chamber pacemaker. Decision was made to implant a biventricular pacemaker for the treatment of the failing heart. Excellent coronary sinus lead implantation was done, conferring amelioration of symptoms, QRS narrowing in the electrocardiogram, and improvement of systemic ventricular systolic function in echocardiography. Over a 15-month follow-up period, she had no dyspnea on exertion. This case highlights the significance of upgrading pacemakers in patients with heart failure. © 2017, Tehran Heart Center. All rights reserved.

Bialvaei A.Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rahbar M.,Iranian Reference Health Laboratory | Yousefi M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Asgharzadeh M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Kafil H.S.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2017

Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antimicrobial agent that acts by inhibiting protein synthesis in a unique fashion, is used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft-tissue infections and other infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria including VRE and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Currently, linezolid resistance among these pathogens remains low, commonly <1.0%, although the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing in many countries. Therefore, the development of resistance by clinical isolates should prompt increased attention of clinical laboratories to routinely perform linezolid susceptibility testing for this important agent and should be taken into account when considering its therapeutic use. Considering the importance of linezolid in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, this review was undertaken to optimize the clinical use of this antibiotic. © The Author 2016.

Keyvanara M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Kalantari E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Isfahan Medical School | Year: 2017

Background: Self-immolation is among the most damaging types of injuries from burns, causes serious physical injuries and has psychological and economic effects on the person and his or her family. This study assessed the epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized in Imam Musa Kazim hospital, Isfahan, Iran, due to selfimmolation during a 5-years period. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, all records of the patients hospitalized due to selfimmolation during the years 2010-2014 were assessed. Then, information such as age, sex, marital status, employment, etc. was extracted by using a researcher-made checklist. The data were analyzed using SPSS software in both descriptive and analytic aspects. Findings: Out of 450 participants, who had self-immolation during the studied 5 years, 373 patients (82.9%) were women and 77 patients (17.1%) were men. 366 patients (74.7%) were married and 114 (25.3%) were single. Most of the studied patients (68.4%) were in the age category of 20-39 years old. 74.0 percent of the patients were housewives. Self-immolation was more prevalent in spring than in other seasons. About half of the patients (49.1%) died of self-immolation. The hospitalization duration of 10 to 15 days and the burning level of 31 to 70 percent (32.2% and 47.5%, respectively) were more prevalent. Conclusion: According to the results of this study and most of the similar studies, housewife married women in the age category of 20-29 years, are subject to eliminate their lives via self-immolation more than any other people. © 2017, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences(IUMS). All rights reserved.

Shirani F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Soltany-Bajestani F.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
Tehran University Medical Journal | Year: 2017

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease presenting with inflammation, tenderness and destruction of the synovial joints, resulting in severe disability and early death due to complication of disease. Previous diagnostic criteria are not useful for identifying patients who need early treatment. Thus, new diagnostic criteria for faster diagnosis of disease are introduced in 2010. The aim of this study was to compared 1987 ACR (American College of Rheumatology) criteria and 2010 ACR/EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) classification criteria for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: In this Cohort prospective study, patients with early arthritis were evaluated according to the old and new diagnostic criteria and followed-up every two monthly for one year (2012-2013) in Hazrat-e Rasool University Hospital, Tehran. Inclusion criteria of this study were age more than 18 year and indefinite diagnosis of arthritis. For all of patients physical examination by expert rheumatologist was done and lab data include erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (Anti-CCP) and rheumatoid factor was requested. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were then determined for each diagnostic criteria. Results: In this study 104 patients including 28 males (26.9%) and 76 females (73.1%) with the mean age of 44.2±13.7 years were included. At the end of one year follow-up, 82 were diagnosed to have RA while other 22 patients were not categorized as RA. Sensitivity for ESR, CRP, Anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor in 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria was 52%, 19%, 48%, 28% and specificity for them was 45%, 71%, 27%, 79% respectively. Number of small and large joint arthritis were more in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) rather than other arthritis (P=0.0001). Sensitivity and specificity for small joints involvement was 87% and 54% and for large joints involvement was 81% and 59%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria were 65%, 40%, 81%, and 23%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for 1987 ACR criteria were 51%, 62%, 83%, and 25% respectively. Conclusion: In comparison to the old diagnostic criteria, the new one has higher sensitivity and lower specificity. © 2017, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Azmoudeh-Ardalan F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Soleimani V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jahanbin B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Experimental and Clinical Transplantation | Year: 2017

Dicrocoelium dentriticum, a member of trematode type helminths, is a liver parasite of ruminants. Humans are infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate host, through infected ants via eating of raw vegetables or drinking of contaminated water. Infection is often asymptomatic or results in subtle symptoms; therefore, infections are usually unrecognized. However, it can produce chronic cholangitis and swelling or adenomatous proliferation in the bile ducts and lead to abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, jaundice, and other symptoms. We report a 49-year-old female patient with end-stage hepatic cirrhosis from viral hepatitis B and D coinfection who underwent liver transplant. Shortly after transplant, she developed symptoms suggesting an obstructed biliary duct. Liver needle biopsy was done 24 hours after transplant to rule out rejection. Biopsy of her explanted liver was also examined pathologically. Microscopic examination of the liver needle biopsy ruled out rejection. Prepared sections of explanted liver revealed a helminth in the common bile duct. Morphologic reconstruction of helminth by microscopic findings and consultation with an expert parasitologist supported the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dentriticum. © Başkent University 2017 Printed in Turkey. All Rights Reserved.

Anushiravani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Masoompour S.M.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2017

Patient care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is complex and expensive, serving to provide optimal outcome as well as the adequate use of resources. Our objective was to determine variables associated with admission practices, processes of care, and clinical outcomes for critically ill patients. Admission records of a 10-bed ICU were gathered during a 5-year period. Variables such as average length of stay, bed turnover, bed occupancy rate, and turnover interval were evaluated. Of the 1719 patients evaluated, 54% were men. Mortality was highest between 10 pm and 2 am. There was no significant difference in ICU mortality during different days of the week. We showed that nonoffice hour admissions were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes, and significant differences in ICU mortality and ICU length of stay were not seen. Moreover, hospital mortality rates were not significantly higher for patients admitted to our ICU on weekends, at nights, or any day of the week. © 2017 Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine.

Etemad-Moghadam S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Alaeddini M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research | Year: 2017

Background Expression of various cellular/molecular factors change during the course of tumor formation from odontogenic tissues of the tooth germ. Evaluation of these factors can help provide a better perception of the tumorigenesis and biologic behavior of odontogenic tumors (OTs). Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan which has not been extensively investigated in these lesions. The objective of the present study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of CD138 in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), ameloblastic fibroma (AF) and odontogenic myxoma (OM) and to compare it with ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Method A total of 58 OTs consisting of 7 AOTs, 5 OMs, 7 AFs, 29 KCOTs and 10 ameloblastomas were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibody against syndecan-1 and the percentage and intensity of the immunostained cells was assessed. Kruskal–Wallis test followed by Bonferroni analysis was used for comparisons (P < 0.05). Results Syndecan-1 was expressed in all samples except for OMs. Both percentage and intensity of syndecan-1 expression were statistically different among the studied OTs (P < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed significant difference only between OMs and each of the other tumors. Conclusion Syndecan-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AOT, AF, KCOT and ameloblastoma. However, considering the different behaviors of these tumors along with their similar expression of syndecan-1, it seems that its effect on clinical aggressiveness is limited. The significance of negative immunoexpression of this protein in OM requires further investigation. © 2016

Saremi H.,Research performed at Besat Hospital | Saremi H.,Hamedan University of Medical science | Karbalaeikhani A.,Research performed at Besat Hospital | Karbalaeikhani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery | Year: 2017

Recurrent dislocation is not common in small joints. This report presents a recurrent dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the ring finger in a 23 years old man. Recurrent dislocation was addressed successfully by repairing the avulsed volar plate to the base of the middle phalanx, followed by 6 weeks of splint immobilization.

Esfandiarpour-Boroujeni S.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Bagheri-Khoulenjani S.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Mirzadeh H.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Amanpour S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2017

Purpose of this article is developing novel, inexpensive curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles with targeting ability. Curcumin loaded folate-modified-chitosan-nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized and fabricated via self-assembling process. Chemical structures of modified chains, nanoparticle size in dry and wet state, zeta potential, morphology of NPs, physical state of curcumin in NPs, drug release profile and cytotoxicity of NPs were investigated by FTIR, FE-SEM, DLS and XRD, UV–vis spectrophotometer, and MTT assay against L929 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. Results show nanoparticle size in dry state varied in range of 119–127 nm and curcumin was loaded into nanoparticles with 96.47% efficacy. Drug release studies showed by decreasing pH of release medium from 7.4 to 5, release rate of curcumin from NPs increased, which shows pH responsive capacity of folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles. Cell viability studies confirmed that curcumin loaded NPs have good potential as a drug delivery system for breast cancer therapy. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Alidadi S.,Shiraz University | Oryan A.,Shiraz University | Bigham-Sadegh A.,Shahrekord University | Moshiri A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2017

This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of xenogeneic demineralized bone matrix (DBM), chitosan (CS), and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) on the regeneration of the critical-sized radial bone defects in rats after eight weeks. Fifty bilateral radial bone defects were randomly divided into five groups including untreated defects and those treated with autograft, CS scaffold, PMMA, and DBM. The defects were evaluated by diagnostic imaging, histopathology, histomorphometry, scanning electron microscopy, and biomechanical testing. Compared with the defect, CS, and PMMA groups, the autograft and DBM treated defects showed significantly higher new bone formation, bone volume, ultimate mechanical strength, and stiffness, but significantly lower inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and strain. Moreover, DBM showed significantly superior biocompatibility, biodegradability, osteoconductivity, and osteoinductivity to the CS scaffold and PMMA. In conclusion, both CS and PMMA alone were non-biocompatible polymers with slow biodegradation which retarded bone regeneration, whereas DBM significantly improved bone healing close to the gold method. However CS was not osteoconductive or osteoinductive alone, it can be combined with other biomaterials and molecules considering the excellent properties of this carbohydrate biopolymer for bone healing and regeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Dorgalaleh A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Tabibian S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shamsizadeh M.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences
Clinical Laboratory | Year: 2017

Background: Inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs) are a wide spectrum of qualitative platelet disorders with variable bleeding tendency, ranging from mild bleeding to severe life-threatening episodes. Diagnosis and classification of IPFDs is a challenge worldwide. The present study aims to present a proper classification, describe the molecular basis and clinical presentations as well as some diagnostic clues for these disorders. Methods: All relevant publications were searched using appropriate keywords. Results: IPFDs can be divided into four major groups including defects of platelet surface glycoproteins, platelet granules and secretion disorders, platelet signaling defects, and transcription-related platelet disorders. Some of these disorders, such as Glanzman thrombasthenia, are more common, with severe bleeding, while most of these disorders are extremely rare with mild bleeding. Conclusions: A proper classification, accompanied by familiarity with diagnostic clinical and laboratory features of IPFDs, can be helpful in in-time and exact diagnosis of these complicated bleeding disorders.

Ghafarzadeh M.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences | Eatemadi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy | Year: 2017

Background: Melasma is a challenging dermatological condition during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of a topical liposome-encapsulated Aloe vera preparation, on melasma in pregnant women. In order to enhance the bioavailability of Aloe vera leaf gel extract (AGE), liposomes encapsulating Aloe vera were prepared and examined for their biochemical properties. Methods: In this double-blinded, randomized clinical trial, two groups of pregnant women with melasma who were at their second trimester of pregnancy or later were studied. The patients in the experimental group (90) received liposome-encapsulated AGE (in the form of gel), the other 90 patients were placed in the control group (AGE) for 5 weeks. The liposomes were prepared from a soybean lecithin (SLP-WHITE, 1.0 wt 15 %), with a high trapping efficiency for incorporating about 0.5 wt% AGE concentration. The stable liposomes were then prepared from 1.0 wt% of SLP-WHITE, and different concentrations of AGE were prepared by mechanochemical method using a microfluidizer and homogenizer. The liposomes obtained from 0.25 wt% of AGE were confirmed to be small unilamellar vesicles with a diameter < 200 nm, which remained well dispersed for at least 2 weeks. Our results are expressed as mean (±SD), the Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) score was used to record melasma severity, and analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used for data analysis. Results: After 5 weeks of melasma treatment in pregnant women, there was 32% improvement in the MASI score in the liposomal-AGE treatment group as compared to 10% improvement in the control group. The prevalence of melisma decreases with an increase in parity, i.e. 39 (43.35%), 34 (37.8%), 15 (16.7%) and 2 (2.2%) for the experimental groups, and 45 (50%), 35 (38.9%), 10 (11.1%) and 0 (0%) for the control group (p = 0.32). There was a significant difference between experimental and control groups in terms of mean MASI score after the trial. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding family history of melasma, occupation, frequency of sunscreen usage and hours of sun exposure. However, within each group, there was a slight to great significant difference observed. Conclusion: Liposome-encapsulated Aloe vera gel extract was superior to AGE in decreasing the severity of melasma in pregnancy due to their ease in percolation; it lightens the melasma, with only mild side effects. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Nasiri M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Farsi Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Complementary Therapies in Medicine | Year: 2017

Objectives Due to adverse effects of common medications used for traumatic pain management, it is crucial to use complementary methods to alleviate this pain. Present study aimed to assess the effect of light pressure stroking massage with topical sesame oil on pain severity of patients with limbs trauma. Methods This triple-blinded randomized trial was conducted on 40 patients with upper or lower extremities trauma in emergency department of Busheher Amir Al-Momenian Hospital, Busheher, Iran, in 2015–2016. Patients received a 5 min massage with either liquid paraffin (placebo) or sesame oil on trauma site twice a day for 9 days duration. Pain severity was assessed by visual analogue scale in first day (baseline), 3th, 6th and 9th days of intervention in the both groups. Results Mean changes of pain severity between two groups was significant in the 6th (−0.20 ± 1.36; P = 0.036) and 9th (−0.36 ± 1.12; P < 0.001) days of intervention. Regarding to intake of diclofenac, no significant difference was seen between sesame oil and placebo groups during 9 days of intervention (575.23 ± 3.11 and 625.13 ± 4.23 respectively, P = 0.601). There were no adverse effects during the study in the both groups. Conclusion Massage with topical sesame oil was associated with significant reduction in pain severity of patients with limbs trauma. Therefore, it is suggested to use this oil on complementary medicine for pain relief due to low cost, easy usage and lack of adverse effects. © 2017

Ahmadi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zakerian S.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Salmanzadeh H.,K. N. Toosi University of Technology
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics | Year: 2017

The Ergonomic Checkpoints of International Labour Organization provide simple and low cost solutions to improve work conditions. Since it is a useful guide to improve the workplace, it can be a powerful tool for detecting and estimating work-related risk factors by considering the risk score for each item. This study presents an approach to prioritize and score the measures of the Checkpoints using Analytic Network Process (ANP) and Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methods. These methods have been accomplished in partnership with ergonomics experts. They compared the risk factors of the solutions with respect to five ergonomic criteria which are determined by themselves. Also a model has been developed to score the measures for each workplace. An empirical study was done in an assembly and packaging industry to illustrate an example of using the weighted Checkpoints. The findings of the empirical study indicated that the weighted Ergonomic Checkpoints manual is able to estimate the approximate risk of workplaces and detect the riskier situations. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Baluchnejadmojarad T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rabiee N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zabihnejad S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Roghani M.,Shahed University
Brain Research | Year: 2017

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent movement disorder in the elderly with progressive loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and incapacitating motor and non-motor complications. Ellagic acid is a natural phenolic compound with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated its possible neuroprotective effect in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. Intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with ellagic acid at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 1 week. Results showed that ellagic acid attenuates apomorphine-induced rotational bias and lowers the latency to initiate and the total time in the narrow beam task and this beneficial effect was partially abrogated following intracerebroventricular microinjection of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) antagonist. Furthermore, ellagic acid reduced striatal malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and DNA fragmentation, and improved monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, ellagic acid prevented loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). These findings indicate neuroprotective potential of ellagic acid in 6-OHDA rat model of PD via amelioration of apoptosis and oxidative stress, suppression of MAO-B, and its favorable influence is partly reliant on ERβ/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling cascade. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Pourhajibagher M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Bahador A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy | Year: 2017

Background Porphyromonas gingivalis is a momentous bacterial etiological agent associated with periodontitis, peri-implantitis as well as endodontic infections. The potential advantage of Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) as a promising novel approach is the choice of a suitable target site, specific photosensitizer, and wavelength of light for delivery of the light from source to target. Since Arg-gingipain is a cysteine proteinase that is involved in the virulence of P. gingivalis, it was evaluated as a target site for PAD with indocyanine green (ICG) as a photosensitizer. Methods In this study, we used a range of in silico strategies, bioinformatics tools, biological databases, and computer simulation molecular modeling to evaluate the capacity of Arg-gingipain. Results The predicted structure of Arg-gingipain indicated that it is located outside the cell and has nine domains and 17 ligands, including two calcium ions and three sodium ions with positive charges which can be a site of interaction for anionic ICG. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, anionic ICG desires to bind and interact with residues of Arg-gingipain during PAD as a main site to enhance the yield of treatment of endo-periodontal lesions. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Nassiri Koopaei N.,University of Florida | Abdollahi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Daru : journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Year: 2016

Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has generated breakthrough developments in improving health care and human life from its emergence. The biomaterials employed mainly aim at improving drug delivery systems, imaging and diagnostic technologies while the nanoscale materials are in widespread use in other industries such as electronics and optics. Such advancement may revolutionize the drug development and therapy with new and more efficient treatments. Although, nanotechnology assists humankind in improving its well being, it has certain limitations that entail thorough investigation by the regulatory and scientific authorities. To address concerns regarding the safety and toxicity profile of the nanopharmaceuticals, we have reviewed the challenges and solutions of nanopharmaceuticals use in human health and the related health risks. In this regard, regulatory and scientific bodies such as countries' Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Medicine Agency (EMA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and World Health Organization (WHO) can participate in developing and reinforcing safety measures and regulatory frameworks to insure the public health. The regulatory authorities may enforce the nanopharmaceutical industries to conduct comprehensive toxicity tests and monitor the adverse drug reaction reports in close collaboration with the scientific community to act accordingly and inform the public as the implementation of the strategy. Nanopharmaceuticals have tremendous potential for human use as therapeutic or diagnostic agents. But their toxicity profile should be well addressed and the respective regulatory framework developed and reinforced by the authorities.

Karami M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jalali C.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mirzaie S.,Islamic Azad University at Sanandaj Branch
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2017

Anthrax is a deadly disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a dangerous biological warfare agent employed for both military and terrorist purposes. A critical selective target for chemotherapy against this disease is nucleoside hydrolase (NH), an enzyme still not found in mammals. In the current study, we have performed molecular docking and dynamics studies, aiming to propose the new potent inhibitors of B. anthracis NH among National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diversity Set. We also analyzed the principal interactions of proposed compounds with the active site residues of NH and the relevant factors to biological activity. Additionally, the physic-chemical properties of free and inhibitor bound NH were evaluated and discussed. Our data showed that compound NSC79887 is a good candidate to inhibit NH and also for biological tests and further development. Also, ADMET prediction revealed that all physic-chemical parameters are within the acceptable range defined for human use. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Raeissi P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ahmadian M.T.,Sharif University of Technology
Scientia Iranica | Year: 2016

A part of resilience and sustainability in any urban environment is establishing and maintaining health. Sustainability in health is a dynamic process in which growth of physical, mental, and social health is guaranteed. A city is sustainable when all aspects of life, such as economy, environment, health, and infrastructure, are well defined and very often subjected to optimization. © 2016 Sharif University of Technology. All rights reserved.

Kadkhoda Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian journal of immunology : IJI | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) share a number of clinical and pathologic features, one of which is the presence of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced bone resorption that is involved in the pathogenesis of both.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of TNF-α blockade on periodontal conditions in patients with active RA.METHOD: The periodontal statuses of 36 patients (26 females, 10 males) diagnosed with active RA were evaluated both before and after anti-TNF-α therapy. Gingival index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), oral hygiene index (OHI), and levels of TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were measured at the baseline and 6 weeks after the treatment. Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for statistical analyses.RESULTS: Based on OHI (p=0.860), the level of plaque control did not change during the study period, but there was a significant reduction in gingival inflammation based on the mean BOP (p=0.049) and GI (p=0.036) before and after 6 weeks of anti-TNF-α therapy. The mean PPD index did not significantly differ at the baseline and 6 weeks after treatment (p=0.126).CONCLUSION: Anti-TNF-α therapy might have a desirable effect on periodontal conditions and might reduce TNF-α level in GCF of patients with RA.

Asadi-Amoli F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: The most common type of ocular lymphoma is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), categorized into two groups: indolent (slow growing) and aggressive (rapid growing). Differentiating benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) from malignant ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) is challenging. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and ow cytometry have been used as diagnostic tools in such cases.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, from 2002 to 2013 at Farabi Eye Center, 110 patients with ocular lymphoproliferative disease were enrolled. Prevalence, anatomical locations, mean age at diagnosis and the nal diagnosis of the disease with IHC were assessed. Comparison between previous pathologic diagnoses and results of IHC was made. Immunoglobulin light chains and B-cell and T-cell markers and other immuno-phenotyping markers including CD20, CD3, CD5, CD23, CD10, CYCLIND1 and BCL2 were evaluated to determine the most accurate diagnosis. The lymphomas were categorized based on revised European-American lymphoma (REAL) classi cation.RESULTS: Mean age±SD (years) of the patients was 55.6 ±19.3 and 61% were male. Patients with follicular lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphoma (CLL/SLL) tended to be older. Nine patients with previous diagnoses of low grade B-cell lymphoma were re-evaluated by IHC and the new diagnoses were as follows: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma(EMZL) (n=1), SLL(n=1), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (n=3), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia RLH (n=2). Two cases were excluded due to poor blocks. Flow cytometry reports in these seven patients revealed SLL with positive CD5 and CD23, MCL with positive CD5 and CyclinD1 and negative CD23, EMZL with negative CD5,CD23 and CD10. One RLH patient was negative for Kappa/Lambda and positive for CD3 and CD20 and the other was positive for all of the light chains, CD3 and CD20. Orbit (49.1%), conjunctiva (16.1%) and lacrimal glands (16.1%) were the most common sites of involvement.CONCLUSIONS: Accurate pathological classi cation of lesions is crucial to determine proper therapeutic approaches. This can be achieved through precise histologic and IHC analyses by expert pathologists.

Hoseinzadeh E.,Tarbiat Modares University | Rezaee A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Farzadkia M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2017

We characterized anoxic nitrate granules produced by an alternating current biofilm electrode reactor operating at low voltage-low frequency under optimum conditions. Hydrodynamic results revealed that the settling velocity for the granules ranged from 0.12 to 2.85cm/s, while that of settling velocities ranged from 0.07 to 3.42cm/s. Granule diameter varied, with a mean mass of 3.65±1.29mm and corresponding dry mass ranging from 0.52 to 5.64mg. Roundness ratio of the sampled granules was determined to be 0.78±0.11. Integrity coefficient obtained from a shear strength test was 87.05±2.07% after 2min and 74.1±4.14% after 5min. An adhesion test revealed hydrophilic properties of bacteria. The Most probable number (MPN) value was 2.0×106 for HDB and 2.0×103 for ADB. An apoptosis assay by flow cytometry confirmed that the majority of cells (87.7%) were viable and non-apoptotic (Annexin V-PI) and dehydrogenase activity was 15.05±1.76μg TF/mg biomass cm-2 d. Comparison of seed and granules by 1H NMR spectra showed different signals in the range of 0.279-1, 1-1.5, and 1.5-7.5ppm. Therefore, the biofilm in ACBER can be easily granulated and used to generate dense and fast-settling sludge granules. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Aboufazeli M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies | Year: 2017

Ultrasonography imaging has been used as a non-invasive method to estimate the thickness and relative activities of the abdominal muscles in patients with lower back pain (LBP). However, the statistical reliability of US thickness measurements of abdominal muscles, including transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles during abdominal hollowing (AH) and abdominal bracing (AB) maneuvers has not been well-investigated. This study was performed on a total of 20 female subjects (10 with LBP and 10 without LBP) in the age range of 25-55 years to assess within-day and between-day reliability of the measurements. US measurements on maneuvers were repeated after two hours for the within-day reliability and after five days for the between-day reliability assessment. High intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values (>0.75) for within-day and between-day reliability assessments during AH maneuver were concluded. The ICC values were moderate for reliability assessment during AB. The ICC values for AH were greater than AB both for within- and between-day reliabilities. The small standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change values (0.16-0.78 and 0.44 to 2.15, respectively) were found for both AH and AB. We recommend real-time US imaging as a reliable way of determining the thicknesses of the TrA and IO muscle (and to some extent, EO muscle) for both healthy and LBP patients. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Khandouzi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Daman Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Gilani K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Advanced Powder Technology | Year: 2016

Asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases that can be efficiently managed through combined treatment of fluticasone propionate (FP) and salmeterol xinafoate (SX). In this study, we challenged the use of both spray drying and mixing techniques in sequential combination of lactose or mannitol with FP and SX as two steps in development of inhalable powder formulation of the drugs. Leucine was used as a dispersibility enhancer. The formulations were optimized using the Design-Expert software. The effects of three independent variables namely the type of carrier, percentage of spray-dried carrier and the amount of leucine were investigated on in vitro deposition. The results showed that the maximum fine particle fraction (FPF) and the minimum particle size was belonged to formulation in which the percentage of leucine was 20% with respect to the total solid content and 50% of mannitol was used during spray drying, while the remaining 50% of it was applied in the physical mixing process. This study showed that not only the choice of carrier and additives for every drug combination, but also an optimized ratios of them during both spray drying and physical mixing can be crucial in developing suitable inhalable dry powder formulations. © 2016 The Society of Powder Technology Japan.

Latifi N.-A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Burn Care and Research | Year: 2017

Burn injuries have economical impacts on patients in several ways. Understanding the charges of burn treatment is very important for patients, families, governmental authorities, and insurance companies. During the protocol of their treatment, they may be admitted several times for treatment of acute burn and then for reconstructive treatments of burn’s complications. Calculating the hospital burn charges can serve as an objective criteria for authorities to plan for a sufficient budget for acute burn treatment, for additional management for chronic complications, and as a guide for planning preventive and public educational programs. The authors used data of their burn registry program. During more than 3 years, the authors had 912 patients with multiple admissions for burns. All of hospital costs during several admissions were recorded. Men were 71% and women were 29% of the patients. Burns caused by flame were the most frequent (50.1%) followed by scald (34.0%). Mean hospital stay was 14.1 days (range, 0–64 days). Patients with TBSA equal to or less than 10% were 38.8%, TBSA between 11 and 22% were 29.1%, and TBSA more than 23% were 32.1%. Those who were admitted for 30 days or less were 34.1%, those between 31 and 131 days were 32.7%, and those with more than 132 days of admission were 33.2%. Mean hospital cost for all patients during the 3 years was about $2766 (range, from $143 to $33,566; median = 1586.93; SE = 93.84). The patients were admitted for treatment of acute burns and later admitted for reconstruction of the burn sequels. Total number of admissions was up to six times (median = 2). About 66.27% of the total charges were the cost of first admission, 19.39% the cost of second admission, 7.34% the cost of third admission, 3.56% for fourth admission, 2.3% for fifth admission, and 1.15% for last or sixth admission. The authors conducted a multiple linear regression test. Male sex, TBSA, length of stay, and number of admissions were significantly related to total treatment charges. But “age” did not influence the charges. Mean total cost of several burn admissions in one patient was around $2766. TBSA, length of stay, male sex, and number of admissions were significantly related to the hospital costs. © 2017 The American Burn Association

Ziamajidi N.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Jamshidi S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Ehsani-Zonouz A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes | Year: 2017

Hexokinase (HK) is the first enzyme of glycolysis pathway. In brain, most dominant form of HK, HK-I, binds reversibly to the outer mitochondria membrane. Those metabolites that affect binding or releasing of the enzyme from the mitochondria have regulatory effect on glucose consumption of the cell. In this study destructive effect of phenylalanine and its metabolites in relation to glucose metabolism in brain have been studied. The results show that phenylpyruvic acid decreases the activity of enzyme in the presence and absence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and increases the release of the enzyme from mitochondria, whereas phenylalanine and phenyllactic acid have no such effects. Obtained Interactions and elicited binding energies of docking and MD simulations also showed more affinity for phenylpyruvic acid compared with the other potent inhibitors for hexokinase after the natural product of G6P. It is possible that phenylpyruvic acid is the cause of the reduction of glucose consumption by decreasing hexokinase activity and the higher inhibitory function. Therefore, production of ATP declines in brain cells. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Darvishi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sadeghi S.S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016

Presence of some pathogen microorganisms in the body causing or accelerating atherosclerosis is one of the proposed theories in etiology of heart ischemic diseases. This is more probable than other probabilities about the digestive microbes. This study is done in order to evaluation the probability of assistance of the infection caused from helicobacter pylori and coronary heart disease in the CCU-admitted patients in Niroo-Havaei Hospital in 2012. The study was done as an observational-analysis case study. In this study 139 patients referred to the Niroo-Havaei Hospital in the year 2012 are brought into the study and the frequency of helicobacter pylori infection in the patients with coronary heart disease and patients without that problem was determined and the correlation among suffering from this infection and coronary heart disease was assessed. In this study 60.7% of the patients had coronary heart disease and 61.8% of the patients had helicobacter pylori infection which did not demonstrates a significant difference between the two studied groups (p > 0.05). Totally according to the results obtained from this study it is inferred that there is no correlation between helicobacter pylori infection and coronary heart disease.

Darvishi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016

S. aureus Urinary Tract Infections had emergence of resistance against commonly used antibiotics and especially methicillin. The present investigation was done to study the prevalence rate and antibiotic resistance pattern of the MRSA strains isolated from immunosuppressive patients suffered from UTIs. One-hundred and twenty urine samples were collected and cultured. Those that were positive for S. aureus, were subjected to PCR and disk diffusion method. Of 120 urine sample studied, 10 samples (8.33%) were positive for S. aureus. Prevalence of MRSA among the bacterial isolates was 5.83%. MRSA strains had the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (100%), penicillin G (100%), tetracycline (85.71%), ciprofloxacin (85.71%), amikacin (71.42%) and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (71.42%). The lowest levels of resistance were seen against imipenem (14.28%) and clindamycin (28.57%). Considering the high prevalence of MRSA and its emergence for antibiotic resistance, rapid identification of infected immunosuppressive patients and their quick treatment with imipenem and clindamycin are recommended.

Alavi A.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences | Malakouti Nejad M.,University of Tehran | Shahidi G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Elahi E.,University of Tehran
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2017

Various neurodegenerative disorders share some clinical features that sometimes renders differential diagnosis challenging. Genetic-based classification also has limitations as mutations in the same gene are sometimes associated with different clinically based diagnoses. In this light, we screened the C19orf12 neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) causing gene and the C9orf72 intronic expansion mutation that is cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in 186 Iranian Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. C19orf12 has previously been screened in PD patients in only one study, and to the best of our knowledge neither gene has ever been screened in a PD cohort from a Middle East population. The study was justified because mutations in C19orf12 had previously been shown to be common in Iranian neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation patients and all the patients with mutations in this gene had exhibited Parkinsonism features. The C9orf72 intronic expansion mutation was screened because the mother of an Iranian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient with the expansion who had been diagnosed with PD also harbored the expansion. The screenings did not identify disease causing variations in either of the genes among the PD patients screened. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Ziari K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Alizadeh K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Pathology | Year: 2016

Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear cavity is a very rare condition. These lesions are a result of a defective embryonic development and their adjacent structures may be associated with abnormalities. Here we report a case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear who presented to Be’sat Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2015 with unilateral conductive hearing loss. There are 41 case reports in English and non-English literature from 1961. Taylor and Martin reported the first case of middle ear salivary choristoma. © 2017, IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY.

Nozari N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nozari N.,Alborz University of Medical science
Govaresh | Year: 2016

Large bowel complications of acute pancreatitis are rare and always occur in the adjacent colon including transverse colon and splenic flexure colon. In this article, we report a 35-year-old man with acute pancreatitis (Ranson's score 2) who presented with severe abdominal pain in the emergency department. He had a history suggesting recent acute pancreatitis and also symptoms and signs of acute appendicitis at the time of admission. After primary cares, he underwent open appendectomy according to the computed tomography results. The report of pathology and analysis of the exudate around the appendix confirmed appendicitis as a complication of acute pancreatitis. This rare case report denotes that acute appendicitis was a complication of acute pancreatitis. However, more studies are required to define the relationship between pancreatitis and appendicitis.

Soltani Z.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Keshavarzi D.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research | Year: 2016

Mosquitoes are potential vectors of some important diseases for humans and animals. Apart from mosquito borne diseases, mosquitoes cause nuisances for both humans and animals when they are abundant. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farashband County, southwest of Iran. The study was carried out from April to September 2012. Four collection sites, were selected randomly with regard to existing facilities in Farashband County. Sampling was carried out by dipping technique for collecting larvae and pyrethrum space spray collection (PSSC) for adult mosquitoes. Mean temperature was recorded for every month. A total of 1152 adults and 1505 larvae of Culicidae mosquitoes were collected, of which 3 genera and 7 species of Culicidae were recognized, namely, Anopheles superpictus, An. dthali, Culex sitaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Culiseta longiareolata. Cs. longiareolata was the most frequent Culicidae mosquito collected at Farashband, with a total of 513, and 249 specimens, by larval and PSSC collection, respectively. The highest numbers of mosquitoes were collected in July (34.9%) and the lowest in April (3.8%), respectively. Regarding this research, there are some potential vectors in medical and veterinary importance in Farashband County and they are more active in July and June. © Z. Soltani and D. Keshavarzi.

Rezaei S.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | Matin B.K.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | Rad E.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Introduction Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is one of the main indicators of the general level of health status as well as well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the main components of IMR in Iran from 1967 to 2012 years. Methods and Materials Using time series data of national level (1967 to 2012 years), we explored the association between Total Fertility Rate (TFR), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, number of physician per 1000 populations, female labor force participation rate, percentage of people living in rural regions and mean years schooling for each people with infant mortality rate of Iran. These data were obtained from Central Bank of Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI) data bank and Iranian statistical center. Time series analysis was done for this purpose. Results This study showed that there are positive relationships between total fertility rate, percentage of people living in rural regions with mortality rate of infant. In addition, IMR had inverse relationships with number of physicians and mean years of schooling. The per capita GDP and female labor force participation rate had not significant correlation with IMR. Conclusion Many predictors of infant mortality were identified. The total fertility rate, number of physician per 1000 populations, percentage of people living in rural regions and mean years schooling of each people were strongly associated with infant mortality. These findings may be very useful for policy makers that how death of infant can be decreased.

Rahmani F.,A+ Network | Rahmani F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Aarabi M.H.,Basir Eye Health Research Center
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2017

Higher plasma cholesterol levels are associated with lower Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk. Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1) is a surface marker of brain HDL-like particles associated with the time of PD onset. Clinical correlates of serum Apolipoprotein A1 levels with structural brain connectivity in PD-related disorders remains unclear. Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach [Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Connectometry] to explore the association between ApoA-1 and structural brain connectivity in PD. Participants involved in this research were recruited from Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Diffusion MRI connectometry was conducted using a multiple regression against apoA-1 for 36 patients with DTI measurements available in the baseline visit. Fiber results of the connectometry were then reconstructed for each patient, and diffusion parameters were extracted and regressed against apoA-1 levels. Connectometry results revealed the subgenual cingulum to be associated with ApoA-1, with different FDR yields. This result was further supported by significant negative correlation of Quantitative Anisotropic (QA) of left subgenual cingulum (Pearson’s coefficient = −0.398, p = 0.020) and Generalized Fractional Anisotropic (GFA) of right subgenual cingulum (Pearson’s coefficient −0.457, p = 0.007) with plasma apoA-1 levels, in a multiple regression model with age and sex. The subgenual cingulum encompasses fibers from the anterior cingulate cortex and anterior thalamus. These structures are involved in PD-associated psychosis and executive cognitive decline. We demonstrated for the first time that apoA-1, as a blood marker, can predict microstructural changes in white matter regions in PD patients with undisturbed cognition and mild motor disability. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Gardaneh M.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Shojaei S.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Kaviani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Behnam B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Behnam B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2017

We investigated the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in compensating trastuzumab (TZMB)-induced apoptosis in HER2+ breast cancer (BC) cells using xenograft tumors. We generated BC xenografts in nude mice using samples from three patients selected based on their HER2 status and response to TZMB therapy. TZMB treatment resulted in shrinkage of the HER2+ TZMB-sensitive xenograft tumor but not the HER2− or HER2+ TZMB-resistant ones. GDNF neutralized TZMB activity and induced growth in all tumors. Three distinct cell lines were derived from these tumors and named, respectively, TZMB-sensitive (TSTC), HER2− (HNTC), and TZMB-resistant (TRTC). Over 50% of TRTC but 1% of TSTC cells expressed CD44, whereas 84% of TSTC were CD24+ compared to only 1% of TRTC, despite comparable levels of HER2 detected in both. TZMB induced profound morphological changes toward apoptosis in TSTC but not in TRTC or HNTC. However, GDNF significantly compensated TZMB-mediated TSTC cell loss and promoted growth by 37 and 50%, respectively, in TSTC and TRTC. Inhibition of SRC by Saracatinib (SARC) blocked GDNF function and accelerated TZMB-mediated cell death in TSTC, but GDNF continued promoting TRTC growth. These changes paralleled with expression levels of the key molecules involved in growth and apoptosis. Collectively, we found in our xenograft samples that firstly SRC mediates GDNF pro-survival functions by bridging RET–HER2 crosstalk in TZMB-responsive BC tumors. Secondly, SARC–TZMB interactions can synergistically eradicate such tumor cells; and thirdly, GDNF can support antibody resistance by acting independent from SRC in tumors with poor HER2 response to TZMB therapy. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Mahmoudi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Keshavarz H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2017

Although vaccines would be the ideal tool for control, prevention, elimination, and eradication of many infectious diseases, developing of parasites vaccines such as malaria vaccine is very complex. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S, a pre-erythrocytic vaccine, has been recommended for licensure by EMEA. The results of this phase III trial suggest that this candidate malaria vaccine has relatively little efficacy, and the vaccine apparently will not meet the goal of malaria eradication by itself. Since there are many vaccine candidates in the pipeline1 that are being evaluated in vaccine trials, further study on using of alternative parasite targets and vaccination strategies are highly recommended. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Nasiri J.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences | Zamani F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Case Reports in Gastroenterology | Year: 2017

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a conventional technique for diagnosis and treatment of pancratobiliary diseases, which is associated with various complications, including pancreatitis, hemorrhage, cholangitis, perforation, and mortality. In our case, a 69-year-old woman with positive hepatobiliary symptoms underwent ERCP, at the end of which a rare complication (raccoon eye) occurred, which was hypothesized to be due to amyloidosis, but the patient refused to complete the diagnostic procedure and became symptom free after 3 weeks. Racoon eye or periorbital ecchymosis is caused by blood tracking into periorbital tissues, which is frequently observed after head trauma but is also observed in systemic diseases, such as amyloidosis, neuroblastoma, and surgical interventions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of raccoon eye after ERCP; further reports will help to confirm that this complication should also be considered before performing ERCP and that complete diagnostic tests for the predisposing diseases prior to ERCP are necessary. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

Mehdizadehfar V.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Almasganj F.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Torabinezhad F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Voice | Year: 2017

Objectives: Development of a noninvasive method for separating different vocal fold diseases is an important issue concerning vocal analysis. Due to the time variations along a pathologic vocal signal, application of dynamic pattern modeling tools is expected to help in the detection of defects that occur in the speech production mechanism. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the hidden Markov model, which is a state space model, is employed to sort some of the vocal diseases. Moreover, this research mainly investigates the effects of the processed vocal signal lengths on the mentioned sorting task. To this end, the signal lengths of 1, 3, and 5 seconds of different disorders are used. Results: The experimental results show that some pathologic conditions in vocal folds such as cyst, false vocal cord, and mass are more evident in continued voice production, and the recognition accuracies gained via dynamic modeling of pathologic voice signals with more lengths are considerably improved. © 2017 The Voice Foundation.

Study design:A descriptive cross-sectional study.Objectives:The burden of care among primary caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is affected by different factors. We aimed to evaluate the level of burden among caregivers and the association between the caregiver burden and sociodemographic factors of SCI individuals and their caregivers.Setting:Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Methods:The Zarit caregiver burden interview was used to evaluate the level of burden in caregivers through structured face-to-face interviews with 163 individuals with SCI, who were referred to receive outpatient rehabilitation, and their caregivers.Results:The mean of caregivers’ burden score was 38.9±15.2 and 11.7% reported no or little burden, 43.6% reported ‘mild-to-moderate’ burden, 33.1% reported ‘moderate-to-severe’ burden and 11.7% reported ‘severe’ burden of care. There was relationship between the level of injury (P=0.010) and occupational status (P=0.041) in SCI individuals and caregiver burden score. There was also a positive relationship between the caregiver burden score and duration of injury (r=0.176, P=0.025), the caregivers’ age (r=0.350, P<0.001), and length of time that the current caregiver providing care (r=0.253, P=0.001). There was a negative relationship between the burden and caregiver’s educational level (r=−0.235, P=0.002).Conclusions:The burden of care among the caregivers of SCI individuals is a multidimensional issue. The sociodemographic characteristics of individuals with SCI and their caregivers can affect the caregiver’s burden. Many of these factors can be modified to reduce the burden of care.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 31 January 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2016.195. © 2017 International Spinal Cord Society

Sharif-Alhoseini M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Spinal Cord | Year: 2017

Study Design:PRISMA-guided systematic review.Objectives:To provide a comprehensive framework of the current animal models for investigating spinal cord injury (SCI) and categorize them based on the aims, patterns and levels of injury, and outcome measurements as well as animal species.Setting:Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Methods:An electronic search of the Medline database for literature describing animal models of SCI was performed on 1 January 2016 using the following keywords: ‘spinal cord injuries’ and ‘animal models’. The search retrieved 2870 articles. Reviews and non-original articles were excluded. Data extraction was independently performed by two reviewers.Results:Among the 2209 included studies, testing the effects of drug's or growth factor's interventions was the most common aim (36.6%) followed by surveying pathophysiologic changes (30.2%). The most common spinal region involved was thoracic (81%). Contusion was the most common pattern of injury (41%) followed by transection (32.5%) and compression (19.4%). The most common species involved in animal models of SCI was the rat (72.4%). Two or more types of outcome assessments were used in the majority of the studies, and the most common assessment method was biological plus behavioral (50.8%).Conclusions:Prior to choosing an animal model, the objectives of the proposed study must precisely be defined. Contusion and compression models better simulate the biomechanics and neuropathology of human injury, whereas transection models are valuable to study anatomic regeneration. Rodents are the most common and probably best-suited species for preliminary SCI studies.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2016.187. © 2017 International Spinal Cord Society

Moradi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shab-bidar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Alizadeh S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Djafarian K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2017

Objective: Increasing evidence has suggested an association between sleep duration and osteoporosis risk, although the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of the literature and quantitative estimates of the association between sleep duration and risk of osteoporosis in population-based studies of middle aged and elderly women. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases up to February 2016. Five out of six included studies were cross-sectional and one was a prospective cohort study. They included 72,326 participants from three different countries. We extracted 31,625 individuals in these studies for our meta-analysis. Results: A pooled odds ratio analysis in women between 40 to 86. years indicated that there is an inverse relationship between sleep duration and osteoporosis (overall OR = 1.07 95% CI: 1.00-1.15). The negative association of long sleep duration (8. h or more per day) with osteoporosis risk was observed in middle aged and elderly women (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.06-1.38) but not in women with short sleep duration (7. h or less per day) (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.90-1.05). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that long sleep duration (8. h or more per day) may be associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly. Further prospective cohort studies with longer follow-up periods, valid instruments for measurement of sleep duration and dynamic sleep quality are warranted to support the possible relationship between sleep duration and osteoporosis risk in women. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Alizadeh S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mohebbi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Gholami K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jabbarvand M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Current Ophthalmology | Year: 2017

Purpose: To evaluate adverse drug events (ADEs) resulting in emergency department visits in an eye hospital. Method: Emergency department visits at Farabi Eye Hospital were assessed for a 7-day period. The patients' eye disorders and drug history were evaluated to detect ADEs. Results: Of 1631 emergency visits, 5 (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.71%) were drug related. Tetracaine eye drops accounted for 4 (80%, 95% CI: 38-96%) cases with corneal involvement. The other case was an intense conjunctival injection due to naphazoline eye drops. Conclusion: ADEs should be considered in differential diagnosis of ocular emergency problems and preventive measure should be considered. © 2017 Iranian Society of Ophthalmology.

Nilforushan N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Yadgari M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Astaraki A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Miraftabi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Current Ophthalmology | Year: 2017

Purpose: To compare the long-term outcomes obtained by residents and attending surgeons performing trabeculectomy. Methods: After reviewing medical records of the patients, 41 residents performing trabeculectomy under supervision of attendings were compared to 41 attendings performing trabeculectomy. The primary outcome measure was the surgical success defined in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤ 21 mmHg (criterion A) and IOP ≤ 16 mmHg (criterion B), with at least 20% reduction in IOP, either with no medication (complete success) or with no more than 2 medications (qualified success). IOP, number of glaucoma medications, surgical complications, and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results: Mean age of the patients was 59.5 ± 8.6 years in the resident group and 59.6 ± 12.31 years in the attending group (P = 0.96). Furthermore, mean duration of the follow-up was 62.34 ± 5.51 months in the resident group and 64.80 ± 7.80 months in the attending group (P = 0.10). The cumulative success according to criterion A was 87.8% in the resident group and 85.3% in the attending group (P = 0.50). Moreover, according to criterion B, it was 87.8% and 83% in the resident and attending groups, respectively (P = 0.62). Repeated glaucoma surgery was required in 12.2% and 2.4% of the patients in the resident and attending groups, respectively (P = 0.09). Rate of complications was 12.2% and 4.8% in the resident and attending groups, respectively (P = 0.23). Conclusion: There were comparable results with respect to success rates and complications between residents and attending surgeons performing trabeculectomy in the long-term follow-up. © 2017 Iranian Society of Ophthalmology.

Abrishami Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nasli-Esfahani E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Razmandeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Larijani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Bandarian F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2017

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common non-communicable diseases associated with different complications. The study aim was to analyze and report characteristics of research output in the field of diabetes complication in Iran in details and identify research gap in this field. Methods: All scientific diabetes output published by Iranian authors in national and international journals until 2015 was included and analyzed. National and international databases including PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, SID, IranMedex, and Magiran were searched. The obtained results were categorized into eleven subgroups. of complications, comorbidities, management, psychiatry, nutrition, prevention, physical activity, genetics, basic sciences, education and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In each category, documents were classified based on the study design and topic as well as WHO and Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) classification. Results: After screening, 1262 documents remained. Trend of publication was growing during the study period. However, small temporary drop was seen in 2012 and 2014. The most common type of studies in WHO and NHMRC classification belonged to distribution and causes and clinical research, respectively. Cross-sectional and animal designs were the most common methodologies used and vascular complications were the most common subject area in the obtained documents. Conclusion: Subject trend of Iranian studies in the field of diabetes complications is compatible with the prevalence of such complications. However, results show lack of studies with high level of evidence including cohorts and systematic reviews in Iran. Although the trend of publications is growing but considering the importance of this issue, it is not enough and more funds should be allocated in this field. Considering the increasing frequency of basic research close collaboration between basic and clinical research is required to apply these findings in our diabetes guidelines. © 2017, Iranian Journal of Public Health. All rights reserved.

Salari P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Larijani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2017

More than a decade ago, personalized medicine was presented in modern medicine. Personalized medicine means that the right drug should be prescribed for the right patient based on genetic data. No doubt is developing medical sciences, and its shift into personalized medicine complicates ethical challenges more than before. In this review, we categorized all probable ethical considerations of personalized medicine in research and development and service provision. Based on our review, extensive changes in healthcare system including ethical changes are needed to overcome the ethical obstacles including knowledge gap and informed consent, privacy and confidentiality and availability of healthcare services. Furthermore social benefit versus science development and individual benefit should be balanced. Therefore guidelines and regulations should be compiled to represent the ethical framework; also ethical decision making should be day-to-day and individualized. © 2017 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Shafiee G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Bandarian F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ghodsi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nasli-Esfahani E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Larijani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2017

Background: This study conducted to assess publications of diabetes treatments to understand research gaps and priorities to guide a management map for future strategy of diabetes research in Iran. Methods: All studies published from the beginning until 2015 in national and international journals by Iranian authors conducted in the field of diabetes. This comprehensive search strategy without any limitation obtained 8668 publications in international journals and 16921 documents in national journals (25589 documents). Finally, 1019 diabetes management articles were included in this study. Each article categorized based on the study design, subject area, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and Australian Standard Research Classifications. Results: There was an increasing trend in a number of publications. Top subject areas were “traditional treatment” with global publication share of 25.8% and “Control of diabetes” ranked the second (24.9%). According to WHO classification, the highest number of productions was in “Basic Research” area (39%) and Australian Standard Research Classification showed 59% of the articles were in “Clinical Medicine and Science” area. Study design of 39.9% articles was basic studies, 23.1% were randomized clinical trial and 21.9% were cross-sectional. Conclusion: This study showed a relatively ascending trend of scientific publications in the field of diabetes managements in Iran. We can identify the research gaps and research priorities for diabetes management research for future studies. In Future, management map with other diabetes area research maps will be compiled into a single “Roadmap for Diabetes Research in Iran”. © 2017, Iranian Journal of Public Health. All rights reserved.

Kiani S.J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Taheri T.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Rafati S.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Samimi-Rad K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2017

RNA-binding proteins play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression. Among several families of RNA-binding proteins, PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins have been the subject of extensive investigations, as they can bind RNA in a sequence-specific manner and they are evolutionarily conserved among a wide range of organisms. The outstanding feature of these proteins is a highly conserved RNA-binding domain, which is known as the Pumilio-homology domain (PUM-HD) that mostly consists of eight tandem repeats. Each repeat recognizes an RNA base with a simple three-letter code that can be programmed in order to change the sequence-specificity of the protein. Using this tailored architecture, researchers have been able to change the specificity of the PUM-HD and target desired transcripts in the cell, even in subcellular compartments. The potential applications of this versatile tool in molecular cell biology seem unbounded and the use of these factors in pharmaceutics might be an interesting field of study in near future. © 2017 Bentham Science Publishers.

Akhtari E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility | Year: 2017

Introduction: Pregnancy termination has been considered since the ancient times. Different communities have their own rules for abortion based on religion, culture and social norms which control the society. Currently, illegal abortion is one of the most common causes for hospitalization of women. On the other hand, the legislative institution and public opinions based on religion and common culture approve certain punishment for the people involved in abortion that is different in various communities based on maternal health. These punishments had considerable historical process regarding to valuing fetus life beside the mother's life. Reviewing the historical documents and text books, particularly Vandidiad (Avesta), fascinating findings about pregnancy termination were found in that era. This review article looks at pregnancy termination from ancient times till present time and it also shows the recent developments until recent legislation which did not ban abortion for saving the mother's life in 1991. Method: It is searched all the old medical References from the past until recent century. It started from Avesta as an oldest writing that has a chapter with some points about pregnancy rules. So it is searched the other References as a librarian analysis and gathered all the data’s about pregnancy and abortion rules. Therefore by performing research, we have come up with fascinating findings about pregnancy termination in that era. This review article looks at pregnancy termination from ancient times till present time and it also shows the recent developments until recent legislation which did not ban abortion in 1991. Looking at the historical aspects of this topic shows that there was a humanitarian approach to mother, fetus and pregnancy in ancient Persia. Those specific approaches probably have had long term effects towards building a communal attitude to pregnancy termination based on importance of family, religious believes and health. © 2017, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Akbari M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Bayat R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mirmohammadsadeghi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mirshahi R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Current Ophthalmology | Year: 2017

Purpose: We report a patient with abnormal head posture following ocular blunt trauma. Methods: This is report of a case that despite findings compatible with diagnosis of left superior oblique (SO) palsy, the patient acquired an ipsilateral (left) head tilt. The interesting observation in our patient was reduction of left hypertropia and consequent less diplopia with ipsilateral head tilt. Results: After blunt trauma, our patient adopted paradoxical left head tilt and consequently less diplopia despite acquired left SO palsy. Left inferior oblique myectomy resulted in significant improvement of patient's strabismus and abnormal head position. Conclusion: Traumatic SO palsy may present with paradoxical head tilt. © 2017 Iranian Society of Ophthalmology.

Jahandoost S.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Farhanghian P.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Abbasi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of the National Medical Association | Year: 2017

Breast cancer is a common disease and a major cause of death among women throughout the world. Various genes are believed to be involved in the initiation and progression of the disease. Some polymorphisms of these genes increase susceptibility to breast cancer in particular ethnicities. This study used electronic literature search to review the effects of different sex steroid hormone gene polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. Our findings indicated that some polymorphisms in estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), ER-β, progesterone receptor (PGR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) affected breast cancer susceptibility, especially in African American women. © 2017.

Mirsadeghi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Larijani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2017

Personalized medicine aims is to supply the proper drug to the proper patient within the right dose. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is to recognize genetic variants that may influence drug efficacy and toxicity. All things considered, the fields cover a wide area, including basic drug discovery researches, the genetic origin of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, novel drug improvement, patient genetic assessment and clinical patient administration. At last, the objective of Pharmacogenomics is to anticipate a patient’s genetic response to a particular drug as a way of presenting the best possible medical treatment. By predicting the drug response of an individual, it will be possible to increase the success of therapies and decrease the incidence of adverse side effect. © 2017 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Rambod C.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shafiee G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Bandarian F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Larijani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Razi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2017

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus has adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcomes during pregnancy and after delivery. The aim of this study was evaluation of the status of scientific research in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Iran. Methods: This study is a part of the Iranian diabetes research roadmap (IDDR) project. We investigated the electronic database, including PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus as well as Scientific Information Database (SID), Indexing Articles Published in Iran Biomedical Journals (Iran Medex) and Iranian Magazine Database (Magiran) and extracted documents published by Iranian authors up to 2015. We also determined the subject area and the study design as well as the WHO and Australian National Health classifications. Results: There were 229 relevant publications related to GDM. The most rapidly increasing trend in the publication was observed in two stages; 2007-2009 and then 2010-2013. The highest portion of the publications was clinical studies (74%). Regarding the study design, cross-sectional (32%), case-control (26%) and cohort (18%) studies were the most common types of studies. Regarding the subject, the most percentage of publications were allocated to fetal complications (46%) and the least were about prevention of GDM (1%). Conclusion: The research about the GDM is non-coordinated and not effective and there is not any participated framework to guide the research related to GDM in Iran. Thus, it is critical to provide the roadmap for GDM studies to preserve time and money. This study identified and highlighted the research gap in GDM in Iran to provide a roadmap for the medical research of GDM. © 2017, Iranian Journal of Public Health. All rights reserved.

Kalantar Motamedi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ansari M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery | Year: 2016

Complications from diabetic foot ulcers often lead to increased patient morbidity. Much debate still ensues concerning surgical versus conservative management of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcerations. The present study assessed and compared the efficacy of metatarsal head resection and medical approach in the treatment of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers located at the plantar surface of metatarsal heads. In a retrospective cohort study, 24 consecutive neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers in the lower area of the metatarsal heads that had undergone metatarsal head resection were included as the operative group. For the control group, we included 25 similar ulcers that were scheduled for medical therapy. With respect to postoperative complications, wound healing occurred earlier in the operative group, and the recurrence rate was inversely greater in the medical treatment group. Also, the hospitalization rate was significantly greater in the medical treatment group. Overall, the long-term complication rate was lower in the operative than in the medical treatment group. Also, the infection rate was greater in the medical treatment group than in the operative group. Comparing early and late clinical outcomes of metatarsal head resection surgery and medical treatment showed complete superiority for the surgical approach, and metatarsal head resection is more completely cost beneficial than the medical approach. © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons.

Irani M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Mir Mohamad Sadeghi G.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Haririan I.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2017

In the present study, the anticancer drug temozolomide (TMZ) was initially loaded into the chitosan (CS) nanoparticles and synthesized CS/TMZ nanoparticles were incorporated into the synthesized poly (ε-caprolactone diol) based polyurethane (PCL-Diol-b-PU) nanofibers. The synthesized nanoparticles and nanofibers were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained results revealed that the CS/TMZ nanoparticles were successfully embedded into the PCL-Diol-b-PU nanofibers. The gold nanoparticles with average particle size of 18 nm were synthesized and coated on the nanofibers surface to enhance the antitumor activity of CS/TMZ loaded nanofibers against inhibiting the growth of U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells. The sustained TMZ release for 30 days with the zero order kinetic model were achieved from both CS/TMZ loaded PCL-Diol-b-PU and gold-coated nanofibers. The cell viability results indicated that the gold-coated nanofibers can effectively inhibit the growth of U-87 glioblastoma cells. Therefore, the prepared gold-coated CS/TMZ loaded PCL-Diol-b-PU nanofibers would be a potential candidate for glioblastoma cancer treatment. © 2017

Fooladivanda A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Shokouhi S.B.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Ahmadinejad N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine | Year: 2017

Breast-region segmentation is an important step for density estimation and Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Detection of breast-chest wall boundary is often a difficult task due to similarity between gray-level values of fibroglandular tissue and pectoral muscle. This paper proposes a robust breast-region segmentation method which is applicable for both complex cases with fibroglandular tissue connected to the pectoral muscle, and simple cases with high contrast boundaries. We present a decision-making framework based on geometric features and support vector machine (SVM) to classify breasts in two main groups, complex and simple. For complex cases, breast segmentation is done using a combination of intensity-based and atlas-based techniques; however, only intensity-based operation is employed for simple cases. A novel atlas-based method, that is called localized-atlas, accomplishes the processes of atlas construction and registration based on the region of interest (ROI). Atlas-based segmentation is performed by relying on the chest wall template. Our approach is validated using a dataset of 210 cases. Based on similarity between automatic and manual segmentation results, the proposed method achieves Dice similarity coefficient, Jaccard coefficient, total overlap, false negative, and false positive values of 96.3, 92.9, 97.4, 2.61 and 4.77%, respectively. The localization error of the breast–chest wall boundary is 1.97 mm, in terms of averaged deviation distance. The achieved results prove that the suggested framework performs the breast segmentation with negligible errors and efficient computational time for different breasts from the viewpoints of size, shape, and density pattern. © 2017 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

Rahimizadeh A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Soufiani H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hassani V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rahimizadeh A.,Birmingham Medical School
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine | Year: 2017

In this study the authors report the first example of spinal pseudarthrosis in a patient with ochronosis, and they describe the application of posterior-only 360° surgery as an alternative approach to combined anterior-posterior surgery in the management of pseudarthrosis of an ankylosed spine, regardless of its etiology. Spinal involvement in ochronosis produces loss of flexibility and ankylosis of thoracic and lumbar segments. Pseudarthrosis is a serious complication of the diseases that present with ankylosis of the spine. However, its occurrence in ochronotic spine has not been reported previously. Evaluation of progressive paraparesis in a 68-year-old man with ochronosis revealed pseudarthrosis at the T11-12 level. Circumferential dural sac decompression, debridement of the disc space, interbody fusion, and screw-rod fixation were all done via a posterior-only approach. Postoperatively the patient exhibited a marked recovery in terms of pain and neurological status. At the 3-month follow-up, he was able to walk independently. Ochronosis should be included in the etiology of pseudarthrosis. With aggravation of back pain and the appearance of neurological deficits in an already stable patient with any ankylosing disease, pseudarthrosis should be suspected. Furthermore, single-stage, 360°, posterior-only surgery may obviate the need for single-stage or staged anterior-posterior surgical intervention in patients with pseudarthrosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine.

Obrador G.T.,Panamerican University of Mexico | Mahdavi-Mazdeh M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Collins A.J.,Chronic Disease Research Group
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2011

The Global Kidney Disease Prevention Network is an international public health organization devoted to encouraging and enhancing efforts to increase awareness and recognition of kidney disease, detect it early, and provide treatment to prevent disease progression, improve patient outcomes, and decrease costs. Twenty-six participants from 12 low-, middle-, and high-income countries attended the first meeting, held in Geneva, Switzerland, on September 12-13, 2009. Work groups discussed target populations for chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening, optimal parameters for screening on a public health level, evaluating the impact of early screening programs, and use of screening data to inform health care policy. Of the screening programs discussed, most have targeted populations at high risk of CKD and have included medical history; weight, height, and blood pressure measurements; and blood and urine tests. In screenees, CKD prevalence ranged from 11%-33%. In screenees with CKD, few were aware of the disease, although substantial proportions had been seen by a physician in the previous 6-12 months. At the policy level, prevention of CKD implies prevention and control of risk-factor conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and others. Given the high prevalence and under-recognition of CKD in different countries, a concerted effort to globally improve primary and secondary CKD prevention appears to be warranted. © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Mao H.Y.,National University of Singapore | Laurent S.,University of Mons | Chen W.,National University of Singapore | Chen W.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb lattice, has led to an explosion of interest in the field of materials science, physics, chemistry, and biotechnology since the few-layers graphene (FLG) flakes were isolated from graphite in 2004. For an extended search, derivatives of nanomedicine such as biosensing, biomedical, antibacterial, diagnosis, cancer and photothermal therapy, drug delivery, stem cell, tissue engineering, imaging, protein interaction, DNA, RNA, toxicity, and so on were also added. Since carbon nanotubes are normally described as rolled-up cylinders of graphene sheets and the controllable synthesis of nanotubes is well developed, longitudinally unzipping carbon nanotubes represents a novel strategy to obtain graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of precise dimensions.

Almasi Z.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Salehiniya H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Stomach cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world. It is predicted that the number of new cancer cases will be more than 15 million cases by 2020. Regarding the lack of studies on this topic in the country, we have thoroughly examined the patho-epidemiology of stomach cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new stomach cancer patients in Cancer Registry Center report of health deputy for Iran during a 6-year period (2003-2008). The study also examined the morphology of common stomach cancers. Trends in incidence and morphology underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Results: During the six-year period, a total of 35,171 cases of stomach cancer were registered. Average age standardized rate for females and males were equal to 7.1 and 15.1 per 100,000 persons, respectively. Most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, NOS with 21,980 cases (62.50%). The annual percentage change (APC) in age-standardized incidence rate (per 100,000) was increase in both females and males at 11.1 (CI: 4.3 to 18.3) and 9.2 (CI: 5.2 to 13.4), respectively. Conclusions: According to our results, the incidence of gastric cancer is increasing in Iran, so further epidemiological studies into the etiology and early detection are essential.

Bahar M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jamali S.,Islamic Azad University at Zanjan | Samadikuchaksaraei A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Burns | Year: 2010

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to determine the distribution of blaVIM and blaIMP transferable genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from infected burn wounds in an Iranian level I burn care center. These genes confer imipenem resistance and increase the mortality rate of burn patients. Methods: P. aeruginosa isolates from burn patients were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and for production of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) by EDTA disk method. DNA was purified from isolates with positive MBL results and underwent PCR for detection of blaVIM and blaIMP genes. Results: MBL was produced by 23 imipenem-resistant isolates and blaVIM gene was detected in all of these isolates. None of the isolates carried blaIMP gene. Mortality rate of infection with MBL-producing Pseudomonas strains was 82.6% in this hospital while the mortality rate for non-MBL-producing Pseudomonas was 22.7%. Conclusion: We found that all MBL-producing isolates in this hospital carry blaVIM gene. This result is similar to the previous Iranian study and emphasizes the importance of VIM family of MBLs in Iran. Timely identification of these strains and strict isolation methods can prevent spread of this transferable gene to other Gram-negative bacteria and prevent the subsequent outbreak of high mortality. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI.

Di Cesare M.,Imperial College London | Khang Y.-H.,University of Ulsan | Asaria P.,Imperial College London | Blakely T.,University of Otago | And 11 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than in those with high socioeconomic status; the social gradient also depends on the country's stage of economic development, cultural factors, and social and health policies. Social inequalities in risk factors account for more than half of inequalities in major NCDs, especially for cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. People in low-income countries and those with low socioeconomic status also have worse access to health care for timely diagnosis and treatment of NCDs than do those in high-income countries or those with higher socioeconomic status. Reduction of NCDs in disadvantaged groups is necessary to achieve substantial decreases in the total NCD burden, making them mutually reinforcing priorities. Effective actions to reduce NCD inequalities include equitable early childhood development programmes and education; removal of barriers to secure employment in disadvantaged groups; comprehensive strategies for tobacco and alcohol control and for dietary salt reduction that target low socioeconomic status groups; universal, financially and physically accessible, high-quality primary care for delivery of preventive interventions and for early detection and treatment of NCDs; and universal insurance and other mechanisms to remove financial barriers to health care.

Hashemi H.,Noor Eye Hospital | Mohammadpour M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jabbarvand M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nezamdoost Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ghadimi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery | Year: 2013

Purpose: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss during phacoemulsification performed by ophthalmology residents. Setting: Academic ophthalmology resident training center, Tehran, Iran. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study included patients who had phacoemulsification by ophthalmology residents from August 2010 to August 2011. The complications occurring during surgery and the rate of vitreous loss and posterior capsule rupture were studied. Results: Five hundred eyes of 500 patients, including 255 (51%) men and 245 (49%) women with a mean age of 67 years ± 10 (SD) (range 27 to 105 years), were studied. Fifty-one eyes (10.2%) developed vitreous loss, and 48 eyes (9.6%) developed posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss. On univariate analysis, significant risk factors for vitreous loss included diabetes mellitus (P=.001), shallow anterior chamber (P=.01), absence of supervision by a faculty member (P=.007), larger capsulorhexis (P=.02), anterior capsule tear (P=.001), and longer effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) (P=.003). Multivariate data analysis using stepwise logistic regression analysis showed anterior capsule tear (odds ratio [OR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-6.29), longer EPT (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.003-1.02), and lack of supervision by attending physicians (OR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.44-12.67) to be significant independent risk factors associated with vitreous loss. Conclusion: Direct attending supervision and careful case selection for the level of cataract surgery residency are of utmost importance in avoiding sight-threatening complications. Financial Disclosure: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS Published by Elsevier Inc.

Koucheki B.,Noor Eye Hospital | Hashemi H.,Noor Eye Hospital | Hashemi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Glaucoma | Year: 2012

Purpose: To determine the effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) on different types of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods and Materials: In this prospective, nonrandomized, interventional study, patients with OAG, unresponsive to maximum tolerable antiglaucoma medication, were enrolled. One thirty six eyes were studied. Distribution of glaucoma type was 91 primary OAG eyes (POAG, 66.9%), 22 pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEX, 16.2%) eyes, and 23 pigmentary glaucoma (PG, 16.9%) eyes. Main outcome measures were IOP and number of antiglaucoma medications used before operation, at 1 day, at 1 week, and at 1 to 18 months after surgery. Using the standard approach 360-degree SLT was done. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 16.6±4.3 months. The mean preoperative IOP was 22.0±3.7 mm Hg, and reduced to 18.3±3.7 mm Hg at last visit. The overall mean IOP decrease was 3.6±2.6 mm Hg (16.3%) on the last visit compared with before surgery, indicating a reduction of 16.7% in POAG, 16.6% in PEX, and 14.5% in PG. Comparison of IOP values at 6 and 16 months showed an increase of 0.5 and 2.7 mm Hg in total sample and PG group. IOP reduction was significantly less among diabetic patients. Conclusions: SLT resulted in a significant IOP reduction of 16.3% at 16 months after surgery. The level of IOP reduction did not vary in POAG, PEX, and PG groups. A significant increase in IOP was observed in PG group after 6 months. The procedure seemed least effective in diabetic patients. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Siatiri N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Khodabande A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Cornea | Year: 2011

Purpose: To describe the course and outcome in 3 patients with recalcitrant fungal keratitis treated with intrastromal voriconazole injection and topical voriconazole application. Methods: The present study was an interventional case series. A 50 μg/0.1 mL solution of voriconazole was injected into the corneal stromal tissue around the corneal ulcer, and 1% topical voriconazole was added to the therapeutic regimen if the ulcer failed to respond to 5% topical natamycin hourly and oral ketoconazole twice per day. The infiltration and epithelial defect size were measured at each visit using a slit-lamp biomicroscope. Anatomical outcomes were assessed. Results: A dramatic therapeutic response was observed in 2 patients. An amniotic membrane transplantation using cyanoacrylate glue was required to seal the microperforation in a patient with a chemical burn superinfected with Fusarium. Conclusions: Intrastromal injection of voriconazole together with topical voriconazole effectively reduced the infiltration size and controlled the infection in patients with Fusarium keratitis. However, continued application of the topical medication is critical for a favorable outcome of treatment. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Salari P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nikfar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Inflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets | Year: 2012

Objectives: Diarrhea the second leading cause of death in childhood is caused by a variety of organisms. Rehydration reduces the risk of death but it is not effective in shortening duration of disease. Recently, probiotics have been recommended for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea. Considering existing documents from different aspects, it seems that results are somehow controversial or non-conclusive. Thus, we aimed to meta-analyze clinical trials to show actual benefit of probiotics in treatment of diarrhea. Methodology: The literature search provided 1228 articles while only 19 articles focusing on the analyses performed on children were eligible to be included in the meta-analysis with a total of 3867 patients enrolled in the study. Studies in adults' diarrhea, HIV patients, diarrhea induced by Clostridium difficile, radiation and chemotherapy were also systematically reviewed. Results: The meta-analysis showed that probiotics decrease the duration of diarrhea and fever significantly in children while their effects on the duration of hospitalization, vomiting and number of stools per day were not significant. The results of systematic review on adults' diarrhea, amoebiasis, clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, diarrhea in HIV positive patients, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea did not support efficacy of probiotics in acute diarrhea. Conclusion: Probiotics may reduce duration of diarrhea and fever in children but their exact efficacy in treatment of diarrhea is not obvious yet. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Mozaffari S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nikfar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nikfar S.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Abdollahi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2014

Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with a high prevalence. Besides efficacy, the safety of each drugs used to treat GI disorders is an important issue in the drug development process. Areas covered: This article reviews all Phase I to IV clinical trials or case reports with results related to the safety of novel GI drugs. The drugs are currently approved or under evaluation for approval. Expert opinion: Most of the reported adverse events were related to the GI tract with mild-to-moderate severity. Diarrhea was significantly higher versus placebo following use of linaclotide and renzapride, similar to that of constipation with ramosetron. Lubiprostone, linaclotide and rifaximin with low systemic bioavailability have less adverse events and exert more advantageous results. Asimadoline acts peripherally on κ-opioid receptors and is not associated with CNS side effects. As lubiprostone and linaclotide cause dose-dependent adverse events, starting the treatment with the lowest effective doses is advised. Ramosetron is under evaluation for diarrhea-predominant IBS due to its acceptable safety and tolerability, besides its efficacy. Rifaximin, asimadoline and renzapride are still in need of more long-term studies regarding their safety. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Nedjat S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Forouzanfar M.H.,University of Washington | Golestan B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Majdzadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2012

Background Measuring the distribution of health is a part of assessing health system performance. This study aims to estimate health inequality between different socioeconomic groups and its determinants in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Methods Self-rated health (SRH) and demographic characteristics, including gender, age, marital status, educational years, and assets, were measured by structured interviews of 2464 residents of Tehran in 2008. A concentration index was calculated to measure health inequality by economic status. The association of potential determinants and SRH was assessed through multivariate logistic regression. The contribution to concentration index of level of education, marital status and other determining factors was assessed by decomposition. Results The mean age of respondents was 41.4 years (SD 17.7) and 49% of them were men. The mean score of SRH status was 3.72 (range: 1e5; SD 0.93). 282 respondents (11.5%) rated their health status as poor or very poor. The concentration index was -0.29 (SE 0.03; p<0.001). Age, marital status, level of education and household economic status were significantly associated with SRH in both the crude and adjusted analyses. The main contributors to inequality in SRH were economic status (47.8%), level of education (29.2%) and age (23.0%). Conclusions Sub-optimal SRH was more in lower than in higher economic status. After controlling for age, the levels of education and household wealth have the greatest contributions to SRH inequality.

Kolahdoozan S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sadjadi A.,University of Groningen | Radmard A.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Khademi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2010

Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, it's mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers incidence in Iran and to explain incidental differences that may help us to establish early detection programs and investigate population risk factors. A detailed Pub Med, Scopus and Google scholar search were made from 2000 to 2009. The basic inclusion criteria were all relevant studies focused on cancer epidemiological data from Iran. Overall age-standard incidence rate per 100,000 population according to primary site is 110.43 in males and 98.23 in females. The five most common cancers (except skin cancer) are stomach, esophagus, colon-rectum, bladder and leukemia in males, and in females are breast, esophagus, stomach, colon-rectum and cervix uteri. The incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers are high in Iran (it is one of the known areas with a high incidence of GI cancers). Breast cancer mainly affects Iranian women about a decade earlier than Western countries and younger cases are affected by an increasing rate of colorectal cancer in Iran, near the Western rates.

Massarrat S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2014

Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disorder; genetic factors, H. pylori infection and various environmental factors contribute to its development. Advanced atrophic corpus-predominant gastritis provides the histological base for its genesis. Low socio-economic status and poor hygienic conditions, smoking habits, heavy alcohol consumption, high salt and low intake of vegetables and fruits are important external factors for the occurrence of gastric cancer. For its prevention, the eradication of H. pylori infection at an early age is mandatory for subjects at high risk or those living in areas with high prevalence of gastric cancer. Given that an increased serum level of Pepsinogen II is a good biomarker for the presence of gastritis, it seems reasonable to screen all infected subjects at risk of gastric cancer with increased serum pepsinogen II at an early age (at around 30 years) to eradicate H. pylori. An endoscopy should be performed for subjects at an older age (40 years and older), when increased serum pepsinogen II level is associated with decreased serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen I to II ratio.

Moradi A.R.,University of Tehran | Abdi A.,University of Tehran | Fathi-Ashtiani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Dalgleish T.,Cognition Emotion and Mental Health Programme Medical Research Council | Jobson L.,University of East Anglia
Behaviour Research and Therapy | Year: 2012

This study examined the recollection of autobiographical material in memory among Iranian military veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and healthy non-trauma-exposed control subjects. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Autobiographical Memory Interview (counterbalanced), Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. The PTSD group generated fewer specific episodic and semantic details of autobiographical memory compared to the non-PTSD and control groups. Working memory did not significantly moderate the relationship between PTSD diagnosis and reduced autobiographical memory specificity but did moderate the relationship between PTSD diagnosis and semantic recall; semantic memory recall was not significantly related to working memory ability for those with PTSD but was related to working memory ability for trauma survivors without PTSD. While the data provide some support for the expectation that higher working memory ability is associated with an increased ability to retrieve specific memories (i.e. semantic memory recall in those without PTSD), the findings are also consistent with the view that for those with PTSD the demands on working memory required for affect regulation cancel out this influence of working memory in augmenting access to specific memories. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Farzadfar F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Murray C.J.L.,University of Washington | Gakidou E.,University of Washington | Bossert T.,Harvard University | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background: Non-communicable diseases and their risk factors are leading causes of disease burden in Iran and other middle-income countries. Little evidence exists for whether the primary health-care system can effectively manage non-communicable diseases and risk factors at the population level. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of the Iranian rural primary health-care system (the Behvarz system) in the management of diabetes and hypertension, and to assess whether the effects depend on the number of health-care workers in the community. Methods: We used individual-level data from the 2005 Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey (NCDSS) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), body-mass index, medication use, and sociodemographic variables. Data for Behvarz-worker and physician densities were from the 2006 Population and Housing Census and the 2005 Outpatient Care Centre Mapping Survey. We assessed the effectiveness of treatment on FPG and SBP, and associations between FPG or SBP and Behvarz-worker density with two statistical approaches: a mixed-effects regression analysis of the full NCDSS sample adjusting for individual-level and community-level covariates and an analysis that estimated average treatment effect on data balanced with propensity score matching. Results: NCDSS had data for 65 619 individuals aged 25 years or older (11 686 of whom in rural areas); of these, 64 694 (11 521 in rural areas) had data for SBP and 50 202 (9337 in rural areas) had data for FPG. Nationally, 39.2% (95% CI 37.7 to 40.7) of individuals with diabetes and 35.7% (34.9 to 36.5) of those with hypertension received treatment, with higher treatment coverage in women than in men and in urban areas than in rural areas. Treatment lowered mean FPG by an estimated 1. 34 mmol/L (0. 58 to 2. 10) in rural areas and 0.21 mmol/L (-0. 15 to 0. 56) in urban areas. Individuals in urban areas with hypertension who received treatment had 3.8 mm Hg (3.1 to 4.5) lower SBP than they would have had if they had not received treatment; the treatment effect was 2. 5 mm Hg (1.1 to 3.9) lower FPG in rural areas. Each additional Behvarz worker per 1000 adults was associated with a 0. 09 mmol/L (0.01 to 0. 18) lower district-level average FPG (p=0.02); for SBP this effect was 0. 53 mm Hg (-0.44 to 1.50; p=0.28). Our findings were not sensitive to the choice of statistical method. Interpretation: Primary care systems with trained community health-care workers and well established guidelines can be effective in non-communicable disease prevention and management. Iran's primary care system should expand the number and scope of its primary health-care worker programmes to also address blood pressure and to improve performance in areas with few primary care personnel. Funding: None. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mahmoudi M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Akhavan O.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghavami M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

Since amyloid beta fibrillation (AβF) plays an important role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and their protein-coated surfaces on the kinetics of Aβ fibrillation in the aqueous solution. We showed that GO and their protein-covered surfaces delay the AβF process via adsorption of amyloid monomers. Also, the large available surface of GO sheets can delay the AβF process by adsorption of amyloid monomers. The inhibitory effect of the GO sheet was increased when we increase the concentration from 10% (in vitro; stimulated media) to 100% (in vivo; stimulated media). Conclusion: our results revealed that GO and their surface proteins inhibit AβF by decreasing the kinetic reaction. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Nabatchian F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Vaisi-Raygani A.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The Bradford protein assay is a popular method because of its rapidity, sensitivity, and relative specificity. This method is subject to some interference by nonprotein compounds. In this study, we describe the interference of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the Bradford assay. This interference is based on the interaction of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBB) with this cationic detergent. This study suggests that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are involved in the interaction of CTAB and CBB. The anionic and neutral forms of CBB bind to CTAB by electrostatic attraction, which accelerates hydrophobic interactions of these CBB forms and the hydrophobic tail of CTAB. Consequently, the hydrophobic regions of the dominant free cationic form of CBB dye compete for the tail of CTAB with two other forms of the dye and gradually displace the primary hydrophobic interactions and rearrange the primary CBB-CTAB complex. This interaction of CTAB and CBB dye produces a primary 650-nm-absorbing complex that then gradually rearranges to a complex that shows an absorbance shoulder at 800-950 nm. This study conclusively shows a strong response of CBB to CTAB that causes a time-dependent and nearly additive interference with the Bradford assay. This study also may promote an application of CBB for CTAB quantification. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Goyal D.,Saumya Orthocare Center for Advanced Surgeries of the Knee Joint | Keyhani S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Goyal A.,Smt NHL Municipal Medical College | Lee E.H.,National University of Singapore | And 2 more authors.
Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery | Year: 2014

Purpose Our purpose was to examine the Level I and II evidence for the use of osteochondral cylinder transfer technique (OCT) for cartilage repair. Methods A literature search was carried out for Level I and II evidence studies on cartilage repair using the PubMed database. All the studies that involved OCT were identified. Only Level I and II studies that compared OCT to other modalities of treatment such as microfracture (MF) and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) were selected. Results A total of 8 studies matched the selection criteria with 2 Level I and 6 Level II studies. Four studies compared OCT with MF, 3 compared OCT with ACI, and one compared all 3 techniques. Of 3 studies, 4 came from a single center. Mean age of patients ranged from 24 to 33 years, and mean follow-up ranged from 9 to 124 months. The studies from the single center showed superior results from OCT over MF, especially in younger patients, with one study having long-term follow-up of 10 years. They also showed an earlier return to sports. The size of the lesions were small (average < 3 cm2). The 4 other independent studies did not show any difference between OCT and ACI, with one study showing inferior outcome in the OCT group. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed good osseous integration of the osteochondral plugs to the subchondral bone. Histologic examination showed that there was hyaline cartilage in the transplanted osteochondral plugs but no hyaline cartilage between the plugs. Conclusions From the studies of a single center, OCT had an advantage over MF in younger patients with small chondral lesions. Comparison of outcomes between OCT and ACI showed no significant difference in 2 studies and contrasting results in another 2 studies. There was insufficient evidence for long-term results for OCT. Level of Evidence Level II, systematic review of Level I and II studies. © 2014 The Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Mozaffari S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nikfar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nikfar S.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Abdolghaffari A.H.,Institute of Medicinal Plants | And 2 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: Some inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients especially those with refractory Crohn's disease (CD) or relapsing ulcerative colitis (UC) do not respond to current therapies. The newly introduced biological drugs have got some interest due to their specificity and selectivity in modulation of inflammatory elements. Areas covered: In 46 included randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, the efficacy and safety of different biologic drugs have been evaluated in moderately to severely active CD or UC patients. Current investigated drugs include new anti-TNF drugs (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, onercept and golimumab), anti-CD20 (rituximab), T-cell inhibitors (abatacept) and anti-α4 integrins (natalizumab and vedolizumab). Adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab showed significant efficacy in induction of remission and maintenance in CD and UC patients with a rate of adverse events similar to placebo in the major trials. Natalizumab and vedolizumab were effective in the treatment of moderately to severely active CD and UC patients. However, vedolizumab caused less adverse effects than natalizumab. onercept, etanercept, rituximab and abatacept were all well tolerated but were not effective in CD or UC patients. Expert opinion: Anti-TNF drugs, except for onercept and etanercept, and anti-α4 integrins exhibit beneficial therapeutic effects. Although they were all well tolerated, the incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with natalizumab should not be missed. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Abolghasemian M.,Sinai University | Sadeghi Naini M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Tangsataporn S.,Sinai University | Lee P.,Royal London Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Bone and Joint Journal | Year: 2014

We retrospectively reviewed 44 consecutive patients (50 hips) who underwent acetabular re-revision after a failed previous revision that had been performed using structural or morcellised allograft bone, with a cage or ring for uncontained defects. Of the 50 previous revisions, 41 cages and nine rings were used with allografts for 14 minor-column and 36 major-column defects. We routinely assessed the size of the acetabular bone defect at the time of revision and re-revision surgery. This allowed us to assess whether host bone stock was restored. We also assessed the outcome of re-revision surgery in these circumstances by means of radiological characteristics, rates of failure and modes of failure. We subsequently investigated the factors that may affect the potential for the restoration of bone stock and the durability of the re-revision reconstruction using multivariate analysis. At the time of re-revision, there were ten host acetabula with no significant defects, 14 with contained defects, nine with minor-column, seven with major-column defects and ten with pelvic discontinuity. When bone defects at re-revision were compared with those at the previous revision, there was restoration of bone stock in 31 hips, deterioration of bone stock in nine and remained unchanged in ten. This was a significant improvement (p < 0.001). Morselised allografting at the index revision was not associated with the restoration of bone stock. In 17 hips (34%), re-revision was possible using a simple acetabular component without allograft, augments, rings or cages. There were 47 patients with a mean follow-up of 70 months (6 to 146) available for survival analysis. Within this group, the successful cases had a minimum follow-up of two years after re-revision. There were 22 clinical or radiological failures (46.7%), 18 of which were due to aseptic loosening. The five and ten year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 75% (95% CI, 60 to 86) and 56% (95% CI, 40 to 70) respectively with aseptic loosening as the endpoint. The rate of aseptic loosening was higher for hips with pelvic discontinuity (p = 0.049) and less when the allograft had been in place for longer periods (p = 0.040). The use of a cage or ring over structural allograft bone for massive uncontained defects in acetabular revision can restore host bone stock and facilitate subsequent re-revision surgery to a certain extent. © 2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Nikfar S.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education | Abdollahi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Melanoma Research | Year: 2013

The widespread prevalence of melanoma, one of the most malignant forms of skin cancer, is increasing rapidly. Two chemotherapeutic regimens are commonly used for the palliative treatment of malignant melanoma: intravenous administration of single-agent dacarbazine or oral administration of temozolomide. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and side effects of dacarbazine with those of temozolomide through a meta-analysis. A thorough literature bibliography search was conducted up to 2012 to gather and review all randomized clinical trials comparing the use of dacarbazine with that of temozolomide in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Three head-to-head randomized clinical trials comprising 1314 patients met the criteria and were included. Comparison of temozolomide with dacarbazine yielded a nonsignificant relative risk (RR) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26-2.64, P = 0.76] for complete response, a nonsignificant RR of 1.05 (95% CI=0.85-1.3, P = 0.65) for stable disease, and a nonsignificant RR of 2.64 (95% CI= 0.97-1.36, P = 0.11) for disease control rate. The RR for nonhematologic side effects and hematologic side effects, such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, of temozolomide compared with dacarbazine in patients with malignant melanoma was nonsignificant in all cases, but the RR for lymphopenia of temozolomide compared with dacarbazine was 3.79 (95% CI= 1.38-10.39, P = 0.01), which was significant. Although it is easier to administer oral medication, according to the results, there is no significant difference in the efficacy and side effects of these two drugs. Owing to the higher cost of treatment with temozolomide and the increased prevalence of lymphopenia on using temozolomide, use of dacarbazine as the first choice treatment for malignant melanoma is suggested. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Hashemi H.,Noor Eye Hospital | Seyedian M.A.,Noor Eye Hospital | Miraftab M.,Noor Eye Hospital | Fotouhi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Asgari S.,Noor Eye Hospital
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term results of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in patients with progressive keratoconus. Design: Prospective case series. Participants: This study was conducted on 40 eyes of 32 patients with progressive keratoconus between 2006 and 2012. Methods: Patients underwent CXL no later than 1 month after baseline examinations. For CXL, ultraviolet irradiation was applied for 30 minutes, during which riboflavin instillation was repeated every 3 minutes. Main Outcome Measures: Patients were tested for best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), and Scheimpflug imaging from which we extracted maximum keratometry reading (max-K), average of minimum and maximum keratometry readings (mean-K), central corneal thickness (CCT), and anterior and posterior elevation at the apex at baseline, at 1, 3, 6 months after CXL, and 1, 2, 4, and 5 years later. We studied results at 5 years after CXL as well as the trend of changes over the 5-year period. Results: Mean UCVA was 0.67±0.52 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) at baseline and 0.65±0.51 logMAR at 5 years after the procedure. For mean BCVA, these values were 0.31±0.28 and 0.19±0.20 logMAR, respectively (P = 0.016). The mean MRSE changed from -3.18±2.23 diopters (D) to -2.77±2.18 D, and mean refractive cylinder error changed from -3.14±2.22 to -2.49±1.71 D (P = 0.089). Mean max-K and mean-K decreased by 0.16±2.20 and 0.10±1.69 D, respectively. The CCT increased from 483.87±29.07 to 485.95±28.43 μm. Mean anterior elevation at the apex changed from 13.9 2±8.28 to 11.45±8.18 μm (P = 0.030) and posterior elevation at this point changed from 29.54±18.39 to 26.34±19.59 μm. The mean-K, max-K, UCVA, and astigmatism showed no change over time during these 5 years. After the first year, BCVA, MRSE, and CCT showed no change and stabilized, whereas elevation readings continued to decrease up to 5 years after CXL. Conclusions: Based on our 5-year results, treatment of progressive keratoconus with CXL can stop disease progression, without raising any concern for safety, and can eliminate the need for keratoplasty. © 2013 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology Published by Elsevier Inc.

Rashidian A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Russell I.,University of Swansea
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: Limited studies have demonstrated that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) may be able to help in explaining the variation in physicians' behavior. We selected the management of asthma as the tracer topic because asthma had nationally known clinical guidelines, and the main medicinal therapies used for asthma had limited applications for the treatment of other diseases, and hence, it was possible to trace the relevant prescribing from routine data. In this study we used the TPB to explain general practitioners (GPs) intentions and prescribing in accordance with asthma clinical guidelines. Methods: We surveyed a stratified random sample of 122 GPs in England. The GPs demographic and prescribing data were obtained from routine sources. The participants completed a TPB questionnaire that was developed based on qualitative interviews and had been tested in a pilot study. Regression methods were utilized for data analysis. Results: Forty-three percent of variance in prescribing intentions was explained by direct TPB measures. Perceived controls were the main predictors of variation in intentions. TPB belief item variables contributed to regression analysis that explained up to 34% of variation in the efficiency prescribing indicators.Effectiveprescribing indicators were unrelated to TPB variables. Conclusions: Using TPB was helpful in understanding the prescribing intentions of GPs. This could help in promoting the prophylactic usage of inhaler corticosteroids and prevent chronic asthma symptoms and side-effects. However, further empirical and methodological researches are required.

Parvaneh N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Casanova J.-L.,Rockefeller University | Casanova J.-L.,University of Paris Descartes | Notarangelo L.D.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2013

The characterization of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) in human subjects is crucial for a better understanding of the biology of the immune response. New achievements in this field have been possible in light of collaborative studies; attention paid to new phenotypes, infectious and otherwise; improved immunologic techniques; and use of exome sequencing technology. The International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee on PIDs recently reported on the updated classification of PIDs. However, new PIDs are being discovered at an ever-increasing rate. A series of 19 novel primary defects of immunity that have been discovered after release of the International Union of Immunological Societies report are discussed here. These new findings highlight the molecular pathways that are associated with clinical phenotypes and suggest potential therapies for affected patients. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Hashemi H.,Noor Eye Hospital | Hashemi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Khabazkhoob M.,Noor Eye Hospital | Jafarzadehpur E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To determine the normal range of contrast sensitivity and its determinants through a population-based study in Shahroud, in northern Iran. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants: Using random cluster sampling in Shahroud, 6311 people between 40 and 64 years of age were sampled; 5190 (82.24%) responded, and 965 participants were selected randomly for contrast sensitivity testing. Methods: Participants underwent thorough eye examinations, including visual acuity and refraction tests, funduscopy, and slit-lamp examination. Main Outcome Measures: Contrast sensitivity was tested with best correction using the CVS1000 grating charts (VectorVision, Inc., Greenville, OH), and results are reported here in log units. Results: Overall, mean±standard deviation contrast sensitivity in spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree was 1.62±0.19, 1.87±0.22, 1.53±0.28, and 1.09±0.30 log units, respectively. Contrast sensitivity worsened significantly with age and with lower levels of uncorrected visual acuity (P<0.001). Compared with men, contrast sensitivity was worse among women in spatial frequencies of 3 and 6. Contrast sensitivity was significantly worse with myopia of more than 5.0 diopters (P<0.001). There was an inverse correlation between the amount of astigmatism and contrast sensitivity in all spatial frequencies (P<0.001). Contrast sensitivity showed a significant variability among people with normal vision that increased at higher spatial frequencies. Conclusions: The present findings can be used as a reference guide for contrast sensitivity in a general population and for comparison in future studies. Contrast sensitivity declines with age, high myopia, and astigmatism. The wide range variability, even in the presence of normal visual acuity, should be considered when contrast sensitivity is tested. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Rashidian A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Russell I.,University of Swansea
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Objectives Few studies have assessed the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in explaining physicians' behaviour. This study uses the TPB for explaining physicians' implementation of guidelines' prescribing recommendations. Methods We developed the questionnaire via conducting qualitative interviews and pilot study. A random sample of 155 general practitioners (GPs) in England participated in the study. Prescribing and practice data were collected from routine sources. We analysed the data using regression methods. Results TPB explained 48% of variation in reported intentions to follow guidelines' prescribing recommendations. Attitude and perceived controls, but not subjective norms, were predictors of variation in intentions. TPB belief variables significantly explained variation in effective and efficient prescribing indicators (14% and 12% respectively). Normative, control and behavioural beliefs contributed to the models. Only for efficient prescribing, the TPB items retained their significance in presence of demographic variables. We found no significant relationship between intention and prescribing. Conclusions TPB helped understanding of GPs prescribing behaviour and their intentions to implement a clinical guideline. Beliefs (e.g. normative beliefs) were better predictors of behaviour than the composite scores for their corresponding higher-level construct (e.g. indirect subjective norm). TPB models should be tested alongside randomized trials to test the assumption of causality that change in beliefs ultimately results in change in behaviour. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Hashemi H.,Noor Eye Hospital | Hashemi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Eye (London, England) | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: To compare the visual outcomes between PRK-MMC and phakic IOL in patients with more than 8 diopter (D) of myopia.METHODS: This comparative study was performed on 23 eyes under treatment with Artiflex (group A) and 23 eyes under treatment with PRK-MMC (group B). Artiflex phakic IOL (Ophtec BV) was used in group A, and the VISX STAR S4 Excimer Laser (Abbott) was used for PRK-MMC in group B.RESULTS: The safety index was 1.11 ± 0.23 and 1.05 ± 0.25 (P = 0.100) and the efficacy index was 1.02 ± 0.11 and 0.98 ± 0.10 (P = 0.266) in group A and B, respectively. At 1 year after surgery, the manifest refraction spherical equivalent was -0.17 ± 1.18 and -0.25 ± 0.18 D in group A and B, respectively (P = 0.471). Mesopic CS showed no significant difference between the two groups in any spatial frequency. Total coma was 0.24 ± 0.17 and 0.67 ± 0.40 μm (P < 0.001), spherical aberration was -0.11 ± 0.11 and 0.41 ± 0.18 μm (P < 0.001), and RMS HOAT was 0.50 ± 0.20 and 0.96 ± 0.45 μm (P<0.001) in group A and B, respectively.CONCLUSION: Phakic IOL implantation was better than PRK-MMC in the correction of high myopia in terms of visual quality, but the two methods had no difference with regard to visual acuity. Therefore, PRK-MMC can be used when the anterior chamber depth is a limiting factor in the implantation of phakic IOLs.

Hosseinzadeh F.,University of Tehran | Ebrahimi M.,University of Qom | Goliaei B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shamabadi N.,University of Qom
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Rapid distinction between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors is very important in diagnosis of this disease. Furthermore sequence-derived structural and physicochemical descriptors are very useful for machine learning prediction of protein structural and functional classes, classifying proteins and the prediction performance. Herein, in this study is the classification of lung tumors based on 1497 attributes derived from structural and physicochemical properties of protein sequences (based on genes defined by microarray analysis) investigated through a combination of attribute weighting, supervised and unsupervised clustering algorithms. Eighty percent of the weighting methods selected features such as autocorrelation, dipeptide composition and distribution of hydrophobicity as the most important protein attributes in classification of SCLC, NSCLC and COMMON classes of lung tumors. The same results were observed by most tree induction algorithms while descriptors of hydrophobicity distribution were high in protein sequences COMMON in both groups and distribution of charge in these proteins was very low; showing COMMON proteins were very hydrophobic. Furthermore, compositions of polar dipeptide in SCLC proteins were higher than NSCLC proteins. Some clustering models (alone or in combination with attribute weighting algorithms) were able to nearly classify SCLC and NSCLC proteins. Random Forest tree induction algorithm, calculated on leaves one-out and 10-fold cross validation) shows more than 86% accuracy in clustering and predicting three different lung cancer tumors. Here for the first time the application of data mining tools to effectively classify three classes of lung cancer tumors regarding the importance of dipeptide composition, autocorrelation and distribution descriptor has been reported. © 2012 Hosseinzadeh et al.

Hashemi H.,Noor Eye Hospital | Dadgostar A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Cornea | Year: 2011

Purpose: To assess the visual outcome of using fibrin adhesive in automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty with a microkeratome in the treatment of anterior corneal opacities. Methods: In this prospective noncomparative clinical trial, surgery was done on 10 eyes belonging to 9 patients with anterior stromal opacity (macular dystrophy, spheroidal degeneration, scarring because of advanced recurrent pterygium, refractive surgery, or trauma). Depending on the depth of the opacity, a 130-or 250-μm flap was removed from the recipient cornea using a microkeratome. Then, a thin layer of fibrin adhesive was spread over the bed, and a lenticule with the same thickness, created from the donor cornea, was positioned in place. After allowing the glue to set for about 5 minutes, a bandage contact lens was placed over the cornea, which was removed 7-10 days postoperatively. Results: All corneas healed properly, and none required suturing or reoperation. During the follow-up period, no inflammation or rejection was observed. The donor cornea and the donor-recipient interface remained clear in all cases. The mean of best contact lens-corrected visual acuity improved from 1.14 ± 0.53 to 0.51 ± 0.23 in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution scale. Conclusions: The fibrin glue can provide safe and effective attachment needed in automated lamellar therapeutic keratectomy and obviates the need for suturing. However, it requires improvement for easier and safer use in ophthalmology. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sharifi S.,University of Groningen | Behzadi S.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Laurent S.,University of Mons | Laird Forrest M.,University of Kansas | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There are few studies of the long-term consequences of nanoparticles on human health, but governmental agencies, including the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Japan's Ministry of Health, have recently raised the question of whether seemingly innocuous materials such as carbon-based nanotubes should be treated with the same caution afforded known carcinogens such as asbestos. Since nanomaterials are increasing a part of everyday consumer products, manufacturing processes, and medical products, it is imperative that both workers and end-users be protected from inhalation of potentially toxic NPs. It also suggests that NPs may need to be sequestered into products so that the NPs are not released into the atmosphere during the product's life or during recycling. Further, non-inhalation routes of NP absorption, including dermal and medical injectables, must be studied in order to understand possible toxic effects. Fewer studies to date have addressed whether the body can eventually eliminate nanomaterials to prevent particle build-up in tissues or organs. This critical review discusses the biophysicochemical properties of various nanomaterials with emphasis on currently available toxicology data and methodologies for evaluating nanoparticle toxicity. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

News Article | March 15, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

A shoddy building collapses in an earthquake, people are injured, then hospitals and health professionals respond. So Ardalan has worked to strengthen Iran's healthcare system - from hospitals to the country's 150,000 female community health volunteers - by training them in what to do when disasters strike. "Disasters have an impact on public health, and health systems have to take a proactive approach, preventive measures to reduce the risk of disasters," said Ardalan, chair of the Disaster and Emergency Health Academy at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Ardalan was one of several speakers at a conference held last week in Bangkok to discuss implementation of health aspects of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction adopted by U.N. member states a year ago. Health is a relatively new aspect of disaster risk reduction. The Sendai accord was the first to give health a higher profile, with measures to protect health by reducing damage to hospitals and ensuring medical care continues in disasters. It also tackles the risks of epidemics and pandemics. In the decade ending in 2014, disasters caused $1.4 trillion in damage, killed about 700,000 people and affected 1.7 billion others, according to the U.N. Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Key infrastructure and healthcare facilities are often wiped out. The 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China damaged or destroyed 11,000 hospitals, while the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged 61 percent of health facilities in Aceh, Indonesia, killed 7 percent of the area's health workers and 30 percent of its midwives, according to the Overseas Development Institute. Disaster health experts like Ardalan have focused on building resilience and preparing for such catastrophes. Iran has worked to ensure its hospitals have disaster contingency plans, including evacuation plans in the event of an earthquake or flood, said Ardalan, who is also a visiting scientist at the Harvard School of Public Health and an adviser to the World Health Organization. Iran has also trained its community health volunteers - all women - to conduct household training, which includes drawing a household earthquake risk map to show danger spots near big windows or under large ceiling lights, as well as safe spots under tables or near pillars. Last year, the volunteers trained 500,000 households across Iran, he said. "We believe it's better to be proactive, work with them, so they are sensitive to their safety and know how to react if something happens," he said on the sidelines of the conference. "It's a very-cost effective intervention for the entire society." Similar efforts are under way to provide health and disaster preparedness for ethnic minority communities in rural China. Emily Ying Yang Chan, who worked for Médecins Sans Frontières for 17 years and now heads the disaster and medical humanitarian response center at Chinese University in Hong Kong (CUHK), began the ethnic minority health program about six months after the Sichuan quake. The typical community her team works with is two flights and a seven-hour bumpy car ride away, though one village, 5,000 meters above sea level on the Tibetan Plateau, took 17 hours to get to in a four-wheel-drive car. Chan's approach has been to provide the knowledge or help that villagers request, on condition that her team gets to conduct disaster risk training. Most communities want to learn more about economic development, though women also ask them to teach their husbands not to smoke or how to read food labels. In return, Chan and her students from the Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response (CCOUC) give health advice such as not burning waste indoors and reducing salt intake. Then the team helps the community to prepare disaster kits, handing out red cloth bags, with large Chinese characters that read "rescue bag". They put in soap, a towel, a bottle of water and non-perishable food, as well as a manual battery-less torch and a multipurpose knife with a can opener - which Chan said has often been missing from aid packages. "A lot of agencies sent food supplies, but forgot to send a can opener, and many people come to the clinic with cuts because they use whatever they can to cut (open the can)," she said. The ethnic minority health program team has worked in 11 villages, visiting each one four times over a two-year period. The biggest challenge now, Chan says, is digesting the data they have gathered, to improve and scale up assistance for the villagers.

Nasiri M.J.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Dabiri H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Darban-Sarokhalil D.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rezadehbashi M.,University of British Columbia | Zamani S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2014

Background: The spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem worldwide. Although drug resistance is common in some countries and rare in others, the extent of this condition is not precisely known in Iran. Methods: We searched several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Iran Medex, and Scientific Information Database to identify studies addressing drug-resistant tuberculosis in Iran. A total of 19 reports published from different regions of Iran from March 1999-May 2013 were included in this study. Results: The meta-analyses revealed that 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.8-24.2) of new cases and 65.6% (95% CI, 62.5-68.5) of previously treated cases were resistant to at least 1 drug. Furthermore, MDR-TB was found in 5.1% (95% CI, 4.4-5.8) of new cases, whereas it was found in 33.7% (95% CI, 30.8-36.7) of retreatment cases. The highest rate of resistance in new and previously treated cases was seen against streptomycin (19%) and isoniazid (47%), respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study underscore the need for further enforcement of TB control strategies. Drug susceptibility testing, establishing advanced diagnostic facilities, and continuous monitoring of drug resistance are recommended for prevention and control of MDR-TB. Copyright © 2014 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pakravan M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Rad S.S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Yazdani S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Ghahari E.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Yaseri M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate the effect of early aqueous suppressant treatment on Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery outcomes. Design Randomized clinical trial. Participants Ninety-four eyes of 94 patients with refractory glaucoma. Methods After AGV implantation, 47 cases (group 1) received topical timolol-dorzolamide fixed-combination drops twice daily when intraocular pressure (IOP) exceeded 10 mmHg, whereas 47 controls (group 2) received conventional stepwise treatment when IOP exceeded target pressure. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures included IOP and success rate (6 mmHg < IOP < 15 mmHg and IOP reduction of at least 30% from baseline). Other outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity, complications, and hypertensive phase frequency. Results Groups 1 and 2 were both followed up for a mean of 45±11.6 and 47.2±7.4 weeks, respectively (P = 0.74). Mixed model analysis revealed a significantly greater IOP reduction in group 1 at all intervals (P<0.001). At 1 year, the cases exhibited a significantly higher success rate (63.2% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.008) and reduced hypertensive phase frequency (23.4% vs. 66.0%; P<0.001). Conclusions Early aqueous suppressant treatment may improve AGV implantation outcomes in terms of IOP reduction, success rate, and hypertensive phase frequency. © 2014 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Shab-Bidar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Neyestani T.R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Djazayery A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background/Objectives:The objectives were to evaluate the effects of improvement of vitamin D status on biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects and whether vitamin D receptor (VDR)-FokI polymorphisms could modulate the response to vitamin D3 intake.Subjects/Methods:Subjects with T2D were allocated to one of the two groups to receive either plain doogh (PD; containing 150 mg calcium and no vitamin D/250 ml, n 1 =50) or vitamin D3-fortified doogh (FD; containing 500 IU/250 ml, n 1 =50) twice a day for 12 weeks. Outcomes were changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). VDR genotypes in 140 T2D subjects in FD were determined by FokI restriction enzyme.Results:After 12 weeks, serum 25(OH)D increased significantly in FD (from 38.5±202.2 to 72.0±23.5, P<0.001) as compared with PD (from 38.8±22.8 to 33.4±22.8, P=0.28). Comparisons between FD and PD revealed significant differences in changes of serum MDA (-0.54±0.82 μmol/l vs +0.17±1 μmol/l, P<0.001), GSH (+8.4±40.1 ng/l vs -13.1±29.4 ng/l, P=0.002) and TAC (+0.14±0.43 mmol/lvs +0.02±0.45 mmol/l bovine serum albumin equivalent, P=0.03). Although there was no significant association between FokI genotypes and OS biomarkers, ff variant subgroup showed the weakest response to vitamin D.Conclusions:Improvement of vitamin D status via daily intake of FD ameliorates OS biomarkers in T2D subjects and the interactive effect of FokI genotypes cannot be ruled out. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Nadri S.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences | Mahmoudvand H.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences | Eatemadi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Microencapsulation | Year: 2016

Introduction: In an effort of designing an alternative method for local nerve block, we demonstrated the possibility of inducing ankle block in the rat with intravenous (IV) injection of magnetic nanoparticles conjugated bupivacaine and application of a magnet at the ankle. Methods: The anaesthetic effect of magnet-directed bupivacaine-associated MNPs (NIPAAM-MAA-bupivacaine) was tested in rat using paw withdrawal latencies from thermal stimuli on the hind paw. Thirteen (13) experimental animals were grouped into two; untreated left hind paw (control group) and test group with treated right hind paw. The morphology of the synthesised nanogel was analysed using scanning electron micrograph (SEM), chemical characterisation using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and finally the in vivo drug release using UV spectroscopy. Results: UV spectroscopy result show that, at 37 °C a sharp increase was observed from 24–72 h (40–75%) cumulative drug release at pH 5.3, a steady increase from 21–60% and 20–40% at pH 6.8 and 7.4m respectively. At 43 °C, a steady increase was observed at the three pH, 37–72%, 20–35% and 10–19% at pH 5.3, 6.8 and 7.4, respectively. It was shown also that drug release at higher pH (6.8 and 7.4) does not become significantly faster when temperature is high, compared to the release at a pH of 5.3. This depicts that the decreasing pH has more impact on the speed of the release of drug than increasing temperature. NMR and FTIR results displayed a comparable chemical structure as expected. The NMR peak displayed high purity of the final product. Morphology using SEM showed that the nanocomposite size is slightly greater than that of the nanogel, and the nanocomposite particles are nearly mono dispersed. Paw withdrawal latency highest peak of 15% was observed for NG/PU/30 at 40hours, and lowest peak for NG/30 at 50 h for the left paw. Group BU0.15 at 30 h shows the highest peak (20%) and NG/30 at 120 h shows the lowest peak for the right treated paw, which is significantly difference from the untreated left paw group (p< 0.0001). However, there wasn’t a significant difference amongst NG/30, NG/Pub/15, or NG/Pub/60. Conclusions: The current study verifies the findings that we can induce ankle block in rat through IV injection administration of NIPAAM-MAA-bupivacaine complexes and the application of magnet at the ankle. We however suggest a lower temperature and pH for optimum release of this nanoanaesthetics, there is a probability of translating this mechanism to clinical practise. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Niyyati M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Rezaeian M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2015

Background: Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sightthreatening amoebae is of utmost importance. Methods: We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples. Results: According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country. Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years. © 2015, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). All rights reserved.

Biazar E.,Islamic Azad University at Tonekabon | Keshel S.H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Keshel S.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

In this study, we have evaluated the wound-healing effects of unrestricted somatic stem cells loaded in chitosan-cross linked PHBV nanofibrous scaffold, implanted into the full thickness skin defects of rats. Afterwards, the scaffolds were evaluated by structural, microscopic, physical and mechanical assays and cell culture analyses. Defects were treated with the scaffolds without and with USSCs. MTT assay, immunostaining, and wound pathology were performed for groups twenty one days after implantation. SEM images showed the average diameter of about 100 nm for the nanofibrous scaffolds, increasing up to 500 nm after chitosan-crosslinking. Results of physical and mechanical analyses also showed a good resilience and compliance with movement as a skin graft. Cellular experiments showed a better cell adhesion, growth and proliferation inside the cross-linked nanofibrous scaffolds compared to un-cross linked ones. In animal models, all groups, excluding the control group, exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen at post-operative day 21. Histological and immunostaining examinations of healed wounds from all groups, especially the groups treated with stem cells. Thus, the grafting of chitosan-cross-linked nanofibrous scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat models. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Laurent S.,University of Mons | Burtea C.,University of Mons | Thirifays C.,University of Mons | Rezaee F.,University of Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

It is well understood that when nanoparticles (NPs) enter a biological medium, their surface is coated by various proteins; thus, the interaction of the living systems with the NPs depends on the composition of the protein layer, rather than the surface characteristics of the nanoparticle itself. However, there are several neglected parameters in protein-NP interactions (e.g., the key role of the protein source) that should be addressed. The composition of the protein corona is recognized as having a crucial influence on the delivery of NPs into cells, which is important in therapeutic applications and in nanotoxicology; however, the effect of "cell observer" (cell type) is poorly understood. This study probed the effects of different protein sources (fetal bovine serum [FBS] and human plasma [HP]) on the composition and protein thickness of the hard corona formed at the surface of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs) with various sizes and surface chemistries. The results show that the hard corona can change quite considerably as one passes from the biophysicochemical properties of nanoparticles and protein sources (e.g., FBS and HP) appropriate to in vitro cell/tissue studies to those appropriate for in vivo studies. These changes in the hard corona have deep implications for in vitro- in vivo extrapolations. In addition, we probed the "cell observer" effect on the uptake and toxicity of SPIONs with the same protein corona composition to highlight the effect of cell type in nanobiosciences. The particles interacted with various cell lines. We find that without consideration of the "cell observer" effect, the cellular targeting/toxicity of NPs is inherently imprecise; thus, a deep understanding of both the protein corona composition and the "cell observer" effect offer a way to predict NP dosage for therapy and for the study of nanotoxins. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Biazar E.,Islamic Azad University at Tonekabon | Keshel S.H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Keshel S.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
ASAIO Journal | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to produce a chitosan-cross-linked nanofibrous biodegradable poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit. The artificial nerve scaffold designed by electrospinning method and cross-linked with chitosan by chemical method. Afterwards, the scaffolds were evaluated by microscopic, physical, and mechanical analyses and cell culture assays with Schwann cells. The conduits were implanted into a 10 mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. This polymeric conduit had sufficiently good mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. Cellular experiments showed a better cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation inside the cross-linked nanofibrous scaffolds compared with un-cross-linked ones, also Schwann cells well attached on chitosan-cross-linked nanofibrous surface. The in vivo results demonstrated that in the nanofibrous graft, the sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. This neural conduit appears to have the right organization for testing in vivo nerve tissue engineering studies. © 2013 by the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs.

Baradaran-Rafii A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Eslani M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Eslani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sadoughi M.-M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of 2 techniques (Anwar vs. Melles) of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in patients with keratoconus. Design: Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Participants: Fifty-seven eyes of 57 patients 20 to 35 years of age were enrolled. Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of keratoconus who were contact lens intolerant and whose corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was less than 20/80 were enrolled. Eligible eyes were allocated randomly into 2 groups: the Anwar technique (23 eyes) or the Melles technique (25 eyes). Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was CDVA. Secondary outcomes were spherical equivalent, contrast sensitivity, corneal aberrations, corneal biomechanical properties, endothelial cell count, and central corneal thickness. All outcomes were compared 15 months after surgery. Results: The CDVA was 0.17±0.09 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units and 0.18±0.11 logMAR units in the Anwar and Melles groups, respectively (P = 0.803). Spherical equivalent was -1.82±2.7 diopters (D) and -2.69±3.94 D in the Anwar and Melles groups, respectively (P = 0.155). Overall, the difference in photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity function between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between 2 groups in total and higher-order aberrations up to the fifth order (P>0.05 for all parameters). Corneal hysteresis was not significantly different between the 2 groups (9.9±0.8 vs. 9.9±0.6; P = 0.606). The corneal resistance factor was 10.02±0.8 and 10.13±0.76 (P = 0.509). There was no significant difference in percentage of endothelial cell loss between the 2 groups (1±2% vs. 1±3% in the Anwar and Melles groups, respectively; P = 0.869). Mean central corneal thickness was 525.56±47.87 μm versus 504.64±54.20 μm in the Anwar and Melles groups, respectively (P = 0.155). Conclusions: The Anwar and Melles techniques of DALK have comparable visual acuity and refractive outcomes, aberrometric profiles, biomechanical properties, corneal thicknesses, and endothelial cell densities. However, patients who underwent the Anwar technique showed better contrast sensitivity. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Saadat S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Soori H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: Road traffic injuries are a serious public health problem worldwide. The incidence rate of fatal road traffic injuries is 26.4 per 100000 in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Iran. Different routine sources are available for road traffic injuries in Iran, but they present several limitations. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in greater Tehran, using a population-based approach which is less prone to under-estimation compared to service-based data. Methods. In the year 2008, 2488 households were randomly selected for a face to face interview. Trained interviewers referred to the selected households to collect the subjects' demographic information, as well as their motor vehicle utilization and traffic injuries during the year prior to data collection. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and reviewed by a quality control team the day after the interview. The Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze continuous variables. Chi-square test -including a test for trend for ordinal data- was used to analyze categorical variables. Ninety-five percent confidence interval was calculated for point estimates of incidences using Poisson or binomial distribution assumptions accordingly. Results: There were 119 traffic injury cases including 3 deaths (33 per 100 000) in the survey sample (n = 9100). The annual incidence of all traffic injuries for 1000 population was 13.1 (95% CI: 10.8 - 15.6), and that of fatal traffic injuries was 33.0 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 6.80 - 96.32). The annual incidence of collision traffic injury for 1000 motorcycles was 95. Conclusion: This population-based study demonstrates that the morbidity rate of RTIs is about ten times higher than the national figures reported by other available sources; and this can serve as an important warning to countries like Iran to prioritize this issue in their public health activities. To ensure more safety on our roads, we need to establish an injury surveillance system, and a more accurate national data capture system on RTIs. © 2011 Saadat and Soori; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Rajaei S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Dabbagh A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine | Year: 2012

Nowadays, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is considered to be one of the most common surgical procedures. This procedure has been the main topic in many clinical research studies, which have assessed the effect of the procedure on patients' outcomes. Like other surgical procedures, this procedure is also accompanied by a number of unwanted complications, including those of the respiratory system. Since the respiratory system plays an integral role in defining the clinical outcome of patients, improvements in studies that can assess and predict clinical outcomes of the respiratory system, assume greater importance. There are a number of predictive models which can assess patients in the preoperative period and introduce a number of risk factors, which could be considered as prognostic factors for patients undergoing CABG. The respiratory system is among the clinical systems that are assessed in many prediction scoring systems. This review assesses the main studies which have evaluated the possible risk factors for postoperative respiratory mortality and morbidity, in patients undergoing CABG. © 2012 Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine; Published by Kowsar Corp.

Mirzaii-Dizgah I.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Riahi E.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Oral Diseases | Year: 2013

Objective: Accurate and rapid diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI) is of major medical and economic importance. The objective of this study was to identify whole saliva high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in patients with acute MI. Subjects and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 30 normal healthy individuals, and 30 patients with acute MI were hospitalized in CCU of Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran. The hs-cTnT levels were assayed in serum and whole saliva in the first and second morning following the MI by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of the Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient was performed. Results: The mean stimulated and unstimulated saliva and serum levels of hs-cTnT at both the first and the second morning following the acute MI were significantly higher in patients with acute MI compared with healthy individuals. Furthermore, stimulated and unstimulated saliva hs-TnT levels correlated significantly with serum hs-TnT level (r = 0.415, P < 0.023; r = 0.466, P < 0.021, respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that salivary hs-cTnT can be used as an alternative to serum hs-cTnT for diagnosis and monitoring of myocardial infarction. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Eshtiaghi R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Keihani S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hosseinpanah F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Barzin M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Azizi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective:This study aims to assess the natural course of metabolically healthy abdominal obese (MHAO) phenotype and determine the predictors of change in the metabolic status in this population over 10 years of follow-up.Methods:A total of 916 MHAO subjects from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study were followed for changes in their metabolic health status. Anthropometric and metabolic indices were measured at baseline and were compared between subjects with healthy and unhealthy metabolic conditions at the end of follow-up. Predictors of change in metabolic health were assessed in logistic regression models. National waist circumference cutoffs were used for definition of abdominal obesity. Metabolic health was defined as ≤1 metabolic components of metabolic syndrome according to the Joint Interim Statement criteria.Results:At the end of the follow-up, nearly half of the MHAO subjects lost their metabolic health and 42.1% developed metabolic syndrome by definition. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance at baseline were significant predictors of change in metabolic health condition.Conclusion:MHAO is a relatively unstable condition and a considerable percentage of these individuals will lose their metabolic health as time passes. Baseline metabolic characteristics may be useful predictors of this change and should be considered in the care of these individuals. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Danaei G.,Harvard University | Singh G.M.,Harvard University | Paciorek C.J.,University of California at Berkeley | Lin J.K.,Harvard University | And 8 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

Background.It is commonly assumed that cardiovascular disease risk factors are associated with affluence and Westernization. We investigated the associations of body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol with national income, Western diet, and, for BMI, urbanization in 1980 and 2008. Methods and Results.Country-level risk factor estimates for 199 countries between 1980 and 2008 were from a previous systematic analysis of population-based data. We analyzed the associations between risk factors and per capita national income, a measure of Western diet, and, for BMI, the percentage of the population living in urban areas. In 1980, there was a positive association between national income and population mean BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol. By 2008, the slope of the association between national income and systolic blood pressure became negative for women and zero for men. Total cholesterol was associated with national income and Western diet in both 1980 and 2008. In 1980, BMI rose with national income and then flattened at.Int$7000; by 2008, the relationship resembled an inverted U for women, peaking at middle-income levels. BMI had a positive relationship with the percentage of urban population in both 1980 and 2008. Fasting plasma glucose had weaker associations with these country macro characteristics, but it was positively associated with BMI. Conclusions.The changing associations of metabolic risk factors with macroeconomic variables indicate that there will be a global pandemic of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, together with high blood pressure in low-income countries, unless effective lifestyle and pharmacological interventions are implemented. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

Azizi Y.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Faghihi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Imani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Roghani M.,Shahed University | Nazari A.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences
Peptides | Year: 2013

Apelin is a newly discovered peptide that has been recently shown to have cardioprotective effects inthe animal model of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. The aim of thepresent study was to investigate the long term cardioprotective effect of [Pyr1]-apelin-13 in the rat modelof MI. Male Wistar rats (n = 22) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) sham operated group (2)control MI group and (3) MI treated with apelin (MI-AP group). MI animals were subjected to 30 min ofleft anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation and 14 days of reperfusion. 24 h after LAD ligation,apelin (10 nmol/kg/day) was administered i.p. for 5 days. Blood sampling was performed at days 1, 3, 5and 7 after MI for determination of serum changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-MB(CK-MB), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Myocardial infarct size (IS) and hemodynamicfunction were also measured at the end of the study at day 14. We found out that post infarct treatmentwith apelin decreases infarct size, serum levels of LDH, CK-MB and MDA and increases heart rate andserum level of NO in the consecutive days, but there were no significant differences in blood pressurein the MI-AP group in comparison with MI. In conclusion, apelin has long term cardioprotective effectsagainst myocardial infarction through attenuation of cardiac tissue injury and lipid peroxidation andenhancement of NO production. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Azadi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hamidi M.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Rouini M.-R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2013

Methotrexate-loaded hydrogel nanoparticles were prepared and after in vitro characterization, their transport across blood-brain barrier was investigated in vivo in intact animals in this study. The ionic gelation method was used for preparation of drug-loaded nanogels, after optimized by a systematic multi-objective optimization approach. After surface-modification with polysorbate 80, nanoparticles with the final particle size, poly-dispersity index (PDI), loading efficiency (LE) and loading capacity (LC) of 118.54. ±. 15.93. nm, 0.35. ±. 0.05, 61.82. ±. 6.84%, and 53.68. ±. 3.09% were obtained, respectively. The in vitro drug release study indicated non-Fickian diffusion kinetic, apparently governed by both diffusion of the drug out of the nanoparticles and swelling/disintegration of the polymeric network as characterized by a Weibull model for both surface-treated and untreated nanogels. After intravenous administration of surface-modified and unmodified nanogels compared to the free drug, all with the same dose of 25. mg/kg, remarkably higher brain concentrations of methotrexate were achieved with the nanogel formulations in comparison to the free drug (in some cases, more than 10-fold); but there were no significant differences between the surface-modified and unmodified nanogels in all the time points tested. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rauch J.,University College Dublin | Kolch W.,University College Dublin | Laurent S.,University of Mons | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mahmoudi M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Nanoscience is recognized as an emerging science of objects that have at least one dimension ranging from a few nanometers to less than 100 nm. Through the manipulation of organic and inorganic materials at the atomic level, novel materials can be prepared with different thermal, optical, electrical, and mechanical properties, compared to the bulk state of the same materials. Nanoscale entities are abundant in biological systems and include diverse entities such as proteins, small-molecule drugs, metabolites, viruses, and antibodies. Medical applications show particular promise, where nanostructures are engineered to serve as devices for sensing, targeting, delivering, and imaging biological structures. The nanoscale offers a number of advantages. For applications in medicine and in biology, nanosystems can be designed to interact with cells and tissues at a molecular level with a high degree of functional specificity.

Goldust M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Rezaee E.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hemayat S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Scabies is an ectoparasitic, highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite called Sarcoptes scabiei. The insecticides ivermectin and permethrin are commonly used for treatment of scabies. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin with topical permethrin in treating scabies. Two hundred and forty-two patients with scabies attending the dermatology outpatient department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were admitted. Patients were divided into two groups randomly. The first group and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other received oral ivermectin. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 85.9% at a 2-week interval, which increased to 100% after crossing over to the permethrin group at a 4-week interval. Twice application of permethrin with a 1-week interval was effective in 92.5% of patients, which increased to 94.2% after crossing over to the ivermectin group at a 4-week interval. Permethrin-treated patients recovered earlier. Twice application of permethrin with a 1-week interval is superior to a single dose of ivermectin. The temporal dissociation in clinical response suggests that ivermectin may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

Baradaran-Rafii A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Eslani M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Eslani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Djalillian A.R.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Cornea | Year: 2013

Purpose: To report postoperative complications of keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) transplantation in patients with bilateral total limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods: In this retrospective observational case series, medical charts of 45 patients with at least 6 months of follow-up were reviewed. The main outcome measure was postoperative complications including graft-related issues (thickness, position, and alignment) and immunologic rejection. Results: Sixty-six KLALs were performed on 45 eyes. The mean follow-up period was 26.1 ± 11.8 months (range, 6-48 months). Primary failure occurred in 5 eyes primarily as a result of ocular surface exposure and severe dry eyes. Graft-related complications included misalignment (4 eyes), buttonhole (4), inner-edge tear (4), inadvertent limbal trephination (2), and thick KLAL (2). Postoperatively, regional thinning of the graft was observed in 8 KLALs as a result of exposure, regional ischemia, and after epithelial rejection. Acute rejection was diagnosed 16 times in 8 eyes, whereas chronic rejection was observed in 24 eyes. At last follow-up, 12 cases (26.6%) had failed because of recurrent acute rejection (4), chronic rejection (5), refractory herpetic keratitis (1), exposure (1), and refractory papillomavirus keratitis (1). Conclusions: KLAL may be complicated by several adverse events. The most important complications are immunologic rejections, chronic ocular surface exposure, and graft-related complications. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Eftekhar M.,University of Yazd | Aflatoonian A.,University of Yazd | Mohammadian F.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Eftekhar T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2013

Purpose: The incidence of poor ovarian response in controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) has been reported in 9-24 % of IVF-ET cycles. Growth hormone augments the effect of gonadotropin on granulosa and theca cells, and plays an essential role in ovarian function, including follicular development, estrogen synthesis and oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to assess IVF-ET cycle outcome after the addition of growth hormone in antagonist protocol in poor responders. Materials and methods: Eighty-two poor responder patients selected for ART enrolled the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Group I (GH/HMG/GnRHant group, n = 40) received growth hormone/gonadotropin/GnRH antagonist protocol and group II (HMG/GnRHant group, n = 42) received gonadotropin/GnRH antagonist protocol. Results: The number of retrieved oocytes was significantly higher in GH/HMG/GnRHant group than HMG/GnRHant group, 6.10 ± 2.90 vs. 4.80 ± 2.40 (p = 0.035) and the number of obtained embryos was also significantly higher in GH/HMG/GnRHant group than HMG/GnRHant group, 3.7 ± 2.89 as compared to 2.7 ± 1.29 (p = 0.018). There were no significant differences between groups regarding implantation, and chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. Conclusion: Our study showed that co-treatment with growth hormone in antagonist protocol in patients with a history of poor response in previous IVF-ET cycles did not increase pregnancy rates. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Taghavi N.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Yazdi I.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Yazdi I.,Academy of Medical science
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 95% of all forms of head and neck cancers. The five-year survival rate of OSCC patients has been reported approximately 50%, which is not satisfactory despite new treatment modalities. The aim of the current review is to present factors (histologic, clinical, genetic and molecular biomarkers) correlated with survival rate in OSCC patients. Methods: A web-based search for all types of articles published was initiated using MEDLINE/PUBMED. The search was restricted to articles focusing on relevant clinical, histologic, genetic and molecular factors of survival rate in OSCC and presenting new concepts in this field. Results: Mode of invasion, presence of lymph node metastasis, extra-capsular spread, surgical margins and invasive tumor front grade are clinical and histologic parameters, which are strongly associated with survival rate. Focusing on selected proteins, wide range of molecular markers and gene alterations involving in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell migration, cell adhesion and tumor microenvironment have been documented.Among well-known molecular markers ,cyclin dependent kinase, survivin, CD44, BUBR1, and heat shock proteins (27,70) can be considered as independent prognostic factors of survival rate. Conclusion: The identified prognostic factors imply a relatively comprehensive understanding of factors related to survival rate in OSCC patients, and provide an additional tool for selecting patients who need more aggressive treatment design. © 2015, Academy of Medical Sciences of I.R. Iran. All rights reserved.

Keyghobadi N.,University of Yazd | Rafiemanesh H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadian-Hafshejani A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Enayatrad M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Salehiniya H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: According to increase in elderly populations, and change in lifestyle and cancer-causing behavior, the global burden of cancer is increasing. For prevention and control of disease, knowledge of population statistics of cancers and their trends is essential. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and trends of cancer in the province of Kerman: southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: This analytical and cross-sectional study was carried out based on cancer registry data at the Disease Management Center of the Health Ministry from 2004 to 2009 in the province of Kerman in Iran. Common cancers were defined as the number of reported cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentage change (APC), joinpoint software was applied. Results: Of 10,595 registered cases, 45.3% (4802 cases) were in women and 56.7% (5,793 cases) occurred in men. The standardized incidence rates for both females and males were increasing during the six years studied. The most common cancers in both sexes during six years of studied were skin (13.4%), breast (9.35%), bladder (7.8%), stomach (7.45%), leukemia (7.05%), colorectal(5.57%), lung(4.92%), trachea(3.51%) and prostate(2.48%). Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the cancer incidence is demonstrating increasing trends in both sexes in the province of Kerman. This may be because of changes in lifestyle, increasing exposure to risk factors for cancer and increase of life expectancy. If this is the case, increasing public awareness of cancer risk factors is a high priority, together with introduction of large-scale screening techniques.

Biazar E.,Islamic Azad University at Tonekabon | Heidari Keshel S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Heidari Keshel S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Cell Communication and Adhesion | Year: 2013

A nanofibrous PHBV nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of nerve regeneration in rats. The designed conduits were investigated by physical, mechanical and microscopic analyses. The conduits were implanted into a 30-mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. This polymeric conduit had sufficiently high mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. The results demonstrated that in the nanofibrous graft with cells, the sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. For the grafts especially the nanofibrous conduits with cells, muscle cells of gastrocnemius on the operated side were uniform in their size and structures. This study proves the feasibility of artificial conduit with Schwann cells for nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in a rat model. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Shoae-Hassani A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sharif S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Seifalian A.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mortazavi-Tabatabaei S.A.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
BJU International | Year: 2013

Objective To investigate manufacturing smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for regenerative bladder reconstruction from differentiation of endometrial stem cells (EnSCs), as the recent discovery of EnSCs from the lining of women's uteri, opens up the possibility of using these cells for tissue engineering applications, such as building up natural tissue to repair prolapsed pelvic floors as well as building urinary bladder wall. Materials and Methods Human EnSCs that were positive for cluster of differentiation 146 (CD146), CD105 and CD90 were isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle/F12 medium supplemented with myogenic growth factors. The myogenic factors included: transforming growth factor β, platelet-derived growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Differentiated SMCs on bioabsorbable polyethylene-glycol and collagen hydrogels were checked for SMC markers by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot (WB) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analyses. Results Histology confirmed the growth of SMCs in the hydrogel matrices. The myogenic growth factors decreased the proliferation rate of EnSCs, but they differentiated the human EnSCs into SMCs more efficiently on hydrogel matrices and expressed specific SMC markers including α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, vinculin and calponin in RT-PCR, WB and ICC experiments. The survival rate of cultures on the hydrogel-coated matrices was significantly higher than uncoated cultures. Conclusions Human EnSCs were successfully differentiated into SMCs, using hydrogels as scaffold. EnSCs may be used for autologous bladder wall regeneration without any immunological complications in women. Currently work is in progress using bioabsorbable nanocomposite materials as EnSC scaffolds for developing urinary bladder wall tissue. © 2013 BJU International.

Diaz D.N.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Eftekhari K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2015

Atresia of the colon is a rare anomaly with an incidence of between 1:20,000 and 1:66,000 live births being reported. Hirschsprung's disease association with Colonic atresia is usually diagnosed after several failures of intestinal anastomoses. We herein report one of the first patients in the literature diagnosed before a therapeutic challenge. A 2-day-old female was admitted with severe abdominal distention, bilious vomiting and failure to pass meconium. A distended abdomen accompanied by hypoactive bowel sounds was also observed. Abdominal X-ray revealed increased intestinal gas, mainly in the colon. Type IIIa atresia of the colon at the level of the splenic flexure was found at laparotomy. A temporary double-barrel colostomy was completed, and she was discharged from hospital on the tenth day after operation without any complications. At the age of 3 months, due to the aspect of the distal colon, a rectal biopsy was performed and aganglionosis was confirmed. The combination of intestinal aganglionosis and colonic atresia is extremely rare. The concomitance of colonic atresia and aganglionosis is calculated to be in 1 in 10 million live births. Wilson, et al. claims that 80 percent of infants with colonic atresia have associated gastrointestinal anomalies. These defects include rotation and fixation anomalies. However, aganglionosis and intestinal neuronal dysplasia should be taken into account as well. When both diseases are combined, the etiology is still uncertain and several etiologies have been suggested. The association should be suspected in all cases of colonic atresia and rectal biopsies are advocated at the primary operation in patients with atresia of the colon. © 2015, Academy of Medical Sciences of I.R. Iran. All rights reserved.

Razavi Zadegan S.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mirzaie M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mirzaie M.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | Sadoughi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2013

Clustering analysis is the process of dividing a set of objects into none-overlapping subsets. Each subset is a cluster, such that objects in the cluster are similar to one another and dissimilar to the objects in the other clusters. Most of the algorithms in partitioning approach of clustering suffer from trapping in local optimum and the sensitivity to initialization and outliers. In this paper, we introduce a novel partitioning algorithm that its initialization does not lead the algorithm to local optimum and can find all the Gaussian-shaped clusters if it has the right number of them. In this algorithm, the similarity between pairs of objects are computed once and updating the medoids in each iteration costs O(k × m) where k is the number of clusters and m is the number of objects needed to update medoids of the clusters. Comparison between our algorithm and two other partitioning algorithms is performed by using four well-known external validation measures over seven standard datasets. The results for the larger datasets show the superiority of the proposed algorithm over two other algorithms in terms of speed and accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pourhoseingholi M.A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Vahedi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Baghestani A.R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench | Year: 2015

The cancers in the digestive system including gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer and pancreatic cancer are one of the most common cancers in Asia. The burden of GI cancer is increasing in Asia because of aging, growth of the population and the risk factors including smoking, obesity, changing lifestyle and high prevalence of H pylori, HBV and HCV. In most Asian countries, cancer control programs or early detection and treatment services are limited despite this increase. There are many people in the developing countries inside Asia who have no health insurance and many of them are too poor to go for screening tests, early detection or medical treatments. Therefore, it is important for the health organizations and governments in each country to recognize these groups and reduce the incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancers, using simple and economic screening test, vaccination and changing risk factors such as smoking, diet and lifestyle by education programs. © 2015 RIGLD, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases.

Tehrani F.R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Tehrani F.R.,Research Institute for Endocrine science | Solaymani-Dodaran M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Solaymani-Dodaran M.,University of Nottingham | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Context: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has already been used for prediction of age at menopause with promising results. Objective: We aimed to improve our previous prediction of age at menopause in a population-based cohort by including all eligible subjects and additional follow-up time. Design and Setting: All reproductive-aged women who met our eligibility criteria were selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The serum concentration of AMH was measured at the time of recruitment, and participant's date of menopause was recorded over a 10-year follow-up. Subjects: Atotal of 1015 women, aged 20 to 50 years, with regular and predictable menstrual cycles at the initiation of the study were recruited. Main Outcome Measure: The actual ages at menopause were compared with the predicted ones obtained from accelerated failure time model. Results:Weobserved 277 occurrences of menopause. Median menopausal age was 50 years (range 30.1-58.2 years). The median (SD) of differences between the actual menopausal age and those predicted by our model was 0.5 (2.5) years. Model adequacy (measured by C-statistics) for correct prediction of age at menopause was 92%. The estimated ages at menopause and their 95% confidence intervals for a range of values of AMH and age were calculated and summarized in a table. Conclusions: Using a model built on age and AMH, we can predict age at menopause many years earlier. This could provide opportunities for interventions in those who are at risk of early or late menopause. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.

Mahmoudi M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Lohse S.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Murphy C.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2014

It is well recognized that the primary interaction of most biological environments with nanoparticles (NPs) is strongly influenced by a long-lived ("hard") protein corona that surrounds the NP and remains strongly adsorbed to its surface. The amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona adsorbed onto the NPs is related to several important factors, including the physicochemical properties of the NPs and the composition of the protein solution. Here, for the first time, it is shown that plasmonic heat induction (by laser activation) leads to significant changes in the composition of the hard protein corona adsorbed on low aspect ratio gold nanorods. Using mass spectrometry, several proteins in the corona were identified whose concentrations change most substantially as a result of photoinduced (plasmonic) heating versus simple thermal heating. Molecular modeling suggests that the origin of these changes in protein adsorption may be the result of protein conformational changes in response to much higher local temperatures that occur near the gold nanorods during photoinduced, plasmonic heating. These results may define new applications in vivo for NPs with hyperthermia capability and better define the likely interactions of cells with NPs after plasmonic heating. Potential changes in the protein corona following hyperthermia treatment may influence the final biological fate of plasmonic NPs in clinical applications and help elucidate safety considerations for hyperthermia applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Enayatrad M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Salehiniya H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Background and purpose: Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide and gastric cancer with high mortality rate is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Understanding the epidemiology of gastric cancer could be of great benefit. However, no clear trend is available on incidence of this cancer in Iran, therefore, this study aimed at investigating the incidence of gastric cancer. Material and Methods: Data included the records from the cancer registry system in Iran during 2003 to 2009. The incidence rates were then standardized using direct method. Results: We found an increasing trend during 2003 to 2009 in Iran. A total of 42, 135 cases with gastric cancer were reported of which 4254 were recorded in 2003. However, this rate increased to 6886 cases in 2009. The highest and lowest rate of stomach cancer in male and female were observed in 2008 and 2003, respectively. The sex ratio was 2.51 in these years. Different regions in Iran were found with different rates of incidence. Men and women were more prone to suffer from gastric cancer in Ardabil and Semnan provinces, respectively. While the least number of diagnosed male were recorded in Kohkilooyeh Boyer Ahmad. Also, the incidences of gastric cancer were lowest in female living in Kohkilooyeh Boyer Ahmad and Hormozgan provinces Conclusion: According to this study the prevalence of gastric cancer is increasing in northern and western regions of Iran. This could be caused by diet and Helicobacter pylori infection, hence, screening and early detection programs are highly recommended in high-risk areas.

Sadat Hosseini M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ramezani Tehrani F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Azizi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Background: Idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is a condition diagnosed after other hirsutism related is ruled out. Its definition diagnosis had a dynamic process along with improving the understanding of the various androgen excess disorders. There is uncertainty regarding its health impact and its long-term metabolic consequences. We aimed to compare metabolic syndrome (Mets) and insulin resistance (IR) of Iranian women with IH and a group of healthy controls in a large community-based study. Methods: Anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, Mets (using Joint Interim Statement criteria) and IR (estimated by the homeostasis model assessment), were compared between 101 women with IH and 423 healthy controls recruited from among 1126 reproductive aged women. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the BMI of women with IH in comparison to normal control (27.7 versus 26.7 kg/m2, p = 0.02); however, the prevalence of android adiposity was similar (26.7% and 24.3%, respectively). The age and BMI adjusted prevalence of Mets and IR are similar in women with IH and controls (30% versus 23.9 and 25.7 % versus 22.5%, respectively). Conclusion: There will be no need for additional cardiometabolic evaluations for women with IH, later in life. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.

Hassanzadeh P.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hassanzadeh P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hassanzadeh A.,Islamic Azad University at Parand
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2011

The anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of the neurokinin (NK) receptor antagonists have been shown in behavioral studies. According to the involvement of neurotrophin signaling in the mechanisms of action of psychotropic agents, we aimed to investigate whether the selective NK 1, NK 2, or NK 3 receptor antagonists (GR-205171, SR48968, and SR142801, respectively) affect nerve growth factor (NGF) contents in the brain regions involved in the modulation of emotions. To gain a mechanistical insight into the process by which the NK antagonists regulate brain NGF levels, we evaluated the role of the cannabinoid system which is linked to depression and/or antidepressant effects and appears to interact with neurotrophin signaling. According to the results, single injection of the NK receptor antagonists (3, 5, and 10mg/kg, i.p.) into gerbils did not alter NGF or endocannabinoid (eCB) levels quantified by Bio-Rad protein assay and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. Three-week administration of 10mg/kg NK antagonists significantly elevated both NGF and eCB levels in brain-region specific fashion. Pre-application of the CB 1 receptor neutral antagonist AM4113 (5.6mg/kg) prevented the elevation of NGF or eCB induced by the NK antagonists. AM4113 showed no effect by itself. We conclude that the cannabinoid system is implicated in the mechanisms of action of NK receptor antagonists including the upregulation of brain NGF levels. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Heidari K.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Asadollahi S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Vafaee R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Barfehei A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery | Year: 2014

Background: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of immobilization in abduction and external rotation vs immobilization in adduction and internal rotation after primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Methods: The study randomized 102 patients (age range, 15-55 years) with the diagnosis of primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder to receive immobilization in adduction and internal rotation (AdIR, n = 51) using sling and swathe bandage or immobilization in abduction and external rotation (AbER, n = 51) with a stabilizer brace. Patients received a rehabilitation program 3 weeks after the intervention. Results: After a 24-month follow-up, 33.3% in the AdIR group and 3.9% in the AbER group had recurrence (P < .001). The difference in the recurrence rate was greater in the subgroup aged between 31 and 40 years (44.8% in the AdIR group and 3.8% in the AbER group, P < .001). Ten patients in the AbER group (19.6%) and 3 in the AdIR group (5.8%) discontinued shoulder immobilization before 3 weeks (P = .03). In patients without recurrence, the anterior apprehension test was positive in 6 of 34 in the AdIR group (17.6%) and in 4 of 49 in the AbER group (8.1%, P = .19). Conclusions: Immobilization with the shoulder joint in abduction and external rotation is an effective method to reduce the risk of recurrence after primary anterior shoulder dislocations and should be preferred to the traditional method of immobilization in adduction and internal rotation in clinical practice. Level of evidence: Level I, Randomized Controlled Trial, Treatment Study. © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.

Askim J.R.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mahmoudi M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Suslick K.S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

A comprehensive review is presented on the development and state of the art of colorimetric and fluorometric sensor arrays. Optical arrays based on chemoresponsive colorants (dyes and nanoporous pigments) probe the chemical reactivity of analytes, rather than their physical properties. This provides a high dimensionality to chemical sensing that permits high sensitivity (often down to ppb levels), impressive discrimination among very similar analytes and exquisite fingerprinting of extremely similar mixtures over a wide range of analyte types, both in the gas and liquid phases. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Ghafouri-Fard S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Modarressi M.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Yazarloo F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Annals of Saudi Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are a group of antigens with a restricted expression in normal tissues, except testis, and they have aberrant expression in different tumors. This pattern of expression has made them promising targets for immunotherapy and cancer detection. Our aim was to find new members of this group that might be useful as markers in the detection of cancer and immunotherapy. DESIGN AND SETTING: A descriptive study conducted in referral centers of Tehran University of Medical Science from january 2008 to January 2009. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of two testis-specific genes named ODF4 (outer dense fiber of sperm tails 4) and TEX101 (testis expressed 101) in 20 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 20 normal samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Immunogenicity of TEX101 was evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: These two genes were expressed in 30% of CML patients but not in any of the healthy donors. Humoral response against TEX101 was not detected in any samples. CONCLUSIONS: TEX101 and ODF4 are CT genes useful for detection of CML. Unlike many CT genes, overexpression of TEX101 was not shown to induce immunologic responses in these samples. According to the previous studies, overexpression of TEX101 leads to suppression of cancer invasion and metastasis; thus, the induction of the expression of TEX101 in cancer by epigenetic mechanisms may be a treatment strategy.

Dabbagh A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Rajaei S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Hepatitis Monthly | Year: 2013

Context: The modern practice of anesthesia is highly dependent ona group of anesthetic drugs which many of them are metabolized in the liver. Evidence Acquisition: The liver, of course, usually tolerates this burden. However, this is not always an unbroken rule. Anesthetic induced apoptosis has gained great concern during the last years; especially considering the neurologic system. Results: However, we have evidence that there is some concern regarding their effects on the liver cells. Fortunately not all the anesthetics are blamed and even some could be used safely, based on the available evidence. Conclusions: Besides, there are some novel agents, yet under research, which could affect the future of anesthetic agents' fate regarding their hepatic effects. © 2013, Kowsar Corp.; Licensee KowsarKowsar Ltd.

Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mahmoudi M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Shokrgozar M.A.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Behzadi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

It is known that what the cell actually "sees" at the nanoscale is an outer shell formed of 'protein corona' on the surface of nanoparticles (NPs). The amount and composition of various proteins on the corona are strongly dependent on the biophysicochemical properties of NPs, which have been extensively studied. However, the effect of a small variation in temperature, due to the human circadian rhythm, on the composition of the protein corona and the affinity of various proteins to the surface of NPs, was ignored. Here, the effect of temperature on the composition of protein corona and the affinity of various proteins to the surface of NPs and, subsequently, cell responses to the protein coated NPs are probed. The results confirmed that cellular entrance, dispersion, and toxicity of NPs are strongly diverse with slight body temperature changes. This new finding can help scientists to maximise NP entrance to specific cells/organs with lower toxicity by adjusting the cellular/organ temperature. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Bahmani M.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences | Shirzad H.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences | Majlesi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shahinfard N.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences | Rafieian-Kopaei M.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2014

Numerous side effects of synthetic drugs have caused medicinal plants to be regarded in recent decades as a reliable source of new drugs. Regarding the analgesic effects of many plants that are pointed in traditional medicine of Iran, many studies have been performed in this field that have caused need to be reviewed. In this study, different methods of testing pain, analgesic activity and possible compounds of medicinal plants and also the possible mechanisms actions of these plants are presented. The data presented in this review paper provide scientific information that might be used for isolation of potentially active compounds from some of these medicinal plants in future. © 2014 Hainan Medical College.

Adelmanesh F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jalali A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Attarian H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Farahani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Pain Medicine (United States) | Year: 2012

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the Persian version of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (SF-MPQ-2) in patients with neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain. Design: Beaton's guideline was used to translate and adapt the SF-MPQ-2 to Persian. Subjects: One hundred eighty-four patients with subacute and chronic non-neuropathic pain and 74 patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (total 258) attending multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. Outcome Measures: Internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were estimated for participants who had completed the questionnaire in the morning and evening of the first day. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the present pain intensity (PPI) were also recorded to test convergent validity of the questionnaire. Sensitivity to change was examined after a standard treatment and validated by means of the patient global impression of change (PGIC) in addition to VAS and PPI. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to find possible components. Results: Cronbach's alpha was 0.906, which showed high internal consistency. ICC (0.941) revealed test-retest reliability. There was high correlation between the mean VAS and the mean total score (r=0.926). Patients in different levels of PPI and PGIC exhibited significant differences among their mean total scores (P<0.05). EFA revealed four components similar to the original SF-MPQ-2. Conclusion: The Persian translation of the expanded and revised version of the SF-MPQ-2 is a highly reliable, sensitive, and valid instrument to evaluate pain in patients with and without neuropathic etiology. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sheikhtaheri A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sadoughi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ahmadi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Moghaddasi H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Medical Informatics | Year: 2013

Introduction: Patient Safety Information Systems (PSIS) are prerequisite for any patient safety program. The purpose of the study was to review PSISs in developed countries and to customize a preliminary framework for such systems for Iran. Methods: Three developed countries in the field of patient safety including the USA, England and Australia were selected and their PSISs or reporting systems were studied. In addition, 15 unstructured interviews were conducted with Iranian informants. Results: In the developed countries, specific regulations have been formulated regarding reporting and recording of patient safety incidents. Based on these regulations, a variety of patient safety data needs to be collected. In addition, the reportable incidents, the mechanisms of data analysis, the entities involved in the system, tools and technologies as well as feedback mechanisms have been defined well. In the field of patient safety, the Iranian health system is still in its infancy and lacks a formal information system for collecting, analyzing, disseminating and sharing patient safety information. Based on other countries' experiences, a preliminary framework for an Iranian PSIS was suggested. Conclusion: Developing a PSIS for Iranian hospitals is crucially needed. In this regard, Iranian hospitals and health authorities should develop standardized data sets, standard forms for reporting, mechanisms for data analysis and feedback modes. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Abbaszadeh H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ebrahimi S.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Akhavan M.M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2014

Our previous studies had shown xanthomicrol and calycopterin, two plant-derived flavonoids, to have selective antiproliferative activity against some malignant cell lines. The present study is focused on the investigation of antiangiogenic potential of these two flavonoids, using in vitro and ex vivo models. Xanthomicrol and calycopterin were found to have potent inhibitory effects on microvessel outgrowth in the rat aortic ring assay. Xanthomicrol was able to completely block microvessel sprouting at 10 μg/mL, and calycopterin suppressed microvessel outgrowth by 89% at 5 μg/mL. Suramin and thalidomide, used at 20 μg/mL as positive controls, inhibited microvessel formation by 23% and 64%, respectively. The flavones also inhibited endothelial cell tube formation and human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation at 0.5, 5, and 10 μg/mL. In order to delineate the underlying mechanisms of antiangiogenic activity of these flavones, we investigated the influences of xanthomicrol and calycopterin on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) in endothelial cells. These flavones were able to inhibit VEGF expression at 0.5, 5, and 10 μg/mL, but they had little or no effect on b-FGF expression. These findings suggest that xanthomicrol and calycopterin possess potent antiangiogenic activities, which may be due to their inhibitory influences on VEGF expression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Galli U.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Travelli C.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Massarotti A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Fakhfouri G.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Nicotinamide phoshophoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) plays a key role in the replenishment of the NAD pool in cells. This in turn makes this enzyme an important player in bioenergetics and in the regulation of NAD-using enzymes, such as PARPs and sirtuins. Furthermore, there is now ample evidence that NAMPT is secreted and has a role as a cytokine. An important role of either the intracellular or extracellular form of NAMPT has been shown in cancer, inflammation, and metabolic diseases. The first NAMPT inhibitors (FK866 and CHS828) have already entered clinical trials, and a surge in interest in the synthesis of novel molecules has occurred. The present review summarizes the recent progress in this field. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Elahian F.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Sepehrizadeh Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Moghimi B.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Mirzaei S.A.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Cytochrome b5 reductase is a flavoprotein that is produced as two different isoforms that have different localizations. The amphipathic microsomal isoform, found in all cell types with the exception of erythrocytes, consists of one hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain and a larger hydrophilic flavin catalytic domain. The soluble cytochrome b5 reductase isoform, found in human erythrocytes, is a truncated protein that is encoded by an alternative transcript and consists of the larger domain only. Cytochrome b5 reductase is involved in the transfer of reducing equivalents from the physiological electron donor, NADH, via an FAD domain to the small molecules of cytochrome b5. This protein has received much attention from researchers due to its involvement in many oxidation and reduction reactions, such as the reduction of methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Autosomal cytochrome b5 reductase gene deficiency manifests with the accumulation of oxidized Fe+3 and recessive congenital methemoglobinemia in humans. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of cytochrome b5 reductase from different eukaryotic sources and its potential use in the food industry, biosensor, and diagnostic areas. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Farhud D.D.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Yeganeh M.Z.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed.

Beygi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Beygi S.,National Elite Foundation | Lajevardi V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Abedini R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2014

A great deal of research has addressed the elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) among psoriatic patients and the role of this marker in assessment of disease severity and progression. However, there are some discrepancies in this area. We sought to figure out the relationship between CRP values and disease severity as well as the changes in marker levels after treatment through an extensive literature review. Comparison between CRP levels in psoriatic patients and those in healthy or non-psoriatic individuals was also another focus of this review. A thorough search in Pubmed and Embase was conducted for articles investigating different aspects of CRP measurement in patients with psoriasis. Overall, 32 articles were found to meet our inclusion criteria. Of 28 studies comparing the CRP values in psoriatic patients with those of controls, 24 found a statistically significant difference. In addition, 12 out of 16 papers examining the association between disease severity and CRP values noted significant results. With regard to CRP changes over the course of a treatment, all 15 studies addressing this issue revealed a significant decrease in marker levels. In conclusion, high CRP levels only for moderate and severe forms of disease might be inferred from the literature and there is no sufficient evidence suggesting a similar association for mild disease as well. Moreover, CRP may serve interchangeably with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) as a measure of disease severity in the case of untreated psoriatic patients who do not have disease related arthritis. For other patients, however, a careful clinical examination and PASI calculation still remain the mainstay of severity assessment. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

Adrangi S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Faramarzi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2013

Chitinases, the enzymes responsible for the biological degradation of chitin, are found in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to higher plants and animals. They participate in numerous physiological processes such as nutrition, parasitism, morphogenesis and immunity. Many organisms, in addition to chitinases, produce inactive chitinase-like lectins that despite lacking enzymatic activity are involved in several regulatory functions. Most known chitinases belong to families 18 and 19 of glycosyl hydrolases, however a few chitinases that belong to families 23 and 48 have also been identified in recent years. In this review, different aspects of chitinases and chi-lectins from bacteria, fungi, insects, plants and mammals are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Shab-Bidar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Neyestani T.R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Djazayery A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
BMC Endocrine Disorders | Year: 2011

Background: Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by the interactions of genetic and environmental factors. This study was designed to evaluate the possible role of VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on different aspects of diabetic host response (anthropometric, metabolic, oxidative stress and inflammatory) to daily intake of vitamin D through fortified yogurt drink for 12 weeks.Methods/Design: This study comprises two parts: (i) a case-control study; and (ii) an intervention trial. In the first part, VDR polymorphisms (Taq1, FokI, Apa1, Bsm1, and Cdx2) are determined in 350 T2DM patients and 350 non-diabetic subjects. In the second part, the possible effects of daily intake of two servings of vitamin D3-fortified yogurt drink (FYD; 500 IU vitamin D/250 mL) on some selected metabolic (including insulin resistance), inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in 135 T2DM patients are assessed. To relate the resulted changes in the biomarkers to vitamin D replenishment, another group of diabetic patients (n = 45) are also included in the study who receive 2 servings of plain yogurt drink (PYD) a day. The primary outcome is serum level of 25(OH) D, which it is expected to be elevated only in FYD group. Secondary outcomes include improvements in glycemic, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in FYD group compared to PYD group. Three VDR FokI polymorphisms are determined only in FYD group followed by comparison of changes in the biomarkers among these genotypic variants.Discussion: The present study, at least in part, elucidates the discrepancies in the results of different vitamin D-diabetes studies pertaining to the genetic variations of the population. If VDR polymorphisms are found to influence the response to our intervention, then knowing distribution of VDR polymorphisms in both diabetic and non-diabetic populations can give a picture of the proportion of the community in whom up to 1000 IU/d vitamin D may not be effective enough to improve insulin resistance and related morbidities. Therefore, they should ideally receive further nutritional support according to their genotype.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01236846. © 2011 Shab-Bidar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Fekrazad R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ebrahimpour L.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2014

Demineralization of enamel around orthodontic brackets is a clinical problem which can lead to some esthetic concerns like white spot lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride application on the acid resistance of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. A total of 60 healthy, permanent, human premolars were selected and bonded with brackets, then they were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15): topical APF gel (1.23 % F, pH 3.5, for 4 min); Er,Cr:YSGG laser (P:0.25 W, E:12.5 mJ, RR:20 Hz, PD:140 μs, 11 % air, without water, for 10 s); fluoride + laser group (F + L), and control group (C). All specimens were demineralized for 10 days in a 0.2 M acetate buffer solution, and the calcium content were subsequently determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. There were significant differences between the calcium content of F + L and F group in comparison to control group. The least concentration of calcium was seen in F + L group, and the most value was observed in C group. Combination of Er, Cr:YSGG laser with fluoride and fluoride alone decreased enamel solubility significantly more than laser alone. In addition, combination of laser and fluoride leads to less consumption of fluoride amount. And patients can use it at the beginning of treatment instead of daily use of fluoride. So we suggest using it in preventing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. © 2013, Springer-Verlag London.

Haj-Mirzaian A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Kordjazy N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ostadhadi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ghasemi M.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | And 3 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2015

Rationale: The antidepressant action of acute nicotine administration in clinical and animal studies is well recognized. But the underlying mechanism for this effect has not been carefully discovered. Objectives: We attempted to evaluate the possible role of N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of nicotine. Methods: After the assessment of locomotor activity in the open-field test, forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of nicotine in mice. We performed intraperitoneal administration of nicotine at different doses and periods before the tests. To assess the possible involvement of NMDA receptors, non-effective doses of NMDA antagonists and an NMDA agonist were obtained and were administered simultaneously with the non-effective and effective doses of nicotine, respectively. Results: Nicotine (0.2 mg/kg, 30 min before FST/TST) significantly reduced the immobility time of mice similar to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). Nicotine did not affect the locomotor behavior of mice in open-field test. Co-administration of non-effective doses of NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine (1 or 0.3 mg/kg), MK-801 (0.05 or 0.005 mg/kg), and magnesium sulfate (10 or 5 mg/kg) with nicotine (0.1 or 0.03 mg/kg) had remarkable synergistic antidepressant effect in both FST and TST. Also, non-effective NMDA (75 or 30 mg/kg) reversed the anti-immobility effect of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) on mouse FST and TST. Conclusions: Our study has for the first time confirmed that the antidepressant-like effect of nicotine on mice is NMDA-mediated, and nicotine presumably exerts this effect by antagonizing the glutamatergic NMDA receptors. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sarzaeem M.M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Razi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Kazemian G.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Moghaddam M.E.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2014

The ideal method of providing tranexamic acid (TXA) for decreasing hemoglobin drop after TKA is still controversial. In this clinical trial, 200 patients were randomly allocated to four groups. In group 1, 500. mg TXA was administered intravenously. In group 2, the joint irrigated with 3. g of TXA in 100. cc of saline. In group 3, 1.5. g of TXA was injected through the drain. Group 4 did not take TXA. Albeit all methods had a statistical effect on hemoglobin drop, drainage and number of transfused units when compared to controls, but intravenous injection of TXA seems to be much more effective in terms of reducing hemoglobin drop and transfused units; and what's more TXA injection by drain is more effective regarding to reducing postoperative drainage. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Biazar E.,Islamic Azad University at Tonekabon | Keshel S.H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Keshel S.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2014

The authors have demonstrated the ability of cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) and gelatin-modified PHBV scaffold to promote skin regeneration. The scaffolds were designed by electrospinning method and evaluated by different analyses. Results of physical and mechanical analyses also were shown a good resilience as a skin graft. In animal model; all groups excluding the control group exhibited the most pronounced effect on wound closure, with the statistically significant improvement in wound healing being seen at post-operative day 21. Thus, the grafting of nanofibrous scaffold loaded with USSC showed better results during the healing process of skin defects in rat models. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Biazar E.,Islamic Azad University at Tonekabon | Keshel S.H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Keshel S.H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2014

A modified nanofibrous poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The authors used a gelatin-modified nanofibrous poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30 mm long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At four months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were macroscopically observed and histologically assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cells and glial cells in the regenerated nerves. These findings suggest that modified nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Shaki F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Shaki F.,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences | Hosseini M.-J.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hosseini M.-J.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2012

Background: Kidney is known as the most sensitive target organ for depleted uranium (DU) toxicity in comparison to other organs. Although the oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage induced by DU has been well investigated, the precise mechanism of DU-induced nephrotoxicity has not been thoroughly recognized yet. Methods: Kidney mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation from Wistar rats and mitochondrial toxicity endpoints were then determined in both in vivo and in vitro uranyl acetate (UA) exposure cases. Results: Single injection of UA (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Isolated mitochondria from the UA-treated rat kidney showed a marked elevation in oxidative stress accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse as compared to control group. Incubation of isolated kidney mitochondria with UA (50, 100 and 200 μM) manifested that UA can disrupt the electron transfer chain at complex II and III that leads to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione oxidation. Disturbances in oxidative phosphorylation were also demonstrated through decreased ATP concentration and ATP/ADP ratio in UA-treated mitochondria. In addition, UA induced a significant damage in mitochondrial outer membrane. Moreover, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were observed following the UA treatment in isolated mitochondria. General significance: Both our in vivo and in vitro results showed that UA-induced nephrotoxicity is linked to the impairment of electron transfer chain especially at complex II and III which leads to subsequent oxidative stress. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Tehrani F.R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Shakeri N.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Solaymani-Dodaran M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Solaymani-Dodaran M.,University of Nottingham | Azizi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Menopause | Year: 2011

Objective: We aimed to estimate age at menopause using serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentration. Methods: We randomly selected 266 study participants from a pool of 1,265 eligible women in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study cohort. We measured AMH levels three times at about 3-year intervals. There were 63 occurrences of menopause in our participants over an average of 6-year follow-up. We built an accelerated failure time model using serum AMH level at the start of follow-up to estimate age at menopause. The goodness of fit for the model was tested using Cox-Snell residuals and the Bland-Altman plot. Results: We estimated ages at menopause for different levels of serum AMH concentration among women aged 20 to 49 years. For those who reached menopause, serum AMH concentrations about 6 years before the event provided fairly accurate estimates of the age at menopause. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable agreement between predicted and observed values. Conclusions: Serum AMH concentrations can reasonably forecast the age at menopause for individual women. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society.

Houshmand F.,Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences | Faghihi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zahediasl S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Heart Lung and Circulation | Year: 2015

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) contributes to the protective effect of neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OT) in heart preconditioning. Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to 25. min regional ischaemia and 120. min reperfusion and were divided into eight groups. Oxytocin or an equivalent volume of saline was administrated intraperitoneally, 30. min before ischaemia. The OT receptor antagonist (atosiban), ANP receptor antagonist (anantin) and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) were injected 10. min before OT. In other groups, atosiban, anantin and L-NAME were only administered 40. min prior to ischaemia. Results: Compared with the ischaemia/reperfusion group (I/R), alterations in infarct size, biochemical parameters [LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK-MB (creatine kinase-MB), MDA (malondialdehyde) plasma levels] and severity of ventricular arrhythmia due to I/R injury were attenuated and VF was abolished by OT treatment. These OT effects were eliminated by OT and ANP receptor blockers and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. , but anantin did not reverse the effect of OT in lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate an important contributory role of ANP in the OT induced protection in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion. OT also reduced lipid peroxidation with a NO-dependent mechanism. © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ).

Rahimi A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Faizi M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Talebi F.,Khatam Al Anbia Hospital | Noorbakhsh F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Cannabinoids (CBs) have recently been approved to exert broad anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has been demonstrated that these compounds could also have effects on neurodegeneration, demyelination, and autoimmune processes occurring in the pathology of MS. However, the clinical use of CBs is limited by their psychoactive effects. Among cannabinoid compounds, cannabidiol (CBD) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) have no psychotropic activities. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, by injecting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) to C57BL/6 mice. We assessed the effects of CBD, PEA, and co-administration of CBD and PEA on neurobehavioral scores, immune cell infiltration, demyelination, axonal injury, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines by using histochemistry methods and real-time RT-PCR. Treatment with either CBD (5. mg/kg) or PEA (5. mg/kg) during disease onset reduced the severity of the neurobehavioral scores of EAE. This effect of CBD and PEA was accompanied by diminished inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage and inflammatory cytokine expression while concurrent administration of CBD (5. mg/kg) and PEA (5. mg/kg) was not as effective as treatment with either drug per se. These results suggest that, CBD and PEA, non-psychoactive CBs, attenuate neurobehavioral deficits, histological damage, and inflammatory cytokine expression in MOG-immunized animals. However, there is an antagonistic interaction between CBD and PEA in protection against MOG-induced disease. © 2015 IBRO.

Taheripak G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Bakhtiyari S.,Ilam University | Rajabibazl M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Pasalar P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Meshkani R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway and is considered a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes. However, the role of PTP1B in palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in skeletal muscle cells has not been studied. Here we investigate the effects of PTP1B modulation on mitochondrial function and apoptosis and elucidate the underlying mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells. PTP1B inhibition significantly reduced palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in C2C12 cells, as these cells had increased expression levels of PGC-1α, Tfam, and NRF-1; enhanced ATP level and cellular viability; decreased TUNEL-positive cells; and decreased caspase-3 and -9 activity. Alternatively, overexpression of PTP1B resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in these cells. PTP1B silencing improved mitochondrial dysfunction by an increase in the expression of SIRT1 and a reduction in the phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by PTP1B inhibition was also accompanied by a decrease in protein level of serine palmitoyl transferase, thus resulting in lower ceramide content in muscle cells. Exogenous addition of C2-ceramide to PTP1B-knockdown cells led to a reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas PTP1B overexpression demonstrated an elevated ROS production in myotubes. In addition, PTP1B inhibition was accompanied by decreased JNK phosphorylation and increased insulin-stimulated Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of PTP1B had the opposite effect. The overexpression of PTP1B also induced the nuclear localization of FOXO-1, but in contrast, suppression of PTP1B reduced palmitate-induced nuclear localization of FOXO-1. In summary, our results indicate that PTP1B modulation results in (1) alterations in mitochondrial function by changes in the activity of SIRT1/NF-κB/PGC-1α pathways and (2) changes in apoptosis that result from either a direct effect of PTP1B on the insulin signaling pathway or an indirect influence on ceramide content, ROS generation, JNK activation, and FOXO-1 nuclear translocation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Riahi E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Riahi E.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Arezoomandan R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Fatahi Z.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Haghparast A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2015

The hippocampus receives sparse orexinergic innervation from the lateral hypothalamus and expresses a high level of orexin receptor. The function of orexin receptor in the regulation of hippocampal neural activity has never been investigated. In this study, in vivo single unit recording was performed in urethane-anesthetized rats. After 15. min of baseline recording from pyramidal neuron within the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, i.c.v. injection of orexin-A 0.5. nmol, SB334867 400. nmol, a selective orexin receptor 1 antagonist, saline, or DMSO, or microinjection of carbachol 250. nmol or saline into the ipsilateral lateral hypothalamus were performed using a Hamilton microsyringe, and the spontaneous firing activity continued to be recorded for 25. min. Results showed that orexin administration into the lateral cerebral ventricle excited 6 out of 8 neurons and inhibited 1 neuron. Chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus by carbachol excited 9 out of 13 hippocampal neurons and inhibited 3 neurons. On the other hand, i.c.v. injection of the SB334867, caused reductions in the firing activity of 6 out of 10 neurons and increases in 4 additional neurons. It seems that orexin neurotransmission in the hippocampus mostly elicits an excitatory response, whereas blockade of orexin receptor has an inhibitory effect. Further studies need to be done to elucidate the underlying mechanism of orexin action on hippocampal neurons. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Krol S.,Fondazione IRCCS Institute of Neurology Carlo Besta | Macrez R.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Docagne F.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Defer G.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 6 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Nanotechnology is an area of growing public interest. Its attractiveness stems from the promise offered socially and economically by the recent significant advances in nanotechnological development. Nanotechnology has already begun to be incorporated into the daily lives, but the level of its technological impact has yet to become clear. As a result, new properties never previously observed in these materials in either bulk form or as part of larger scale entities can be harnessed. Chemical processes can be tailored to a desired application, such as the enhancement of biocompatibility of implantable materials, for example. Due to their greater surface area per volume, nanomaterials can exhibit higher reactivity, increased capacity for mechanical strength, or magnetic or electrical properties. Targeted molecular imaging is important for a wide range of diagnostic purposes, such as the identification of inflammatory loci, the localization and staging of tumors, the visualization of vascular structures or specific disease states, and the examination of anatomy.

Ghafouri-Fard S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Nekoohesh L.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Motevaseli E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

As the recurrence and mortality rates of bladder cancer are high, research is needed to find suitable biomarkers for early detection, evaluation of prognosis, and surveillance of drug responses. We performed a computerized search of the Medline/PubMed databases with the key words bladder cancer, biomarker, early detection, prognosis and drug response. Several markers were identified at DNA, RNA and protein levels with different sensitivities and specificities. Only a few of the potential bladder cancer biomarkers have been approved for clinical use. Efforts now should be concentrated on finding a panel of markers with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for early detection of bladder cancer.

Kheirandish F.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences | Tarahi M.J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ezatpour B.,Lorestan University of Medical Sciences
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo | Year: 2014

Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the rate of literacy and gender among patients infected with intestinal parasites (p > 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

Rahimzadeh M.,Alborz University of Medical science | Baghestani A.R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Gohari M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Pourhoseingholi M.A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Although the Cox's proportional hazard model is the popular approach for survival analysis to investigate significant risk factors of cancer patient survival, it is not appropriate in the case of log-term disease free survival. Recently, cure rate models have been introduced to distinguish between clinical determinants of cure and variables associated with the time to event of interest. The aim of this study was to use a cure rate model to determine the clinical associated factors for cure rates of patients with breast cancer (BC). Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study covered 305 patients with BC, admitted at Shahid Faiazbakhsh Hospital, Tehran, during 2006 to 2008 and followed until April 2012. Cases of patient death were confirmed by telephone contact. For data analysis, a non-mixed cure rate model with Poisson distribution and negative binomial distribution were employed. All analyses were carried out using a developed Macro in WinBugs. Deviance information criteria (DIC) were employed to find the best model. Results: The overall 1-year, 3-year and 5-year relative survival rates were 97%, 89% and 74%. Metastasis and stage of BC were the significant factors, but age was significant only in negative binomial model. The DIC also showed that the negative binomial model had a better fit. Conclusions: This study indicated that, metastasis and stage of BC were identified as the clinical criteria for cure rates. There are limited studies on BC survival which employed these cure rate models to identify the clinical factors associated with cure. These models are better than Cox, in the case of long-term survival.

Hajipour M.J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Fromm K.M.,University of Fribourg | Akbar Ashkarran A.,University of Mazandaran | Jimenez de Aberasturi D.,University of Marburg | And 6 more authors.
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved antibacterial agents locally destroy bacteria, without being toxic to the surrounding tissue. We also provide an overview of opportunities and risks of using NPs as antibacterial agents. In particular, we discuss the role of different NP materials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh R.,Yale University | De Aguiar R.B.,Yale University | Naik S.,Yale University | Mani S.,Yale University | And 6 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2013

Common genetic variations in Wnt signaling genes have been associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes by mechanisms that are poorly understood. A rare nonconservative mutation in Wnt coreceptor LRP6 (LRP6R611C) has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant early onset coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. We examined the interplay between Wnt and insulin signaling pathways in skeletal muscle and skin fibroblasts of healthy nondiabetic LRP6R611C mutation carriers. LRP6 mutation carriers exhibited hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin sensitivity compared to noncarrier relatives in response to oral glucose ingestion, which correlated with a significant decline in tissue expression of the insulin receptor and insulin signaling activity. Further investigations showed that the LRP6 R611C mutation diminishes TCF7L2-dependent transcription of the IR while it increases the stability of IGFR and enhances mTORC1 activity. These findings identify the Wnt/LRP6/TCF7L2 axis as a regulator of glucose metabolism and a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Bishehsari F.,Robert rie Comprehensive Cancer Center | Bishehsari F.,University of Western States | Mahdavinia M.,Northwestern University | Vacca M.,Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research | And 3 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. The disease has been traditionally a major health problem in industrial countries, however the CRC rates are increasing in the developing countries that are undergoing economic growth. Several environmental risk factors, mainly changes in diet and life style, have been suggested to underlie the rise of CRC in these populations. Diet and lifestyle impinge on nuclear receptors, on the intestinal microbiota and on crucial molecular pathways that are implicated in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this respect, the epidemiological transition in several regions of the world offers a unique opportunity to better understand CRC carcinogenesis by studying the disease phenotypes and their environmental and molecular associations in different populations. The data from these studies may have important implications for the global prevention and treatment of CRC. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Ansari N.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Khodagholi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Amini M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shaerzadeh F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Biochimie | Year: 2011

Neuronal cell death due to apoptosis is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we report protective effect of 2-ethoxy-4,5-diphenyl-1,3-oxazine-6-one (EDPOO) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell death in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, as assessed by MTT test, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, determination of Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels. We further show that this compound could increase heat shock proteins Hsp-70 and Hsp-32 levels. EDPOO also modulates nuclear levels of Nrf2 and NF-κB, transcription factors that are activated by intracellular reactive oxygen species and/or mediators generated due to chemical exposure of cells. Pretreatment of the cells with this oxazine derivative also increases γ-GCS level, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities, in a dose-dependent manner. Protective effect of this compound could represent a promising approach for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Mirshafiee V.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mahmoudi M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Lou K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

When nanoparticles (NPs) are exposed to the biological environment, their surfaces become covered with proteins and biomolecules (e.g. lipids). Here, we report that this protein coating, or corona, reduces the targeting capability of surface engineered NPs by screening the active sites of the targeting ligands. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Jafari S.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Abdollahi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Saeidnia S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine | Year: 2014

Context • Traditional systems of medicine have attained great popularity among patients in recent years. Success of this system in the treatment of disease warrants consideration, particularly in cases for which conventional medicine has been insufficient. Objective • This study investigates the similarities in principles and approaches of 3 traditional systems and explores whether conventional medicine is able to exploit the advantages of traditional systems. Design • This study first identifies and explores the advantages of 3 well-known systems—traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), ayurveda, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)—that are similar in their basic principles and methods. Second, it clarifies whether and how conventional medicine could exploit the advantages of traditional systems as it modernizes, to become more personalized. Finally, this study investigates the possibility that conventional medicine could benefit from traditional typology to improve its personalization. Results • The acknowledgment of the unity of humans and nature, applying rational methods, and personalized approaches is fundamentally similar in the 3 systems. Additionally, they all promote the holistic view that health is harmony and disease is disharmony of the body. Other similarities include their recognition of the unique nature of every person and their categorization of people into different body types. Although conventional medicine has mostly failed to incorporate the advantages of traditional medicine, its integration with traditional medicine is achievable. For instance, exploiting traditional typologies in genomic and other studies may facilitate personalization of conventional medicine. Conclusion • From its review, the research team concludes that prospects are bright for the integration of traditional and conventional medicines and, consequently, for a dramatic improvement in health systems. © 2014, InnoVision Communications. All rights reserved.

Eslamparast T.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Eslamparast T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Poustchi H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Zamani F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Oral administration of synbiotic has been proposed as an effective treatment of NAFLD because of its modulating effect on the gut flora, which can influence the gut-liver axis. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with synbiotic on hepatic fibrosis, liver enzymes, and inflammatory markers in patients with NAFLD. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted as a pilot study, 52 patients with NAFLD were supplemented twice daily for 28 wk with either a synbiotic or a placebo capsule. Both groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and physical activity recommendations. Results: At the end of the study, the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration decreased in both groups; this reduction was significantly greater in the synbiotic group. At the end of the study, the following significant differences [means (95% CIs)] were seen between the synbiotic and placebo groups, respectively: ALT [-25.1 (-26.2, -24) compared with -7.29 (-9.5, -5.1) IU/L; P < 0.001], aspartate aminotransferase [-31.33 (-32.1, -30.5) compared with -7.94 (-11.1, -4.8) IU/L; P < 0.001], γ-glutamyltransferase [-15.08 (-15.5, -14.7) compared with -5.21 (-6.6, -3.9) IU/L; P < 0.001], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [-2.3 (-3, -1.5) compared with -1.04 (-1.5, -0.6) mmol/L; P < 0.05], tumor necrosis factor-α [-1.4 (-1.7, -1.1) compared with -0.59 (-0.8, -0.3) mmol/L; P < 0.001], total nuclear factor κ-B p65 [-0.016 (-0.022, -0.011) compared with 0.001 (-0.004, -0.007) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and fibrosis score as determined by transient elastography [-2.98 (-3.6, -2.37) compared with -0.77 (-1.32, -0.22) kPa; P < 0.001]. Conclusions: Synbiotic supplementation in addition to lifestyle modification is superior to lifestyle modification alone for the treatment of NAFLD, at least partially through attenuation of inflammatory markers in the body. Whether these effects will be sustained with longer treatment durations remains to be determined. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01791959. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Ghalamfarsa G.,Yasuj University of Medical Sciences | Hadinia A.,Yasuj University of Medical Sciences | Yousefi M.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Jadidi-Niaragh F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tumor Biology | Year: 2013

Little is known regarding the precise role of different subsets of natural killer T (NKT) cells in the immunopathogenesis of cancer diseases, particularly hematopoietic malignancies. Although it is well known that NKT cells counteract tumor immunity, conflicting reports on the role of NKT cells in hematopoietic malignancies support more investigations to clarify the interactions between NKT cells and the tumor. Among the hematopoietic malignancies, B cell malignancies derive from different stages of B cell maturation in which T cells play a pivotal role. There is evidence which implies the protective role of some subsets of NKT cells in solid cancers as well as B cell malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent advances about the immunobiology of NKT cells and their precise role in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of different B cell malignancies. © 2013 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).

Ebneshahidi A.,Sadi Hospital | Mohseni M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Intentional lowering of blood pressure helps to produce a desirably clean surgical field. Many drugs can be used to induce a hypotensive state, but due to their high potency and rapid effect, drugs that more easily and safely control the induction of hypotension are desirable. Objectives: To investigate the effects of premedication with oral clonidine on intraoperative bleeding and hemodynamic variables in patients undergoing cesarean sections. Patients and Methods: A total of 110 patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II and who were scheduled for elective cesarean section under general anesthesia were enrolled. The patients were randomized to receive either oral clonidine (0.2 mg) or identical-looking placebo tablets 90 minutes before arriving at the operating room. Induction of anesthesia was performed by the same standard protocol in all patients. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before and after induction; immediately after intubation; 5, 10, and 15 minutes thereafter; at the time of extubation; and one hour after the operation. The surgeons were asked to rate the quality of the operative field on a four-point scale that ranged from mild (1) to abundant bleeding (2). Results: Intraoperative SBP was lower in the clonidine group. After both intubation and extubation, the increases in SBP, DBP, and HR in clonidine-treated subjects were significantly less than the changes in the control patients. The amount of fentanyl given to control blood pressure and HR was significantly less in the clonidine group (18 ± 38 vs. 39 ± 53 μg, P = 0.02). The responses to the four-point scale indicated that intraoperative bleeding in the clonidine group was less than in the placebo group (1.2 ± 0.4 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Premedication with oral clonidine can improve the hemodynamic management of cesarean cases. © 2014, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM).

Bananej M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Karimi-Sori A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Zarrindast M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ahmadi S.,University of Kurdistan
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Involvement of the dopamine receptors in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the effects of histamine on anxiety-like behaviors of the elevated plus maze in male Wistar rats was investigated. The results showed that bilateral intra-BLA injections of histamine (2.5, 5 and 7.5 μg/rat) induced an anxiogenic-like effect, revealed by decreases in percentage of open arm time (%OAT) and open arm entries (%OAE). Intra-BLA administration of dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 (0.25 μg/rat), and dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.03 and 0.05 μg/rat), decreased %OAT but not %OAE. Conversely, intra-BLA administration of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.5 and 1 μg/rat), and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (0.3 and 0.5 μg/rat), increased %OAT and %OAE, suggesting an anxiolytic-like effect for both drugs. Interestingly, co-administration of a silent dose of SCH23390 or sulpiride prevented anxiogenic-like effects of SKF38393 and quinpirole, respectively. Conjoint administration of a sub-effective dose of SKF38393 (0.125 μg/rat) or quinpirole (0.01 μg/rat) along with lower doses of histamine (1 and 2.5 μg/rat) induced anxiolytic-like effects. On the other hand, intra-BLA pretreatment with a silent dose of SCH23390 (0.25 μg/rat) or sulpiride (0.1 μg/rat) prevented the anxiogenic-like effect of higher doses of histamine (5 and 7.5 μg/rat). No significant change was observed in total closed arm entries, as an index for motor activity of the animals. It can be concluded that the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the BLA may be involved in the anxiogenic-like effects induced by histamine. © The Author(s) 2012.

Teymoortash A.,University of Marburg | Fasunla J.A.,University of Marburg | Sazgar A.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2012

The value of spreader grafts in rhinoplasty cannot be underestimated. Various studies have demonstrated that they play a valuable role in the restoration of nasal dorsum aesthetics, provide support for the nasal valve and maintain the straightened position of the corrected deviated cartilaginous septal dorsum. However, there is still controversy on the extent of its value in nasal patency. This study reviews the literature and describes the values and limitations of spreader grafts in rhinoplasty and the alternatives to classic spreader grafts. © The Author(s) 2011.

Mahmoudi M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Laurent S.,University of Mons | Shokrgozar M.A.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | And 2 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

In the last few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized as promising candidates for starting a new revolution in science and technology due to their unusual properties, attracting the attention of physicists, chemists, biologists, and engineers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicities (at both cellular and molecular levels) of three forms of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) of various surface chemistries (COOH, plain, and NH2) through the comparison with gene expression patterns of three cell types (i.e., human heart, brain, and kidney). For this purpose, both an MTT assay and a DNA microarray analysis were applied in three human cell lines-HCM (heart), BE-2-C (brain), and 293T (kidney)-under the exposure to SPIONs-COOH, SPIONs-NH2, and bare SPIONs. The specific gene alteration and hierarchical clustering revealed that SPIONs-COOH altered genes associated with cell proliferative responses due to their reactive oxygen species (ROS) properties. It was also found that the cell type can have quite a significant role in the definition of suitable pathways for detoxification of NPs, which has deep implications for the safe and high yield design of NPs for biomedical applications and will require serious consideration in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Noorbala A.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Yazdi S.A.B.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran | Hafezi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2012

Introduction: According to a WHO report, the world will face great changes in the epidemiology of diseases in next three decades. Infectious and communicable diseases will be replaced by mental disorders at an alarming rate (9), making psychiatric disorders the most common cause of disability and premature death. This study compares trends and changes in the mental health of the residents of Tehran (> 15years old) in 1998 and 2007. Methods: This study was an overview of two cross-sectional, descriptive researches that were performed in 1998 and 2007. The study populations in these two studies were residents of Tehran. Samples were recruited by regular randomized cluster sampling. In both studies, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to assess mental health. Trained physicians and health experts completed questionnaires, and data were analyzed by SPSS software (Version 18). Results: The results showed that 21.5% of participants in the 1998 survey suffered from mental disorders, of which 27.7% were women and 14.9% were men. In 2007, this figure increased to 34.2% (37.9% in woman and 28.6% in men). The prevalence of mental disorders increased from 1998 until 2007 by about 1.6 fold (1.4 fold for women and 1.9 fold for men). In both studies, the risk of mental disorders increased with increasing age. Anxiety symptoms were more prevalent in both studies compared to somatization, depression, and social dysfunction scales. Discussion: The result shows a dramatic increase of mental disorder prevalence in Tehran from 1998 until 2007. We believe there is a lack of sufficient and qualified facilities for mental health provisions in Tehran. Based on these facts, policymakers and officials have to place greater importance in controlling stressful situations that predispose people to mental disorders, with the intent to improve the mental health of Tehran residents.

Arjmandi R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Tavakol M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Shayeghi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In most rice paddies in Mazandaran Province, diazinon is applied to control Chilo suppressalis. Due to the extensive application of insecticides in the rice paddies of the Caspian coasts of Iran, this investigation was carried out on the rice fields in order to obtain the necessary data and information on the concentration of insecticide residues. A total of 125 samples were taken from five areas of Amol township in 2007. Then, according to the analysis of variance procedures, the water samples were statistically analyzed after the spraying of diazinon. Results indicate that the insecticide was used frequently to control stem boring caterpillar of rice. The residuals of this toxic chemical were observed in the majority of stations from the day after the spraying until one to two months later. The greatest level of diazinon was observed in station 1 in amount of 1.14 ppm. This study revealed that the physical and chemical properties of the studied diazinon such as fumigation characteristic as well as the ecological conditions and soil type influence the reduction and eventual removal of the insecticides during the cultivation and harvest periods. © IRSEN, CEERS, IAU.

Karimi P.,Morgan State University | Islami F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Islami F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Anandasabapathy S.,Mount Sinai Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Less than a century ago, gastric cancer was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, gastric cancer remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer, including its incidence, survival, mortality, and trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for gastric cancer, both environmental and genetic. Serologic markers and histological precursor lesions of gastric cancer and early detection of gastric cancer using these markers are reviewed. Finally, we discuss prevention strategies and provide suggestions for further research. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

Mohseni M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ebneshahidi A.,Persia Research Center
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: One of the frequent applications of elastomeric infusion pumps is postoperative pain management. In daily practice, the disposable pumps get refilled with modified medication combinations in the successive days; although, the accuracy of infusion rates is unknown to clinicians. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of repeated filling on the delivery rate accuracy of an elastomeric pump available in our market. Materials and Methods: We examined 10 elastomeric infusion pumps (BOT-802, Nanchang Biotek Medical Device Company, China) with 100 mL capacity and nominal flow of 5 mL/h. Each pump was filled for three times, accounting for 30 series of experiments. A microset scaled in mL was used to measure the pump deliveries. Flow profile and reliability of infusion rate were analyzed after repeated use. Results: The mean flow rate in the three series of measurements showed a gradual increase; however, the difference was not statistically significant (5.01 ± 0.07 vs. 5.03 ± 0.06 vs. 5.06 ± 0.08 mL/h; P = 0.81). The percentage of the flow rate error (deviation from 5 mL/h ± 15%) was 100% in the first and second hours of infusion, 96% in the third hour, 60% in the 20th hour and zero percent in the rest of the infusion time. Conclusions: This study indicated that the delivery rate accuracy of elastomeric infusion pumps is preserved after repeated usage. These laboratory findings suggested that elastomeric pumps could be safely refilled in the successive days to provide postoperative analgesia. © 2014, Iranian Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM).

Panahi N.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mahmoudian M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mortazavi P.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Hashjin G.S.,University of Tehran
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2013

Introduction: Relevant aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be modeled by aluminium-maltolate injection into specific regions of the brain. The possible role of berberine chloride (BC) as an anti-inflammatory agent in the brain has been previously addressed. Material and methods: Rabbits were divided into control (C), untreated lesion (L) and BC-treated + lesion (L + BC) groups. Animals in L + BC received BC (50 mg/ kg) orally 1 day after surgery and daily for 2 weeks. The lesion was induced by injection of 100 μu of either vehicle or water containing 25 mM aluminium-maltol into intraventricular fissure. Weight loss, ataxia, paralysis and tremor were monitored. For histopathology, Bielschowsky silver and H&E staining were employed. β-Secretase activity in hippocampus was finally assessed. Results: All L animals died on days 12-15 after lesion. Seven to 10 days after lesion, abnormal symptoms as well as cachexia were seen in over 90% of cases. L rabbits lost an average of 0.5 kg which was significant on days 10 and 12 (p < 0.05); this was not completely prevented by BC. Up to day 15, all L animals had lost their lives (p < 0.001). BC treatment protected the hippocampus from degeneration, altered the behavior and decreased the activity of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1). Conclusions: Considering the findings in regard to physiological abilities, histological changes and BACE-1 activity in hippocampus changes, it is concluded that BC treatment could be an effective therapy in restoring Al maltol-induced behavioral derangements in the rabbit model of AD. © 2013 Termedia & Banach.

Minagar A.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Barnett M.H.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Barnett M.H.,University of Sydney | Benedict R.H.B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 5 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

The paired thalamic nuclei are graymatter (GM) structures on both sides of the third ventricle that play major roles in cortical activation, relaying sensory information to the higher cortical centers that influence cognition. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the human CNS that affects both the white matter (WM) and GM. A number of clinical observations as well as recent neuropathologic and neuroimaging studies have clearly demonstrated extensive involvement of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and neocortex in patients with MS. Modern MRI techniques permit visualization of GM lesions and measurement of atrophy. These contemporary methods have fundamentally altered our understanding of the pathophysiologic nature of MS. Evidence confirms the contention that GM injury can be detected in the earliest phases of MS, and that iron deposition and atrophy of deep gray nuclei are closely related to the magnitude of inflammation. Extensive involvement of GM, and particularly of the thalamus, is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations including cognitive decline, motor deficits, fatigue, painful syndromes, and ocular motility disturbances in patients with MS. In this review, we characterize the neuropathologic, neuroimaging, and clinical features of thalamic involvement in MS. Further, we underscore the contention that neuropathologic and neuroimaging correlative investigations of thalamic derangements inMSmay elucidate not heretofore considered pathobiological underpinnings germane to understanding the ontogeny, magnitude, and progression of the disease process. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

Didari T.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Solki S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mozaffari S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nikfar S.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education | And 2 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2014

Introduction: There is growing evidence on the use of probiotics in various diseases, especially in gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Although probiotics have been found helpful in many illnesses, they do not always seem to be safe. Through interference with commensal microflora, they can result in opportunistic performances in the host due to bacterimia and fungemia. Since considerable numbers of consumers use probiotic products worldwide, assurance of safety of these products is necessary. Areas covered: This review evaluates all the existing information about the safety of probiotics in humans and animal models up to May 2013. In all eligible published studies in which adverse effects and tolerability of probiotics were investigated and reported, no language limitations were applied. The main key search terms were 'probiotics,' 'safety,' 'side effects,' 'clinical trial' and 'adverse effects.' The vast majority of trials investigated Bifidobacterium (B) and Lactobacillus (L) species. Expert opinion: The main observed adverse effects of probiotics were sepsis, fungemia and GI ischemia. Generally, critically ill patients in intensive care units, critically sick infants, postoperative and hospitalized patients and patients with immune-compromised complexity were the most at-risk populations. While the overwhelming existing evidence suggests that probiotics are safe, complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Peeri M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Amiri S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2015

While beneficial properties of physical activity and exercise on human health have been extensively reported in literature, the exact mechanism(s) underpinning impacts of exercise are not well understood. Focusing on metabolic disorders, as the main causes of social and economic burden in current century, exercise exhibited promising effects in prevention, alleviation and retardation of these disorders including, type 2 diabetes (T2D), Alzheimer's disease (AD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity. Recent evidence has unmasked the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic inflammation in pathophysiology of these disorders. Despite of the wealth of research on the etiology of metabolic disorders, intimate connections between these diseases, complex pathophysiology and their comorbidity still remains a challenging dilemma. In addition, although physical activity has improving effects on human health, it is not clear that how exercise is able to exert its modulatory effects on outcomes of metabolic disorders. Among several mechanisms, we assumed the hypothesis that exercise mitigates the production of mitochondrial-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) as the main triggering factors for inflammasome formation. Since inflammasomes are of highly deleterious molecules relevant to pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, we hypothesized that beneficial effects of exercise may be associated with its ability to enhance the mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose transportation through generation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Also, we proposed that boosting impact of exercise on autophagy process accelerates the elimination of damaged mitochondria and thus, results in considerable decrease in production of ROS and DAMPs and consequently sterile inflammation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Basati G.,Ilam University | Emami Razavi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Abdi S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mirzaei A.,Ilam University
Medical Oncology | Year: 2014

In patients with colorectal cancer, circulating micro RNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed and may act as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. In the present study, serum miR-21 level was determined in patients with colorectal cancer and control subjects in an attempt to explore its potential clinical diagnostic and prognostic value. Serum levels of miR–21 were measured in 40 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and 40 control subjects using a quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. Serum miR-21 levels were compared in the colorectal cancer patients and control subjects. Furthermore, the association between serum miR-21 level and the clinical stages of tumors was also examined in the patients. Serum miR-21 level was significantly elevated in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients relative to control subjects (P = 0.0001), and it was revealed as a potential diagnostic biomarker for differentiating the patients from control subjects. Increased levels of serum miR-21 were associated with clinical stages of tumors in the patients (P = 0.01). These results indicated that serum miR-21 levels could serve as a reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for colorectal adenocarcinoma. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Abnet C.C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Corley D.A.,Kaiser Permanente | Freedman N.D.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Kamangar F.,Morgan State University | Kamangar F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Diet is believed to modulate cancer risk and this relationship has been widely studied in the gastrointestinal tract. Observational epidemiologic studies have provided most of the evidence about the effects of diet on cancer risk because clinical trials to determine nutritional exposures are often impossible, impractical, or unaffordable. Although a few foods or nutrients are thought to protect against specific types of cancer, it seems clear that the strength and even direction of dietary associations (increasing or decreasing risk) is organ-site- and even histology-specific, along the gastrointestinal tract. Although some hypotheses are supported by a substantial body of observational data (drinking hot maté [an infusion of the herb Ilex Paraguarensis] contributes to esophageal cancer), there are not much data to support others. We discuss some highly touted hypotheses and draw interim conclusions about what is known and what could be done to improve the level of evidence. The complex nature of diet and its associations can be productively investigated with disease-specific studies. However, public health recommendations for normal-risk individuals regarding diet and gastrointestinal cancer should probably emphasize the importance of eating for overall health rather than eating specific foods to reduce risk for specific cancers. © 2015 AGA Institute.

Mikaeili Agah E.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Parivar K.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Parivar K.,National Science Foundation | Joghataei M.T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2014

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A potential new therapeutic approach for MS is cell transplantation which may promote remyelination. We transplanted human Wharton's jelly stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hWJ-MSC-derived OPCs) into the brain ventricles of mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS. We studied the effect of the transplanted OPCs on the functional and pathological manifestations of the disease. Transplanted hWJ-MSC-derived OPCs significantly reduced the clinical signs of EAE. Histological examinations showed that remyelination was significantly increased after transplantation. These results suggest that hWJ-MSC-derived OPCs promote the regeneration of myelin sheaths in the brain. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

Karimi A.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Karimi A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Navidbakhsh M.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Haghi A.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Faghihi S.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine | Year: 2013

Degenerative and demyelinating diseases are known to alter the mechanical properties of brain tissue. While few studies have characterized these biomechanical changes, it is clear that accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of diseased brain tissue could be a substantial asset to neuronavigation and surgery simulation through haptic devices. In this study, samples of brain tissue from rats infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, an African murine malaria parasite, are evaluated using a uniaxial tensile test machine. Infected brains having different levels of parasitemia are mounted on the testing machine and extended until failure of the tissue. The stress-strain curve of each sample is obtained and compared to healthy rat brain tissue. Young's modulus of each sample is extracted from the Hookean part of the stress- strain diagram. Young's modulus of rats' brain shows considerable difference among the samples having various levels of parasitemia compared with the controls. For instance, the brains with 0% (control), 1.5%, and 9% parasitemia showed a Young's modulus of 46.15, 54.54, and 266.67 kPa, respectively. This suggests sequestration of the stiffened and less deformable parasitized red blood cells in the brain microvasculature. © IMechE 2012.

Jalili M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hejri S.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Norcini J.J.,Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research
Medical Education | Year: 2011

Context Cut-scores, reliability and validity vary among standard-setting methods. The modified Angoff method (MA) is a well-known standard-setting procedure, but the three-level Angoff approach (TLA), a recent modification, has not been extensively evaluated. Objectives This study aimed to compare standards and pass rates in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) obtained using two methods of standard setting with discussion and reality checking, and to assess the reliability and validity of each method. Methods A sample of 105 medical students participated in a 14-station OSCE. Fourteen and 10 faculty members took part in the MA and TLA procedures, respectively. In the MA, judges estimated the probability that a borderline student would pass each station. In the TLA, judges estimated whether a borderline examinee would perform the task correctly or not. Having given individual ratings, judges discussed their decisions. One week after the examination, the procedure was repeated using normative data. Results The mean score for the total test was 54.11% (standard deviation: 8.80%). The MA cut-scores for the total test were 49.66% and 51.52% after discussion and reality checking, respectively (the consequent percentages of passing students were 65.7% and 58.1%, respectively). The TLA yielded mean pass scores of 53.92% and 63.09% after discussion and reality checking, respectively (rates of passing candidates were 44.8% and 12.4%, respectively). Compared with the TLA, the MA showed higher agreement between judges (0.94 versus 0.81) and a narrower 95% confidence interval in standards (3.22 versus 11.29). Conclusions The MA seems a more credible and reliable procedure with which to set standards for an OSCE than does the TLA, especially when a reality check is applied. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

Ashtari F.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Bahar M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Aghaei M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Zahed A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Uric acid (UA) is a hydrophilic antioxidant product associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a randomized case-control study to evaluate the serum level of UA in different phases of MS in comparison with levels in a healthy control population. Serum UA was checked in 130 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (85 patients in remitting and 45 patients in relapsing phase) and 50 age-matched controls using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean concentrations of UA in serum was 6.41(±3.18) mg/dL in patients with remitting MS, 4.76(±1.66) mg/dL in patients with relapsing MS and 6.33(±2.94) mg/dL in controls. There was a significant difference between mean UA concentration in relapsing MS and remitting MS (p < 0.001), and between patients with relapsing MS and controls (p = 0.002); however, the difference between levels for patients in the remitting phase of MS and the control group was not significant (p = 0.87). It seems probable that UA has a role in the prevention of disease activity in MS. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bidgoli S.A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Ahmadi R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Zavarhei M.D.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

Although the probability of having breast cancer increases with the age in general, this malignancy affects Iranian women at least one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries. However the underlying risk factors for the discrepancy have not been identified. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the effects of many environmental endocrine disruptors and contributes to the loss of normal ovarian function in polluted environments. This study was aimed to compare the interactions between AhR and other fundamental genes (p53, K-Ras, ER, PgR) in a clinical setting. To conduct the immunohistochemical studies using appropriate monoclonal antibodies, 25 premenopausal invasive ductal carcinoma, 29 postmenopausal invasive ductal carcinoma and 30 breast fibroadenoma were selected retrospectively from 2004 to 2007 in the pathology department of Imam Khomeini hospital complex of Tehran University of Medical Sciences Higher levels of AhR in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients and breast fibroadenoma emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental-induced tumors. AhR overexpression contributed to ER-/PgR-immunophenotype in young/premenopausal patients but the same pattern was not observed in benign and postmenopausal malignant tumors. It seems that early incidence of breast cancer in Iran is the result of interactions between hormonal and environmental factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ashkarran A.A.,University of Mazandaran | Fakhari M.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

A novel route for the synthesis of CNT-TiO2 hybrid nanostructures is reported based on a combination of sol-gel and arc discharge methods in a liquid. The CNT-TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared using an arc discharge between graphitic electrodes in a TiO2 solution and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The photocatalytic performance in visible light and antibacterial activity of the CNT-TiO 2 nanocomposites demonstrated degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh. B) and inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. It was observed that the absorption spectrum of the CNT-TiO2 nanocomposites extended into the visible region, and considerably improved photocatalytic efficiency and antibacterial properties under visible light irradiation. The amount of CNTs formed in the TiO2 solution was controlled by the arc duration time and the optimum value for the best possible photocatalytic performance of each specific arc current was also probed. We found that the prepared samples have high photocatalytic activity and antibacterial efficiency. The significant enhancement in the photocatalytic properties and antibacterial activity of CNT-TiO2 nanocomposites under visible light irradiation can be attributed to the effect of doped CNTs acting as electron traps in the TiO 2 band gap. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mansournia M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hernan M.A.,Harvard University | Hernan M.A.,Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology | Greenland S.,University of California at Los Angeles
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in thecausal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables thatare affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias.

Ghassemi F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shields C.L.,Thomas Jefferson University
Archives of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and complications of intravitreal chemotherapy for viable vitreous seeding from retinoblastoma. Methods: Intravitreal injection of melphalan (8-50 μg in 0.05 mL) followed by injection site cryotherapy. Results: Among 12 treated cases, success with control of vitreous seeds was achieved in 10 of 12 cases at immediate follow-up (0-3 months), 8 of 10 cases at short-term follow-up (3-6 months), and 6 of 10 cases at long-term (>6 months) follow-up. Among those 8 cases that received an 8- to 10-μg dose, control was achieved in 6 of 8 cases at immediate follow-up, 5 of 7 cases at short-term follow-up, and 3 of 7 cases at long-term follow-up. Complications with the 8- to 10-μg dose were minor and included preretinal hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis with retinal pigment epithelial alterations. Of those 4 that received a 50-μg dose, immediate, short-term, and long-term control was 100%, but complications of cataract, vitreous hemorrhage, subretinal hemorrhage, severe hypotonia, and phthisis lead to enucleation in 2 cases. There was no case of orbital tumor recurrence or retinoblastoma metastasis (follow-up range, 8-66 months). Conclusions: Intravitreal melphalan for recurrent vitreous seeds from retinoblastoma appears to provide vitreous seed control in some patients. A high dose (50 μg) of melphalan is toxic and should be avoided. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Eslami L.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences | Nasseri-Moghaddam S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective agents available for reducing acid secretion. They are used for medical treatment of various acid-related disorders. PPIs are used extensively and for extended periods of time in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A troublesome issue regarding maintenance therapy has been the propensity of PPI-treated patients to develop chronic atrophic gastritis while on therapy that could theoretically lead to an increased incidence of gastric cancer. In addition, animal studies have raised concern for development of enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and carcinoid tumors in the stomachs of mice receiving high dose PPIs. Current literature does not provide a clear-cut conclusion on the subject and the reports are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, this study is a systematic review of the available literature to address the safety of long-term PPI use and its relation to the development of malignant/premalignant gastric lesions. Methods: A literature search of biomedical databases was performed. The reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed to further identify relevant trials. We hand-searched the abstracts of the American Digestive Disease Week (DDW) and the United European Gastroenterology Week (UEGW) from 1995 to 2013. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used PPIs as the primary treatment for at least six month versus no treatment, placebo, antacid or anti-reflux surgery (ARS) were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Discrepancies in the interpretation were resolved by consensus. All analyses of outcomes were based on the intention-to-treat principle. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager software. The effect measure of choice was relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data. Results: Six RCTs with a total of 785 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two multicenter RCTs compared Esomeprazole with placebo. One RCT compared omeprazole with ARS. Two RCTs compared omeprazole with ranitidine and one RCT compared lansoprazole with ranitidine. Four of the included RCTs had moderate risk of bias and two had low risk of bias. The number of patients with increased corporal atrophy score, intestinal metaplasia score and chronic antral inflammation did not statistically differ between the PPI maintenance group and controls. Similar results were found when ECL-cell hyperplasia was assessed between the groups. ConclusionS: Maintenance PPIs did not have an association with increased gastric atrophic changes or ECL-cell hyperplasia for at least three years in RCTs.

Hashemi Doulabi A.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Mirzadeh H.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Imani M.,Iran Polymer And Petrochemical Institute | Samadi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to prepare chitosan/polyethylene glycol fumarate (chitosan/PEGF) blend films as wound dressings and to evaluate the influence of composition ratio on the blending properties of the films. Blending chitosan with PEGF obviated the brittleness of neat chitosan film. Film topography performed by atomic force microscopy illustrated that blending could increase and control the surface roughness of the neat film. Their water vapor transmission rates were close to the range of 904-1447 g-2 day -1 found to be proper candidates for dressing the wounds with moderate exudates. Controlled water solubility, swelling, wettability and surface tension of the blend films were also evaluated. The blend films showed a powerful antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (Kill% > 99.76 ± 0.16%). Physical properties as well as antibacterial activity assessments showed that among different compositions, the film comprising 80 wt% chitosan and 20 wt% PEGF is a suitable candidate for biomedical applications as a wound dressing material. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Baheiraei N.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Moztarzadeh F.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Hedayati M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Ceramics International | Year: 2012

In the present study, silver-doped silica thin films on glazed surface of ceramic tiles were well prepared by sol-gel method to achieve antibacterial activity. Thermal treatment was done in the air at 1100 °C for two hours. The Ag/SiO 2 thin films were investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS). Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used for the quantitative determination of the silver ion concentration being released from Ag/SiO 2 films over a 24 day period. The antibacterial effects of Ag/SiO 2 thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also examined. From the analysis results, it was found that high temperature treated coating consists of two phases of SiO 2 and Ag based on the trapping of the Ag phase in the silica matrix. The presence of Ag elements on the surface of the coated tiles, were also observed. Thermal treatment at high temperatures caused sharp XRD peaks and high crystallinity in this system. Ag + ions were released constantly and the mean release rate (±SD) was 0.104 ±0.01 μg/ml during 24 days. Coating films exhibited an excellent antibacterial performance against both bacterium. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

Bagheri M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Speakman J.R.,University of Aberdeen | Speakman J.R.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Shabbidar S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2015

The obesity paradox is often attributed to fat acting as a buffer to protect individuals in fragile metabolic states. If this was the case, one would predict that the reverse epidemiology would be apparent across all causes of mortality including that of the particular disease state. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on all-cause and stroke-specific mortality among stroke patients. Data from relevant studies were identified by systematically searching PubMed, OVID and Scopus databases and were analysed using a random-effects dose-response model. Eight cohort studies on all-cause mortality (with 20,807 deaths of 95,651 stroke patients) and nine studies of mortality exclusively because of stroke (with 8,087 deaths of 28,6270 patients) were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Non-linear associations of BMI with all-cause mortality (P<0.0001) and mortality by stroke (P=0.05) were observed. Among overweight and obese stroke patients, the risk of all-cause mortality increased, while the risk of mortality by stroke declined, with an increase in BMI. Increasing BMI had opposite effects on all-cause mortality and stroke-specific mortality in stroke patients. Further investigations are needed to examine how mortality by stroke is influenced by a more accurate indicator of obesity than BMI. © 2015 World Obesity.

Mansournia M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Greenland S.,University of California at Los Angeles
Epidemiology | Year: 2015

A probability distribution may have some properties that are stable under a structure (e.g., a causal graph) and other properties that are unstable. Stable properties are implied by the structure and thus will be shared by populations following the structure. In contrast, unstable properties correspond to special circumstances that are unlikely to be replicated across those populations. A probability distribution is faithful to the structure if all independencies in the distribution are logical consequences of the structure. We explore the distinction between confounding and noncollapsibility in relation to the concepts of faithfulness and stability. Simple collapsibility of an odds ratio over a risk factor is unstable and thus unlikely if the exposure affects the outcome, whether or not the risk factor is associated with exposure. For a binary exposure with no effect, collapsibility over a confounder also requires unfaithfulness. Nonetheless, if present, simple collapsibility of the odds ratio limits the degree of confounding by the covariate. Collapsibility of effect measures is stable if the covariate is independent of the outcome given exposure, but it is unstable if the covariate is an instrumental variable. Understanding stable and unstable properties of distributions under causal structures, and the distinction between stability and faithfulness, yields important insights into the correspondence between noncollapsibility and confounding. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Greenland S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Mansournia M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2015

Penalization is a very general method of stabilizing or regularizing estimates, which has both frequentist and Bayesian rationales. We consider some questions that arise when considering alternative penalties for logistic regression and related models. The most widely programmed penalty appears to be the Firth small-sample bias-reduction method (albeit with small differences among implementations and the results they provide), which corresponds to using the log density of the Jeffreys invariant prior distribution as a penalty function. The latter representation raises some serious contextual objections to the Firth reduction, which also apply to alternative penalties based on t-distributions (including Cauchy priors). Taking simplicity of implementation and interpretation as our chief criteria, we propose that the log-F(1,1) prior provides a better default penalty than other proposals. Penalization based on more general log-F priors is trivial to implement and facilitates mean-squared error reduction and sensitivity analyses of penalty strength by varying the number of prior degrees of freedom. We caution however against penalization of intercepts, which are unduly sensitive to covariate coding and design idiosyncrasies. © 2015John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Niazi M.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences | Maleki A.R.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences | Talebpour M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2013

Demand for feasible, safe, and preferably low-cost methods of weight reduction is rising every day. The present study reports findings from laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP), which is a new restrictive bariatric technique, combined with a postoperative follow-up program. A 2-year prospective study was performed following LGP in 53 female morbidly obese patients from Gorgan, Iran, with a mean age of 36.3 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 42.6 kg/m2 (35.3-62.4). Through a four-port approach, the greater omentum and short gastric vessels were transected and the greater curvature was imbricated into the body of the stomach with two rows of nonabsorbable sutures. After surgery, all patients were scheduled to attend a weekly group meeting for behavioral modification and psychotherapy. The mean operative time and hospital stay was 95 min and 72 h, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred. Mean percentages of excess weight loss (%EWL) were 25.6 %, 54.2 %, 70.2 %, and 74.4 % after 1, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Six patients lost >84 % of their excess weight after 24 months. Patients who did not participate in the group meetings had a lower %EWL after 12 (79.5 % vs. 55.6 %) and 24 months (90 % vs. 43.4 %) compared with the patients who regularly participated in the group meetings (P < 0.005). LGP is a feasible, safe, and effective surgical method for weight loss for at least 24 months when performed on morbidly obese patients. Postoperative group meetings (POGM) for psychotherapy and behavioral modification helped patients to achieve better results. © 2012 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Mahmoudi M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hosseinkhani H.,National Yang Ming University | Hosseinkhani M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Fetal stem cells, which can be isolated from the organs of fetuses, differentiate along multiple lineages. Their advantages over their adult counterparts include better intrinsic homing and engraftment and lower immunogenicity, and they are less ethically contentious. It is noteworthy that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) can be activated and mobilized at the site of damaged tissue. Since vascular delivery suffers from a pulmonary first pass effect, direct or systemic injection of MSCs into the damaged tissue is preferred, particularly in the case of versatile tissue ischemia. Ultrasound applies acoustic energy with a frequency above human hearing (20 kHz). Ultrasound imaging or sonography scanners operate between 2 and 13 MHz. The frequency determines the image's spatial resolution and the penetration depth into the examined patient.

Islami F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Islami F.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Islami F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Moreira D.M.,Arthur Smith Institute for Urology | And 3 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2014

Context An association between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality was suggested in an earlier meta-analysis of 24 prospective studies in which dose-response associations and risks per unit of tobacco use were not examined.Objective We investigated the association between several measures of tobacco use and PCa mortality (primary outcome) and incidence (secondary outcome) including dose-response association. Evidence acquisition Relevant articles from prospective studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases (through January 21, 2014) and reference lists of relevant articles. Combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects methods. We also calculated population attributable risk (PAR) for smoking and PCa mortality. Evidence synthesis We included 51 articles in this meta-analysis (11 823 PCa deaths, 50 349 incident cases, and 4 082 606 cohort participants). Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of PCa death (RR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.31), with little evidence for heterogeneity and publication bias. The number of cigarettes smoked per day had a dose-response association with PCa mortality (p = 0.02; RR for 20 cigarettes per day: 1.20). The PAR for cigarette smoking and PCa deaths in the United States and Europe were 6.7% and 9.5%, respectively, corresponding to >10 000 deaths/year in these two regions. Current cigarette smoking was inversely associated with incident PCa (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), with high heterogeneity in the results. However, in studies completed in 1995 or earlier (considered as completed before the prostate-specific antigen screening era), ever smoking showed a positive association with incident PCa (RR: 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12) with little heterogeneity.Conclusions Combined evidence from observational studies shows a modest but statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and fatal PCa. Smoking appears to be a modifiable risk factor for PCa death.Patient summary Smoking increases the chance of prostate cancer death. Not smoking prevents this harm and many other tobacco-related diseases. © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Azami M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jalilifiroozinezhad S.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Mozafari M.,Amirkabir University of Technology
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2012

In this research, a novel biphasic solid solution consisted of Calcium fluoride (CF) and fluorinated-hydroxyapatite (FHAp) was successfully synthesized through a modified precipitation method using buffer solution. The obtained results confirmed the formation of biphasic nanocrystalline powder composed of about 46% CF and 54% (w/w%) FHAp. This product can be considered as an osteoconductive dental filler or implant with the ability of dental carries prevention due to release of fluorine ions. Herein, the usage of buffer solution for this purpose not only can produces biphasic powder but also provides the possibility of establishment of a continuous synthesis method without manual interfere for adjusting pH of the reactor. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

Attarchi N.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Montazer M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Toliyat T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2013

In this paper, Ag/TiO2/beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) nano composite was successfully synthesized as a novel friendly nano photo catalyst with ability of loading various compounds. The influence of different β-cyclodextrin content in the formation of nano composites was investigated. Various analysis including FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), XRD, FESEM, EDAX, and TEM were used to characterize the prepared nano composites. The presence of β-CD in the nano composite was confirmed by FTIR patterns. FE-SEM pictures indicated roughly spherical particles and DLS results showed the average hydrodynamic diameters of 95 nm in aqueous dispersion that was bigger with more β-CD. TEM images confirmed the presence of three compounds in the nano composites. The peak intensity and the spectra intensity in the visible region increased with more β-CD confirming synthesis of more Ag on TiO2. The effective role of β-CD as stabilizer was also proved by the low reduction of the peak intensity for various nano composites after 15 days. One factor response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to model Methylene Blue degradation rate by Ag/TiO2/β-CD under UV irradiation. The mathematical model suggested significant improvement in the photo degradation rate of Ag/TiO 2/β-CD in comparing with Ag/TiO2. However, more β-CD limitedly improved the degradation rate of Methylen Blue and excess β-CD was detrimental on the reduction of photo degradation rate. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Poursamar S.A.,University of Northampton | Azami M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Azami M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mozafari M.,Amirkabir University of Technology
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2011

During the last decades, there have been several attempts to combine bioactive materials with biocompatible and biodegradable polymers to create nanocomposite scaffolds with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and mechanical properties. In this research, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on PVA and HAp nanoparticles were successfully prepared using colloidal HAp nanoparticles combined with freeze-drying technique for tissue engineering applications. In addition, the effect of the pH value of the reactive solution and different percentages of PVA and HAp on the synthesis of PVA/HAp nanocomposites were investigated. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional microstructures, and in vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. According to the obtained results, the nanocomposite scaffolds could be considered as highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Abbasi S.-H.,Research Institute of Petroleum Industry RIPI | Abbasi S.-H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hosseini F.,Research Institute of Petroleum Industry RIPI | Modabbernia A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2012

Background: It has been proposed that the mechanism of the antidepressant effect of celecoxib is linked to its anti-inflammatory action and particularly its inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6(IL-6)). We measured changes in serum IL-6 concentrations and depressive symptoms following administration of celecoxib in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 40 patients with MDD and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - 17 items (Ham-D) score ≥ 18 were randomly assigned to either celecoxib (200 mg twice daily) or placebo in addition to sertraline (200 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Outcome measures were serum IL-6 concentrations at baseline and week 6, and Ham-D scores at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6. Results: The celecoxib group showed significantly greater reduction in serum IL-6 concentrations (mean difference (95%CI) = 0.42(0.30 to 0.55) pg/ml, t(35) = 6.727, P < 0.001) as well as Ham-D scores (mean difference (95%CI) = 3.35(1.08 to 5.61), t(38) = 2.99, P = 0.005) than the placebo group. The patients in the celecoxib group experienced more response (95%) and remission (35%) than the placebo group (50% and 5%, P = 0.003 and 0.04 respectively). Baseline serum IL-6 levels were significantly correlated with baseline Ham-D scores (r = 0.378, P = 0.016). Significant correlation was observed between reduction of Ham-D scores and reduction of serum IL-6 levels at week 6 (r = 0.673, P < 0.001). Limitations: We did not measure other inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusions: We showed that the antidepressant activity of celecoxib might be linked to its capability of reducing IL-6 concentrations. Moreover, supporting previous studies we showed that celecoxib is both safe and effective as an adjunctive antidepressant (Registration number: IRCT138903124090N1). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Sedighi A.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Montazer M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Samadi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

In this paper, Cu2O nanoparticles were in situ synthesized on cotton fabric through a new simple and cost-effective chemical reduction method using copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Cotton fabric participates as a reducing agent in reduction of copper sulfate and facilitates synthesis of cuprous oxide in nano-scale as a stabilizer. The produced cotton/nano Cu 2O composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Interaction of Cu2O with cotton fabric in addition to alteration of cotton functional groups were studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The intermediate solution, copper-amine complex, was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the cotton/nano Cu2O composite were studied using Instron indicated a higher tensile strain. The antibacterial activity of the fabric samples showed considerable behavior against S. aureus and E. coli. Further, the treated fabric became highly hydrophobic and sensed ammonia and hydrogen peroxide chromatically. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ranjbar-Mohammadi M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Bahrami S.H.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Joghataei M.T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2013

Gum tragacanth (GT) is one of the most widely used natural gums which has found applications in many areas because of its attractive features such as biodegradability, nontoxic nature, natural availability, higher resistance to microbial attacks and long shelf-life properties. GT and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were dissolved in deionized water in different ratios i.e., 0/100, 30/70, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 70/30, 0/100 mass ratio of GT/PVA. Nanofibers were produced from these solutions using electrospinning technique. The effect of different electrospinning parameters such as extrusion rate of polymer solutions, solution concentration, electrode spacing distance and applied voltage on the morphology of nanofibers was examined. The antibacterial activity of nanofibers and GT solution against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosawas examined and these nanofibers showed good antibacterial property against Gram-negative bacteria. FTIR data showed that these two polymers may be having hydrogen bonding interactions. DSC data revealed that the exothermic peak at about 194 °C for PVA shifted to a lower temperature in GT/PVA blend. Human fibroblast cells adhered and proliferated well on the GT/PVA nanofiber scaffolds. MTT assay was carried out on the GT/PVA nanofiber to investigate the proliferation rate of fibroblast cells on the scaffolds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rahimi-Movaghar V.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Vaccaro A.R.,Thomas Jefferson University
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2012

Spinal cord injured (SCI) patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED), impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I) such as Sildenafil (Viagra), intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM). Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy can be used to obtain sperm which can then be used for intra-uterine or in-vitro fertilization. Infertility treatment in male SCI patients involves a combination of the above treatments for erectile and anejaculatory dysfunctions. The basic approach to and management of sexual dysfunction in female SCI patients are similar as for men but do not require treatment for erectile or ejaculatory problems. © 2012 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

Mahmoudi M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Azadmanesh K.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Shokrgozar M.A.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

A scientific review presents a broad overview of the effect of nanoparticles on the cell life cycle and their corresponding phase arresting the existing data. A comprehensive description of the available assays for probing the effect of nanoparticles on the cell life cycle is also presented. The cell cycle corresponds to a series of events which lead the cell to its division and duplication. The cell cycle can be divided into two brief periods in eukaryotes, such as the interphase during which the cell grows and accumulates nutrients needed for mitosis and DNA replication and the mitosis phase in which the cell splits itself into two distinct daughter cells. The mitosis phase corresponds to the actual cell division and requires significant amounts of energy. The final division is called cytokinesis after which the two daughter cells produced restart the cell cycle.

Greenland S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Mansournia M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
European Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

We describe how ordinary interpretations of causal models and causal graphs fail to capture important distinctions among ignorable allocation mechanisms for subject selection or allocation. We illustrate these limitations in the case of random confounding and designs that prevent such confounding. In many experimental designs individual treatment allocations are dependent, and explicit population models are needed to show this dependency. In particular, certain designs impose unfaithful covariate-treatment distributions to prevent random confounding, yet ordinary causal graphs cannot discriminate between these unconfounded designs and confounded studies. Causal models for populations are better suited for displaying these phenomena than are individual-level models, because they allow representation of allocation dependencies as well as outcome dependencies across individuals. Nonetheless, even with this extension, ordinary graphical models still fail to capture distinctions between hypothetical superpopulations (sampling distributions) and observed populations (actual distributions), although potential-outcome models can be adapted to show these distinctions and their consequences. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Allahyarzadeh V.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Montazer M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Nejad N.H.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Samadi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2013

Alkali hydrolysis of polyester along with application of nano silver/nano TiO2 to produce hydrolyzed polyester fabric with antibacterial and self-cleaning properties is a very interesting subject. In this article, a novel idea is introduced to achieve a polyester fabric with self-cleaning and antibacterial properties with a good feeling handle in one step. The polyester fabric is hydrolyzed in alkali media to enhance the surface activity, improve nanoparticle absorption, and produce ethylene glycol for reducing silver nitrate into nano silver. XRD pattern confirms the presence of nanoparticles with crystal size of 10 nm on the fabric surface and FESEM pictures show the distribution of nanocomposite particles on the fiber surfaces with average size of 54 nm. The degradation of Methylene Blue under daylight irradiation confirms the photoactivity of nano TiO2 on the polyester fabric. Also, very good bactericidal efficiency is obtained against S. aureus and E. coli. Interestingly, the fabric tensile strength improves even with the action of alkali in surface hydrolysis of polyester. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Karimi P.,Johns Hopkins University | Shahrokni A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Moradi S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females, worldwide, accounting for 22.9% of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in females. Mammography is a sensitive (77-95%) and specific (94-97%) screening method for breast cancer. Previously, females between the 40-50 years old were recommended to have mammograms every one to two years. However, based on current evidence, in 2009, USPSTF recommended that the decision to start regular, biennial screening mammography for females younger than 50 years should be an individual decision and take patient context into account, including the patient's values regarding specific benefits and harms. This decision was based on findings regarding radiation exposure, false-positive and false-negative rates, over-diagnosis, and pain and psychological responses. The goal of this paper is to focus on evidence for updating the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against routine mammography for females between 40-49 years of age.

Jafari S.M.,Thomas Jefferson University | Coyle C.,Thomas Jefferson University | Mortazavi S.M.J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sharkey P.F.,Thomas Jefferson University | Parvizi J.,Thomas Jefferson University
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2010

Background: Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), although relieving pain and restoring function, fails in some patients. In contrast to failures in primary THA, the frequency of the causes of failure in revision THA has been less well established. Questions/purposes: We therefore determined the rate of each failure mode and the survivorship of revision THAs. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 1366 revision THAs performed between 2000 and 2007. There were 609 (44.5%) men and 757 (55.5%) women with a mean age of 66 years. The indications for the revision surgery were mainly aseptic loosening (51%), instability (15%), wear (14%), and infection (8%). The minimum followup was 1 day (mean, 5.5 years; range, 1 day to 9 years). Results: Two hundred fifty-six of the revisions (18.7%) failed with an average time to failure of 16.6 months (range, 1 day to 7.5 years). Among 256 failed hips, infection was the most common cause of failure (30.2%) followed by instability (25.1%) and aseptic loosening (19.4%). At 5 years, the survivorships of septic and aseptic groups were 67% and 84.8%, respectively. Revision for infection or instability appears to have a considerably lower survivorship when compared to revision for aseptic causes. Conclusions: The lower survivorship of revision for infection or instability highlights the importance of implementing better preventative methods that can minimize the impact of these two major causes of failure. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2010 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.

Moghtadaei M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Hashemi Golpayegani M.R.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Malekzadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2013

Clinicians and oncologists believe that tumor growth has unpredictable dynamics. For this reason they encounter many difficulties in the treatment of cancer. Mathematical modeling is a great tool to improve our better understanding of the complicated biological system of tumor growth. Also, it can help to identify states of the disease and as a result help to predict later behaviors of the tumor. Having an insight into the future behaviors of the tumor can be very useful for the oncologists and clinicians to decide on the treatment method and dosage of the administered drug. This paper suggests that a suitable model for the tumor growth system should be a discrete model capable of exhibiting periodic and complex chaotic dynamics. This is the key feature of the proposed model. The model is validated here through experimental data and its potential dynamics are analyzed. The model can explain many biologically observed tumor states and dynamics, such as exponential growth, and periodic and chaotic behaviors in the steady states. The model shows that even an avascular tumor could become invasive under certain conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Omranipour R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mahmoodzadeh H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Safavi F.,Thomas Jefferson University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Although a great deal of progress has been made in the management of colorectal cancer interms of neoadjuvant modalities, surgical techniques and adjuvant therapies, the recurrence of tumors remains an enigmatic complication in patients. A better understanding of colorectal cancer and of factors that lead to recurrence of disease can provide helpful information for designing more effective screening and surveillance methods. Aim: To investigate the factors that may lead to local recurrence of colorectal cancers. Materials and Methods: The current retrospective case study evaluated 617 patients admitted to the Iranian Cancer Institute (the largest referral cancer center in the country) from 1995 to 2009 with confirmed colorectal cancer. Patients with distant metastasis, or with pathology other than adenocarcinoma and no follow-up, were excluded (175 patients). The remainder (442) included 294 (66.5%) with rectal cancer and 148 (33.5%) with colon cancer. The median duration of follow-up was 26 months. Results: The total rate of recurrence was 17.4%, comprising 19.6% and 16.3% recurrence rates in colon and rectal cancer, respectively. Conclusions: Recurrence of colorectal cancer was significantly correlated to tumor grade (p<0.008).

Boffetta P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Boffetta P.,International Prevention Research Institute | Islami F.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Islami F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: The use of biological-based markers of exposure, intermediate effect, outcome, and susceptibility has become standard practice in cancer epidemiology, which has contributed to identification of several carcinogenic agents. Nevertheless, with the exception of biological agents, this contribution, in terms of providing sufficiently strong evidence as required by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs, has been modest. Materials and methods: We discuss the overall contribution of molecular epidemiology to identification of carcinogens, with focus on IARC monographs. Results: For many carcinogens, valid biological markers of exposure and mechanisms of actions are not available. Molecular markers are usually assessed in single biological samples, which may not represent the actual exposure or biological events related to carcinogens. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to identification of carcinogens has mainly been limited to the carcinogens acting through a genotoxic mechanism, i.e. when carcinogens induce DNA damage. A number of factors, including certain hormones and overweight/obesity, may show carcinogenic effects through nongenotoxic pathways, for which mechanisms of carcinogenicity are not well identified and their biomarkers are sparse. Conclusion: Longitudinal assessment of biomarkers may provide more informative data in molecular epidemiology studies. For many carcinogens and mechanistic pathways, in particular nongenotoxic carcinogenicity, valid biological markers still need to be identified. © The Author 2012.

Aladpoosh R.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Montazer M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Samadi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Cellulose | Year: 2014

Recently, utilization of ecofriendly procedures has been developed for synthesis of nanoparticles to avoid use of toxic chemicals and to achieve biological compatibility. Application of biosynthesis methods through the use of microorganisms, yeasts, plants or plant extracts is known as green synthesis. The ashes of burnt leaves and stems of Seidlitzia rosmarinus plant are called Keliab in Iran, mostly containing sodium and potassium carbonate. In this study, Keliab is introduced as a natural source for in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on cotton fabric. Absorption of carbonate ions on the surface stabilizes the nanoparticles and prevents agglomeration. Synthesis of Ag NPs on cotton fabrics was proved by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Also ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra of the remaining solutions of treated fabrics confirmed the synthesis of Ag NPs in the solution. Furthermore, the tensile strength, color change, and antibacterial activity of the treated cotton fabrics were investigated. Overall, the treated fabrics indicated excellent antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli even at low Ag NP content with negligible change of color and tensile strength. Graphical Abstract [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Alvar J.,Drugs for Neglected Disease initiative DNDi 15 | Croft S.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Kaye P.,University of York | Khamesipour A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Malekipirbazari M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Sadrameli S.M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Dorkoosh F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sharifi H.,Amirkabir University of Technology
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2014

SUMMARY: This paper presents a comprehensive study of encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs). In order to investigate some synthesis parameters, microencapsulated paraffin with gelatin/gum Arabic wall system was prepared by the complex coacervation method and the performance of these microcapsules was evaluated by optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Further investigations were carried out on the impact of physical parameters on the melting time by studying the constrained melting transformation of an encapsulated PCM in a spherical shell subjected to a constant temperature media. Results indicate successful production of PCM microcapsules with high melting enthalpy (116 kJ/kg), and the effects of diameter and thermal conductivity on melting time of PCMs were demonstrated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Abedi-Ardekani B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hainaut P.,International Prevention Research Institute
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2014

Cancers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract (UGIT) comprise esophageal, esophago-gastric junction, stomach and duodenal cancers. Together, these cancers represent over 1.5 million cases and are the cause of about 1.25 million deaths annually. This group of cancers encompasses diseases with marked disparities in etiology, geographic distribution, histopathological features and frequency. Based on histological origin, squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), which arises through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence within the squamous mucosa, is a completely different cancer than junction, stomach and duodenal cancers, which develop within glandular epithelia through cascades involving inflammation, metaplasia, dysplasia and carcinoma. At the frontline between these two histological domains, cancers of the esophago-gastric junction constitute a mixed group of glandular tumors including distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and cancers arising within the most proximal part of the stomach-the cardia. Most of UGIT cancers are sporadic, although familial susceptibility genes have been identified for stomach and rare cases of ESCC. V\fe have used the COSMIC database (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics CGP/cosmic/) to identify genes commonly mutated in UGIT cancers. Regardless of etiology and histopathology, three genes are mutated in at least 5% of UGIT cancers: TP53, CDKN2a and PIK3CA. Another three genes, NFE2L2, PTCH1 and NOTCH1, are mutated in ESCC only. Conversely, genes of the RAS family and of the CDH1/APC/CTNNB1 pathway are mutated only in non-squamous cancers, with differences in mutated genes according to topography. V\fe review the potential functional significance of these observations for understanding mechanisms of UGIT carcinogenesis.

Barani H.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Montazer M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Samadi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Toliyat T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2012

Silver nanoparticles are being used increasingly in various applications because of their antibacterial properties. It is necessary to lower their direct contact with the skin by embedding in a polymer reducing their side effects. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized inside the wool fibers acted as a polyfunctional ligands. Lecithin as a biological lipid was used to enhance the diffusion of silver ions and nanoparticles into the wool fibers reducing cytotoxicity effects of the nano silver loaded wool. The highest loading efficiency and inhibition zone was observed on the wool with the highest lecithin concentration. Presence of lecithin reduced the rate of nano silver release which results in decreasing the specific coefficient of lethality. Also, the extracted solution of the synthesized silver nanoparticles on the wool has not altered the morphology of L929 fibroblast cells. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Wang S.-K.,University of Michigan | Aref P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hu Y.,University of Michigan | Milkovich R.N.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

Enamel-renal syndrome (ERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe enamel hypoplasia, failed tooth eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, enlarged gingiva, and nephrocalcinosis. Recently, mutations in FAM20A were reported to cause amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome (AIGFS), which closely resembles ERS except for the renal calcifications. We characterized three families with AIGFS and identified, in each case, recessive FAM20A mutations: family 1 (c.992G>A; g.63853G>A; p.Gly331Asp), family 2 (c.720-2A>G; g.62232A>G; p.Gln241_Arg271del), and family 3 (c.406C>T; g.50213C>T; p.Arg136* and c.1432C>T; g.68284C>T; p.Arg478*). Significantly, a kidney ultrasound of the family 2 proband revealed nephrocalcinosis, revising the diagnosis from AIGFS to ERS. By characterizing teeth extracted from the family 3 proband, we demonstrated that FAM20A-/- molars lacked true enamel, showed extensive crown and root resorption, hypercementosis, and partial replacement of resorbed mineral with bone or coalesced mineral spheres. Supported by the observation of severe ectopic calcifications in the kidneys of Fam20a null mice, we conclude that FAM20A, which has a kinase homology domain and localizes to the Golgi, is a putative Golgi kinase that plays a significant role in the regulation of biomineralization processes, and that mutations in FAM20A cause both AIGFS and ERS. © 2013 Wang et al.

Sejpal K.,Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital | Bakhtiari P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Deng S.X.,University of California at Los Angeles
Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2013

The human corneal surface epithelium is continuously repopulated by the limbal stem cells (LSCs). Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD) can lead to corneal opacity and vascularization, with consequent visual impairment or blindness. Many acquired and congenital diseases can lead to LCSD by direct injury to the LSCs, destruction of LSC niche, or both. Based on the severity of the disease, LSCD can present with various symptoms and signs. Although LSCD can be detected clinically, laboratory tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis and monitor the disease progression. This article concisely reviews the clinical presentation, techniques for diagnosis and management of LSCD.

Dastjerdi R.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Montazer M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Shahsavan S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2010

The treatment of textiles with Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles causes a brownish color that limits the application of this otherwise good composite. In this paper, a novel method is introduced to overcome this problem. To this end, the effect of various concentrations of cross-linkable polysiloxane (XPs) and Ag mixed with XPs on TiO2 treated fabrics has been investigated. The results reveal the performance of the method in the application of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles separately. In addition to the major effect of XPs on durability, the synergistic effect of applying XPs, especially Ag mixed with XPs, on TiO2 has been confirmed. Unexpectedly, increasing the concentration of XPs not only did not limit the TiO2 activity but allowed light absorption by the TiO2 particles due to the low refractive index of XPs. Therefore, XPs treatment can be helpful for increasing the bioactivity and the general photo-catalytic activity of TiO2. The results also showed that the hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity of treated substrate can be adjusted over a broad range by controlling the concentrations of these two nanoparticles and the XPs ratio. Other characteristics of treated fabrics such as antibacterial, self-cleaning, stain photo-degradability, UV protection, air permeability and washing durability were also investigated. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Mortazavi S.M.J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Schwartzenberger J.,Thomas Jefferson University | Austin M.S.,Thomas Jefferson University | Purtill J.J.,Thomas Jefferson University | Parvizi J.,Thomas Jefferson University
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2010

Background: Deep infection remains one of the most devastating and costly complications after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The risk of deep infection after revision TKA is reportedly greater than that for primary TKA; however, we do not know the exact incidence of infection after revision TKA. Questions/purposes: We determined the incidence of infection after revision, the type of microorganisms involved and TKA, and the potential risk factors for this infection. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 475 patients (476 knees) with 499 TKA revisions performed between March 1998 and December 2005. Of the 476 knees, 91 (19%) were revised for infection and 385 (81%) were revised for aseptic failure. Preoperative history, results of physical examinations, laboratory and radiographic results, joint fluid aspiration results along with analysis of intraoperative findings were all considered to make an assessment of septic versus aseptic failure modes. Patients were followed for a minimum of 25 months (mean, 65 months; range, 25-159 months). Results: Deep infection developed in 44 of the 476 knees (9%). The infection rate was higher in patients undergoing revision for infection than in patients with aseptic revisions: 21% (23 of 91) and 5% (21 of 385), respectively. Revision for infection, higher Charlson index, and diagnosis other than osteoarthritis at the time of primary TKA predicted infection of the revision. The risk of infection for patients undergoing TKA revisions was 10-fold higher than for patients undergoing primary TKA at our institution. Conclusions: Infection of primary TKA is the most important risk factor for subsequent infection of TKA revisions. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. © 2010 The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons®.

Takian A.,University of London | Rashidian A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rashidian A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Kabir M.J.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2011

Background: Analysing the evidence generated over decades, the World Health Report 2008 recommended the expansion of primary health care (PHC) to achieve better population health, higher equity and lower costs. Over the last two decades, the Iranian model of PHC has resulted in population health indices that match the best in the region. Despite the extensive PHC networks in rural areas, there was an expansion of private outpatient care and hospital-based services. This model has been inadequate to meet the evolving health needs of the population and increasingly difficult to afford. In response, a family medicine (FM) programme has been implemented since August 2005, funded through Behbar, a model of social insurance. In this paper, we aim to identify facilitators of and barriers to implementation of FM in Iran. Methods: Data were collected between November 2006 and May 2007 through semi-structured interviews at national (19 interviews), provincial (9) and local (43) levels, and through a purposive document analysis. The framework approach was used for analysing interviews. Document analysis followed a narrative contextual framework. We interpreted data using an interpretive framework consisting of multiple streams and network theories. Results: The introduction of Behbar provided FM advocates with the opportunity to place FM on the policy agenda. They skilfully coupled the two policies and defined FM as the only solution to fulfill Behbar. However, the manner in which policy was formed was the main obstacle to desired FM implementation. Conclusion: The interpretive framework links the concept of outreach to the poor and enhancing equity to rationing health services at a particularly opportune moment in Iran. However, using windows of opportunity to implement a major policy change, if it results in sacrifices in planning and preparedness, may harm the policy and the future success in achieving its objectives. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2010; all rights reserved.

Roshandel G.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences | Roshandel G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Boreiri M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sadjadi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Malekzadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Annals of Global Health | Year: 2014

Background Western Asia comprises a large proportion of the world population with different ethnicities and religions inhabiting areas of diverse geographic features. The countries of this region have experienced rapid economic growth over the latter half of the 20th century, which continues to this day, resulting in major changes in lifestyle of the population. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and mortality of cancer in West Asia using the estimates reported by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Globocan-2012. Methods Countries with high-quality data or national data (based on the definition of the Globocan-2012) were included in the analysis. These included Bahrain, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. We also found high-quality cancer data from regional cancer registries in 3 Iranian and 3 Turkish provinces. Data on cancer incidence and mortality were collected and described in tables and graphs. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess the correlation between geographic coordinates and the incidence age-standardized rate (ASR; per 100,000 person-years) of cancers. Findings Nine countries and 6 regional registries were included. Cancers of the lung (ASR, 33.3), prostate (24.9), bladder (19.1), stomach (16.5), and colorectal (15.9) were the most common malignancies in men. The most common cancers in women were those of the breast (35.4), colorectal (12.1), thyroid (10.3), stomach (9.2), and lung (6.7). The incidence rates of upper gastrointestinal and lung cancers were considerably higher in the northern part of this region, including Turkey and northern Iran compared with southern countries. High incidences of breast, colorectal, prostate, and bladder cancers were found in countries located in the northwest including Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey. Conclusions The most common cancers differed by country. Consequently, cancer control programs must be tailored to the most common types of cancers in each country. Lack of high-quality data for some West Asian countries was the major limitation of this study. Therefore, as the first step of cancer control programs, it is recommended that well-structured population-based cancer registries be established in all of these countries. © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Sajadi M.M.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Sajadi M.-R.M.,Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Tabatabaie S.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Neurology | Year: 2011

Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy. © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.

Barani H.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Montazer M.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Samadi N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Toliyat T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Molecular Membrane Biology | Year: 2011

The antimicrobial property of stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with phospholipid membrane was investigated on both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains. The influence of phospholipid concentrations on antibacterial kinetics actions of AgNPs was studied with two different methodologies in order to understand the bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. The bacterial inactivation of synthesized AgNPs fitted well to the Chick-Watson model with a high regression coefficient, R 2 > 0.91. The antibacterial properties of AgNPs depend on the particle size, stabilizer and lecithin concentrations. Only the stabilized AgNPs that have the Klec/Ag values of 1 and 2 presented the inhabitation zone, while unstabilized AgNPs agglomerated quickly, settled on the wells and did not diffuse in agar. In addition, the specific coefficient of lethality depends on the lecithin concentration. An increase in lecithin concentration caused multilayer creation on the AgNPs' surface and reduced the release of AgNPs which led to low bacterial killing rate. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Sakhtianchi R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Minchin R.F.,University of Queensland | Lee K.-B.,Rutgers University | Alkilany A.M.,University of Jordan | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

Over the past decade, nanoparticles (NPs) have been increasingly developed in various biomedical applications such as cell tracking, biosensing, contrast imaging, targeted drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Their versatility in design and function has made them an attractive, alternative choice in many biological and biomedical applications. Cellular responses to NPs, their uptake, and adverse biological effects caused by NPs are rapidly-growing research niches. However, NP excretion and its underlying mechanisms and cell signaling pathways are yet elusive. In this review, we present an overview of how NPs are handled intracellularly and how they are excreted from cells following the uptake. We also discuss how exocytosis of nanomaterials impacts both the therapeutic delivery of nanoscale objects and their nanotoxicology. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Daraei H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mittal A.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology | Noorisepehr M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Daraei F.,Central Organization for Rural Co operative of Iran
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

The aim of the present research is to develop economic, fast, and versatile method for the removal of toxic organic pollutant phenol from wastewater using eggshell. The batch experiments are conducted to evaluate the effect of pH, phenol concentration, dosage of adsorbent, and contact time on the removal of phenol. The paper includes in-depth kinetic studies of the ongoing adsorption process. Attempts have also been made to verify Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The morphology and characteristics of eggshell have also been studied using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. At ambient temperature, the maximum adsorption of phenol onto eggshells has been achieved at pH 9 and the contact time, 90 min. The experimental data give best-fitted straight lines for pseudo-first-order as well as pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Furthermore, the adsorption process verifies Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and on the basis of mathematical expressions of these models, various necessary adsorption constants have been calculated. Using adsorption data, various thermodynamic parameters like change in enthalpy ({increment}H 0), change in entropy ({increment}S 0), and change in free energy {increment}G 0 have also been evaluated. Results clearly reveal that the solid waste material eggshell acts as an effective adsorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kamangar F.,Morgan State University | Kamangar F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2012

Effect modification, also known as interaction or heterogeneity of effect, is an important concept in epidemiology. This article reviews the definition and types of effect modification, methods to detect effect modification, the reasons for observing effect modification in epidemiologic studies, the importance of choice of model in finding effect modifiers, and effect modifications that are important to public health.

Jadali Z.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Alavian S.-M.,Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Disease
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology | Year: 2010

Autoimmunity and viral infections are closely associated fields, and viruses have been proposed as a likely aetiological, contributory or triggering factors of systemic autoimmune diseases. Hepatitis C virus seems to be the virus usually associated with the appearance of autoimmune diseases, and the relationship between chronic hepatitis C virus infection and some autoimmune disease has been studied. For some of these disorders their association with hepatitis C virus infection is well recognized while for others it remains probable or weak. Examples of autoimmune phenomena observed in chronic hepatitis C virus infection include rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, cryoglobulinaemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus and sjogren syndrome. To date, the etiological role and the pathogenetic involvement of the hepatitis C infection remains unknown.The aim of this study is to assess the presence of different autoimmune manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection reported in literature. Copyright© 2010, Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. All rights reserved.

Nilforushan N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Yadgari M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Kish S.K.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nassiri N.,Vanak Eye Surgery Center
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Purpose: To compare the outcome of trabeculectomy with subconjunctival bevacizumab with that of trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC). Design: Prospective, randomized, comparative study. Methods: Thirty-six eyes from 34 patients with uncontrolled glaucoma were enrolled. Eighteen eyes underwent trabeculectomy with subconjunctival bevacizumab injection (2.5 mg/0.1 mL), and 18 eyes underwent trabeculectomy with MMC (0.02% for 3 minutes). The outcome measures were the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of IOP-lowering medications, complications, and bleb morphologic features (based on the Indiana Bleb Appearance Grading Scale). Results: The mean follow-up times for the MMC and bevacizumab groups were 7.8 ± 2.2 months and 7.4 ± 24 months, respectively (P =.62). The mean preoperative IOP in the bevacizumab group improved from 21.9 ± 7.9 mm Hg with 2.7 ± 0.8 antiglaucoma medications to 13.6 ± 3.2 mm Hg with 0.2 ± 0.5 antiglaucoma medications at the last visit (P <.001 and P <.001, respectively). The mean preoperative IOP in the MMC group improved from 23.3 ± 4.9 mm Hg with 2.6 ± 0.7 antiglaucoma medications to 9.6 ± 2.7 mm Hg with no antiglaucoma medications at the final visit (P <.001 and P <.001, respectively). There was a statistically significant difference in the IOP between the 2 groups at the last visit (P <.001). The cumulative probabilities of total success at the last follow-up according to Kaplan-Meier analysis were 100% and 94.4% in bevacizumab and MMC groups, respectively (P =.32, log-rank test). Conclusions: Adjunctive subconjunctival bevacizumab with trabeculectomy is effective in controlling the IOP profile; however, its effect is less prominent than that of MMC. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kamangar F.,Morgan State University | Kamangar F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shakeri R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Malekzadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

An estimated 16·5 million people worldwide illicitly use opiates, of whom 4 million use raw opium. We did a systematic review to investigate the association between opium use and cancer incidence and mortality. Opium use was associated with an increased risk of cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and urinary bladder. Although the present evidence suggests that these associations are possibly causal, further epidemiological studies (particularly prospective studies that collect detailed data about lifetime opium use and control for a broad range of potential confounders) are needed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Zazouli M.A.,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences | Nasseri S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ulbricht M.,University of Duisburg - Essen
Desalination | Year: 2010

The objectives of this research were to investigate the combined and individual influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions of NOM on the fouling of thin-film composite nanofiltration (NF) membranes, and also the roles of solution chemistry on the permeate flux and fouling. Combined fouling is compared to the individual fouling behaviors (i.e., alginate or humic acid alone). Experiments were conducted using a "cross-flow" pilot-scale membrane unit with a full circulation mode. Fouling experiments were performed with individual and combined humic acid and alginate. The results demonstrated that increasing organic concentration increased greatly the rate and extent of flux reduction. Individual alginate fouling was more detrimental than individual humic acid fouling, and alginate exhibited greater flux decline than humic acid fouling alone at the same conditions. A higher flux decline was observed with increasing proportions of aliginate in combined fouling. In other word, there are antagonistic effects during combined fouling because the charge functional groups of two above foulants are negative and increase electrostatic repulsion between two foulants and also foulant-membrane. The flux reduction increased with increasing ionic strength, foulant concentrations, and with lower pH. This observation implies the importance of interaction between various foulants for deeper understanding of fouling phenomena. The membrane fouling was largely dependent on organic properties and fractions. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Aalaei-Andabili S.H.,University of Florida | Rezaei N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rezaei N.,University of Sheffield
International Reviews of Immunology | Year: 2016

Human aging is a complex process with pivotal changes in gene expression of biological pathways. Immune system dysfunction has been recognized as one of the most important abnormalities induced by senescent names immunosenescence. Emerging evidences suggest miR role in immunosenescence. We aimed to systemically review all relevant reports to clearly state miR effects on immunosenescence process. Sensitive electronic searches carried out. Quality assessment has been performed. Since majority of the included studies were laboratory works, and therefore heterogen, we discussed miR effects on immunological aging process nonstatically. Forty-six articles were found in the initial search. After exclusion of 34 articles, 12 studies enrolled to the final stage. We found that miRs have crucial roles in exact function of immune system. MiRs are involved in the regulation of the aging process in the immune system components and target certain genes, promoting or inhibiting immune system reaction to invasion. Also, miRs control life span of the immune system members by regulation of the genes involved in the apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that immunosenescence is controllable by proper manipulation of the various miRs expression. DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been discovered as novel strategies, altering NF-B binding ability to the miR promoter sites. Effect of miRs on impairment of immune system function due to the aging is emerging. Although it has been accepted that miRs have determinant roles in the regulation of the immunosenescence; however, most of the reports are concluded from animal/laboratory works, suggesting the necessity of more investigations in human. Copyright © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kamangar F.,Morgan State University | Kamangar F.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2012

This article discusses the importance, definition, and types of confounders in epidemiology. Methods to identify and address confounding are discussed, as well as their strengths and limitations. The article also describes the difference among confounders, mediators, and effect modifiers.

Zabihiyeganeh M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Jahed A.,Islamic Azad University at Damavand | Nojomi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Objective Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. Usual supplements are inadequate for prevention of hypovitaminosis D, and much higher doses are needed for its treatment. This study was designed to compare the efficacy and practicality of high-dose intramuscular and oral cholecalciferol in treatment of hypovitaminosis D and to evaluate durability of the effect of each remedy. Design Ninety-two patients with hypovitaminosis D [serum 25(OH) D level < 75 nmol/l] were enrolled in a randomised clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 300 000 IU cholecalciferol, either intramuscularly as a single injection or orally in six divided doses during 3 months period. Serum 25(OH) D level was measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results Both treatment regimens significantly increased the serum 25(OH)D level. Delta change in serum 25(OH) D level from baseline (presented as mean ± SEM) at month 3 was significantly higher in oral than injection group (90 ± 11·2 and 58·8 ± 8·9 nmol/l, respectively, P = 0·03); but was similar at 6th month intervention (52·1 ± 7·6 and 62·2 ± 6·7 nmol/l, respectively, P = 0·32). There was a marginally significant trend in favour of oral group in the proportion of cases attained vitamin D adequacy at 6th month (P = 0·06); but still 15% of all patients remained at < 50 nmol/l. Conclusion Both regimens were considerably effective, safe and practical in treating hypovitaminosis D. Although we revealed superiority of oral route, at least at early short time, the way of treatment may depend on the patient's choice, compliance and availability of various forms of the drug in any regions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Aryankhesal A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Sheldon T.A.,University of York | Mannion R.,University of Birmingham
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2013

Pay for performance (P4P) is becoming increasingly popular in the health care sector as a tool for encouraging performance (especially quality) improvement. Evidence about the effect of policies in hospitals is rare and generally confined to developed countries. The Iranian hospital grading system, which links the charges hospitals can make for patient stay to the results of their annual performance grading, is one of the earliest examples of P4P in the world. We report here the first evaluation of the impact of the Iranian P4P system.We conducted a multiple case study using semi-structured interviews and observation in four hospitals with different ownership and grading results, to explore responses to the grading system and the P4P policy. The data were analysed using framework analysis assisted by Atlas-ti software. The findings showed hospital behaviour was influenced by and changed in response to P4P policy, despite serious concerns about the validity of the grading standards. The main driver for such changes was hospital revenue, which acted as a direct financial incentive for private hospital managers and as a factor for public hospital managers' sense of success and reputation. Frontline staff were motivated indirectly by higher revenue flowing into investment in better facilities and working environment. Other potential mechanisms by which the grading system could have influenced behaviour [such as patient and General Practitioner (GP) referral choice] did not appear to influence hospital behaviour. © The Author 2012; all rights reserved.

Karimi A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Navidbakhsh M.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Haghi A.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Advances in Polymer Technology | Year: 2014

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge with a complex interconnecting porous structure indicates suitable mechanical properties at different strain rates. The paper presents the first scientific study to show how different results are given by the various definitions of stress-strain used and to recommend a specific definition when calculating the energy absorption characteristics of the PVA sponge. A series of tensile tests on PVA sponges are carried out. Three stress definitions (second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, engineering stress, and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St. Venant strain, engineering strain, and true strain) are used to determine the modulus of resilience and modulus of toughness. The stress-strain curves of PVA sponges show a near constant plateau stress over a long strain range, which is ideal for energy absorption applications. The results reveal that the Green-St. Venant strain definition has the highest modulus of resilience (3000 J/m3) and toughness (56,900 J/m3) at different definitions of stress and may overestimate the modulus of resilience and toughness. The Almansi-Hamel strain definition exhibits the lowest modulus of resilience (1760 J/m3) and toughness (4850 J/m3) at different stress definitions and may underestimate these values. The results also show that the effect of varying the stress definition on the modulus of toughness measurements is significant but not when calculating the modulus of resilience. The true stress-true strain definition favors spongy material mechanics since it gives more accurate measurements of the sponge's response using the instantaneous values. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Esmaeilpour M.,Shiraz University | Sardarian A.R.,Shiraz University | Javidi J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Superparamagnetic nanoparticles functionalized with Schiff base complex of Pd (II) were simply synthesized by a two-step method. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS),vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis. Also, its Pd content was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analyzer. The immobilized palladium complex was used as an efficient catalyst for copper- and phosphine ligand-free Sonogashira reaction of aryl halides with phenylacetylene. This catalyst shows notable advantages such as simplicity of operation, excellent yields, short reaction times, heterogeneous nature, easy magnetically work up and recyclability. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Momtaz S.,University of Pretoria | Momtaz S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Abdollahi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

Aging is an undeniable fact shadowing animal life but while it comes to human, aging affects all aspects of their physical and emotional abilities. Aging occurs by multi-stimuli which is affected by both environmental and internal conditions. During the past decade, remarkable recognition of cellular senescence and its related pathways has happened. The increased production and/or ineffective scavenging of oxidants in particular, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in cellular senescence. High reactivity of ROS determines chemical changes in virtually all cellular components, leading to senescence mostly via DNA damage. Present paper discusses the oxidative stress as the main cause of aging and the benefit of antioxidants. So far, more effective explorations are needed to decrease the deleterious effects of oxidative-stress-induced aging. This approach could be achieved through manipulations of antioxidant enzyme systems, development of drug therapies, manipulation of aging related genes and genetic manipulation of plant-based antioxidant resources. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Parvaneh N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Filipovich A.H.,University of Cincinnati | Borkhardt A.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, maintains lifelong subclinical persistent infections in humans. In the circulation, EBV primarily infects the B cells, and protective immunity is mediated by EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. However, EBV has been linked to several devastating diseases, such as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and lymphoproliferative diseases in the immunocompromised host. Some types of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are characterized by the development of EBV-associated complications as their predominant clinical feature. The study of such genetic diseases presents an ideal opportunity for a better understanding of the biology of the immune responses against EBV. Here, we summarize the range of PIDs that are predisposed to EBV-associated haematological diseases, describing their clinical picture and pathogenetic mechanisms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.