Zarafshan H.,Iranian Autism Center |
Mohammadi M.R.,Tehran Universities of Medical Science |
Ahmadi F.,Newcastle University |
Arsalani A.,Special Education Office of Tehran
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Objective: Teachers often experience burnout and challenges during their active career. Different studies have shown that those directly involved with teaching children with special needs are more subject to burnout. Due to advance screening tools, more children with autism are now diagnosed and involved in special education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the professional burnout in teachers of children with autism compared to teachers of other children with special needs . Methods: Casual Comparative study design was used for this research. Three self-reported measures (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Descriptive Index, and General Health Questionnaire) were distributed; clustered sampling selection was conducted to select participants. Ninety three female teachers (32 teachers of children with autism, 30 teachers in schools for deaf and 31 for teachers of children with mental retardation) from 12 schools located in 4 districts of Tehran were selected. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation statistical tests, analysis of variances and regression were used to analyze the results. Results: Results of the current study revealed a significant difference in criterion validity between the three groups of teachers The three groups were different in terms of general health (p=0.010), emotional exhaustion (p=0.005) and depersonalization (p<0.001); however considering other variables no significant differences were observed. Comparison between groups showed that the average scores of teachers of children with autism were significantly higher than teachers of deaf and hard of hearing and mentally retarded children in general health, fatigue, and depersonalization variables. No significant differences were observed in average scores of teachers for mentally retarded and deaf children. Conclusions: Female teachers' of children with autism are experiencing significantly higher levels of burnout and general mental health problems compared to teachers of children with other disabilities requiring special education.
Pelucchi C.,Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri |
Lunet N.,University of Porto |
Boccia S.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart |
Zhang Z.-F.,University of California at Los Angeles |
And 39 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015
Gastric cancer affects about one million people per year worldwide, being the second leading cause of cancer mortality. The study of its etiology remains therefore a global issue as it may allow the identification of major targets, besides eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, for primary prevention. It has however received little attention, given its comparatively low incidence in most high-income countries. We introduce a consortium of epidemiological investigations named the 'Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project'. Twenty-two studies agreed to participate, for a total of over 9000 cases and 23 000 controls. Twenty studies have already shared the original data set. Of the patients, 40% are from Asia, 43% from Europe, and 17% from North America; 34% are women and 66% men; the median age is 61 years; 56% are from population-based case-control studies, 41% from hospital-based ones, and 3% from nested case-control studies derived from cohort investigations. Biological samples are available from 12 studies. The aim of the StoP Project is to analyze the role of lifestyle and genetic determinants in the etiology of gastric cancer through pooled analyses of individual-level data. The uniquely large data set will allow us to define and quantify the main effects of each risk factor of interest, including a number of infrequent habits, and to adequately address associations in subgroups of the population, as well as interaction within and between environmental and genetic factors. Further, we will carry out separate analyses according to different histotypes and subsites of gastric cancer, to identify potential different risk patterns and etiological characteristics. © 2015 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.