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Ansari M.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College | Mehdi G.,Aligarh Muslim University | Arif S.H.,Aligarh Muslim University | Ansari H.,Aligarh Muslim University | Khan T.,Aligarh Muslim University
Diagnostic Cytopathology

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women but can be prevented through simple cost-effective measures, such as creating awareness, and regular screening with the Pap smear, both in the premenopausal and postmenopausal age group. This study was carried out to study the cervical smear patterns and type of cervical epithelial lesions in a group of postmenopausal Indian females and the relationship with clinical profile of patients. Pap smears were taken from 320 postmenopausal Indian females and meticulously screened. Lesions were classified according to type of postmenopausal pattern. 120 smears showed varying degrees of premalignant and malignant changes, which were classified using the Bethesda system. The findings were correlated with duration of menopause, parity, and duration of sexual activity and significance was derived. Histopathological correlation was conducted in those cases where biopsies were available. It was found that as the age of the patients increased, the incidence of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma also increased with the relationship being statistically significant. The occurrence of these lesions also showed an association with increasing parity and period of sexual activity. Thus, it can be concluded that it is important to create widespread awareness about the necessity of regular screening, including the postmenopausal period. Conventional cytology or the Pap smear is a cost-effective and efficient method for screening of patients but requires training and experience to minimize errors. It is suitable for developing regions where costlier techniques are not in routine use. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Khan M.K.,Jn Medical College | Haroon A.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College | Hanif S.A.,Jn Medical College | Husain M.,Jn Medical College
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology

The incidence of head injuries is growing with increased mechanization in industry, and an increase in high velocity mode of transport. The injuries could also be caused by a penetrating or blunt force either by direct violence or indirectly. The present study was conducted in admitted cases to Emergency section, J.N. Medical College Hospital, A.M.U. Aligarh. All the dead (162) cases (n = 2850) of head injury reported from 01/01/2008 to 31/12/2009 for treatment are included in the study. Most of the cases of fatal head injury belong to younger age group (15-44yrs) comprising of 56.88% with male preponderance of 74.69%with majority of the cases belonging to road traffic accident (62.97%).Scalp injury in 94.00%cases where as 65% were cases of skull fractures and subdural hemorrhage(82.09%) was most common intracranial injury. Source

Varshney R.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College | Sharma N.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College | Malik S.,Max Super Speciality Hospital | Malik S.,Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Hospital Institute and Research Center
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia

Background: Ulnar nerve blockade as a component of wrist block is a promising technique for adequate anesthesia and analgesia for different surgeries of the hand. Due to anatomical variations in the location of ulnar nerve under the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) a technique with good results and minimal complications are required. Aim: The aim of the following study is to compare the three techniques (volar, transtendinous volar [TTV] and ulnar) for ulnar nerve block at the wrist in human cadaveric wrists. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted using 40 cadaver wrists. After inserting standard hypodermic needles by three techniques for ulnar nerve blockade at the wrist, a detailed dissection of FCU was done. The mean distance from the tip of the needle to ulnar artery/nerve and number of instances in which the ulnar artery/nerve pierced were observed. Results: Inter-group statistical significance was observed in measurement of the mean distance (mm) from the tip of the needle to the ulnar artery (volar [0.92 ± 0.11], TTV [3.96 ± 0.14] and ulnar [7.14 ± 0.08] approaches) and ulnar nerve (volar/TTV/ulnar approaches were 0.71 ± 0.12/3.61 ± 0.10/6.31 ± 0.49, respectively) (P = 0.001). Inadvertent intra-arterial/intraneural injections was seen with volar approach in 14 (35%) and 16 (40%) of the cadaveric wrists respectively, statistically significant with transtendinous and ulnar techniques of ulnar nerve block. Conclusion: TTV approach could be a better technique of choice for ulnar nerve blockade at the wrist because of its ease to practice, safer profile and minimum chances of inadvertent intra-arterial/intraneural injection with adequate anesthesia/analgesia. Source

Agarwal D.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College | Saxena V.,Lala Lajpat Rai Medical College | Bansal P.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College | Pandey A.,Anti retroviral therapy Center
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare form of extranodal lymphoma, mimicking the carcinoma of the head of pancreas clinically [1]. Most PPLs are non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), predominantly the diffuse large B-cell type [2]. We present here, a case of primary pancreatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, presenting with abdominal pain and jaundice and CT scan features suggestive of cholangiocarcinoma. The patient underwent surgical resection of the tumour and the histopathology revealed the primary involvement of the pancreas by the lymphoma cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis as diffuse large B-celltype of lymphoma. The patient refused chemotherapy postoperatively and expired after 6 months of follow up. Source

Bansal P.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College | Jain G.,Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College
Local and Regional Anesthesia

Introduction: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine, butorphanol, and tramadol in control of shivering under spinal anesthesia, and to compare their side effects. Methods: This randomized, prospective study was conducted in 90 patients who developed shivering under spinal anesthesia during various abdominal or orthopedic surgery procedures. On shivering, patients were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous, 1 mL bolus dose of 50 mg tramadol, or 1 mg butorphanol, or 150 μg clonidine, in a double blinded manner. Control of shivering, time taken for cessation, recurrence, hemodynamic changes, axillary temperatures, and side effects were noted and compared for all 3 groups. Collected data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Butorphanol and tramadol were more effective than clonidine in suppressing shivering. Butorphanol, tramadol, and clonidine completely controlled rigors in 83%, 73%, and 53% of cases, respectively, and incompletely suppressed rigors in 16%, 26%, and 46% of cases, respectively. Time taken to terminate rigors was significantly higher for clonidine (3.3 ± 0.9 minutes) than for butorphanol and tramadol (2.1 ± 1.0 minutes and 1.8 ± 0.5 minutes; P<0.001). Conclusion: Butorphanol had an edge over tramadol in controlling shivering with lower chances of recurrence, though both were superior to clonidine for this purpose with an early onset of action. We conclude that both these opioids control rigors better than α-2 agonists. © 2011 Bansal and Jain, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

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