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Aggarwal J.,Santosh Medical College and Hospital | Kumar M.,VMMC and Safdarjang Hospital | Kumari P.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which glucose is underutilized, producing hyperglycemia. Diabetes is now described as one of the main threats to human health in 21st century because of the role of the lifestyle factors such as diet and obesity along with genetic factors. Due to genetic susceptibility at early age, type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered as an emerging and significant problem in children and adolescents. Once this disease is established, it leads to complications related to oxidative stress which deals with imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense capacity of the body. This review aims to summarize the mechanisms of increased oxidative stress, obesity and gene regulation in the causes and complications of diabetes. Source

Gangal R.,P.A. College | Haroon A.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine

Rapid socioeconomic development in India during the last decade may have led to changes in the profile of child hood poisoning. To determine the profile and outcome of acute poisoning in paediatric patients presenting to the tertiary care centre in Moradabad we retrospectively analysed the children admitted to the ward of TMMC & RC and district hospital of Moradabad. The median age of the children was 5.5 and standard deviation was 5.84 in the age range of 9 month to 17.5 years. Male: Female ratio was 1.3:1. 77.19% patients reached the hospital within six hour. Insecticides & Pesticides (55.04%), household cleaners (21.48%) and drugs (11.41%) were the most frequent implicated agents. Vomiting (63.75%) was the most common presenting symptom followed by altered sensorium (38.92). Almost two third (63.76%) were accidental in nature whereas (32.89%) was suicidal. Median duration of stay was 2 day with stay of 1-3 day commonest in 55.03% of cases. One twenty six (84.56 %) patients were discharged after the treatment. 10.73 % leaved against the medical advice and seven (4.71%) died during the treatment. Source

Singh P.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center | Singh R.K.,Poonam Maternity and Child Health Center | Singh R.B.,Halberg Hospital and Research Institute | Saboo B.,Diabetes and Hormone Institute | And 3 more authors.
World Heart Journal

Background. Micronutrient deficiency could be a risk factor for various complications of pregnancy in women and low birth weight of babies. A low birth weight as well as nutrient deficiency may also be a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes in adult life. In this mini-review, we examine the available evidence. Methods. Internet search and discussion with colleagues. Results. Micronutrient deficiency has become a public health problem. Epidemiological studies in the field of nutrition have also established causal associations between micronutrient deficiencies during fetal and early infancy with increased risk of CVDs and type 2 diabetes in later adult life. Some investigators have raised concerns that micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy may increase perinatal mortality and cause adverse effects on the fetus, but none of the previous review articles has adequately addressed this issue. The need for energy increases in the second and particularly the third trimester of pregnancy and poor weight gain during pregnancy often results in low birth weight, which increases an infant’s risk of dying and future risk of chronic diseases. Pregnant women also require more protein, iron, iodine, vitamin A, folate, and other nutrients. Deficiencies of certain nutrients are associated with maternal complications and death, fetal and newborn death, birth defects, and decreased physical and mental potential of the child. Experimental evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acid and flavonoid deficiency during pregnancy can decrease the performance of arcuate nucleus and POMC neurons resulting in greater appetite, excess of eating and obesity. In several studies, multiple micronutrient supplementation has been found protective. Epidemiological studies indicate that nutrient deficiencies can also occur due to inadequate intake of meat, pulses, fruits, leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds, and to underlying infections during pregnancy. Multiple micronutrient supplementations in pregnant women can cause marked improvement in nutrition and immune status. This appears to be a promising strategy for reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Further studies demonstrating the role of nutrient deficiencies on stillbirth and other complications of pregnancies are not very common in India. Among pregnant women, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF currently recommend iron and folic acid supplementation to reduce the risk of iron deficiency anemia. The effects of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation have been examined in clinical trials conducted in several countries. Nutrient supplementations may counteract under-nutrition in a way which may be helpful in the prevention of CVDs in adult life. The role of Mediterranean-style diets in the prevention of micronutrient deficiency and complications of pregnancy and infancy need further studies. Conclusion. Micronutrient deficiency is common during pregnancy. Multiple micronutrient supplementation may be protective against still birth, preterm births and low birth weight. The findings indicate that antenatal multiple nutrient supplementation may protect the mothers and babies. This strategy may decrease the susceptibility of babies to develop CVDs and type 2 diabetes in later adult life. © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Source

Hughes C.M.,University of Ulster | Krirsnakriengkrai S.,Srinakharinwirot University | Kumar S.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center | McDonough S.M.,University of Ulster
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

Background Reflexology has been shown to reduce anxiety and stress in various populations. The mechanism by which this occurs may be in modulating autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; however; there is limited evidence available in the area. Primary Study Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using an experimental model to determine the physiological effect of reflexology on stress. Methods/Design A feasibility study to assess an experimental study design to compare the effect of reflexology and control interventions on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) following mental stress tests. Setting The Health and Rehabilitation Science Research Institute at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Participants Twenty-six healthy volunteers. Intervention Mental stress was induced before and after intervention. Participants in the reflexology group received 20 minutes of reflexology, and the control group received 20 minutes of relaxation with a therapist holding each participant's feet. Primary Outcome Measures The outcome measures, HR and BP, were measured throughout mental stress testing, intervention, and a second period of mental stress testing following intervention. Results The study design was considered feasible. There were significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (22%; P =.03) and in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (26%; P =.01) during mental stress following reflexology compared to the stress period prior to intervention. In contrast, there was a 10% reduction in SBP (P =.03) but a 5% increase in DBP (P =.67) during the period of mental stress following the control intervention compared to results obtained during mental stress prior to this intervention. However, there were no significant differences between reflexology and control groups. Conclusion This study has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting an experimental study on the effect of reflexology in stress using BP as the primary outcome measure. Results from such a study would address the lack of high-quality evidence for the physiological effects of reflexology. Source

Kumar M.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center | Saxena I.,Deparment of Biochemistry | Kumar J.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center | Kumar G.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center | Kapoor S.,Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Center
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

Background and Objectives: Medical/dental colleges in Northern India cater to students with diverse backgrounds, mother tongues, levels of comprehending English, and intelligence levels. This study was conducted to identify lecture strategy and teaching aid best suited for North Indian dental and medical students. It was conducted in two parts – 1. Survey of teachers’ and students’ opinion to obtain their preferences in teaching-learning practices followed in a conventional lecture, and 2. Comparison of students’ performances after a single trial lecture with different groups of students, using different teaching aids (TAs).Materials and Methods: Opinions of 33 faculty teaching first year dental/ medical students and 506 volunteer students (320 female) were compiled. Students were divided into four groups. A single trial lecture was held with each group (on the same topic, using identical lesson plan, by the same teacher) using a different teaching aid with each group. Lecture strategy was designed according to students’ preferences (as obtained from opinion survey) regarding language of instruction and the number of mental breaks. TAs used with different groups were chalk and board (C&B), PowerPoint (PPT), overhead projector (OHP), and a combination of C&B and PPT. Pre- and post-tests using multiple choice questions were conducted with each group. Results of post-test questionnaire and feedback from faculty attending the lecture were assessed for students’ satisfaction and attentiveness in all four groups.Results: Survey results indicated that although 97.6% students believed they had good/fair proficiency in English, 83.6% preferred being taught in a combination of English and Hindi; 44.3% students preferred C&B, 40.1% preferred PPT and 15.6% preferred the use of OHP as TA. After conducting a trial lecture with different TAs with each group, more than 90% students expressed satisfaction with the TA used for that group. Significantly better performance was observed in the post-lecture test when C&B was used.Conclusion: The needs of students in India are different from those of their Western counterparts, and should be considered during didactic lectures to improve the students’ understanding. Post-test results were better when C&B was used, as more students were attentive and/or took notes. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved. Source

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