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Zaragoza, Spain

Arroyo C.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Cebrian G.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Condon S.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Pagan Tomas R.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: The objective was to study the response of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 cells to heat, pulsed electric fields (PEF), ultrasound under pressure (Manosonication, MS) and ultraviolet light (UV-C) treatments after exposure to different sublethal stresses that may be encountered in food-processing environments. Methods and Results: Cronobacter sakazakii stationary growth-phase cells (30°C, 24h) were exposed to acid (pH 4·5, 1h), alkaline (pH 9·0, 1h), osmotic (5% NaCl, 1h), oxidative (0·5mmoll -1 H 2O 2, 1h), heat (47·5°C, 1h) and cold (4°C, 4h) stress conditions and subjected to the subsequent challenges: heat (60°C), PEF (25kVcm -1, 35°C), MS (117μm, 200kPa, 35°C) and UV-C light (88·55mWcm -2, 25°C) treatments. The inactivation kinetics of C. sakazakii by the different technologies did not change after exposure to any of the stresses. The combinations of sublethal stress and lethal treatment that were protective were: heat shock-heat, heat shock-PEF and acid pH-PEF. Conversely, the alkaline shock sensitized the cells to heat and UV-C treatments, the osmotic shock to heat treatments and the oxidative shock to UV-C treatments. The maximum adaptive response was observed when heat-shocked cells were subjected to a heat treatment, increasing the time to inactivate 99·9% of the population by 1·6 times. Conclusions: Cronobacter sakazakii resistance to thermal and nonthermal preservation technologies can increase or decrease as a consequence of previous exposure to stressing conditions. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results help in understanding the physiology of the resistance of this emerging pathogen to traditional and novel preservation technologies. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Somolinos M.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Garcia D.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Manas P.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Condon S.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos | Pagan R.,Tecnologia de los Alimentos
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Stationary growth phase cells of Escherichia coli were more pulsed electric fields (PEF) resistant in citrate-phosphate McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. The greater PEF resistance was also confirmed in fruit juices of similar acid pH. In this work we studied whether the higher PEF resistance of E. coli at acid pH was due to the low pH itself or to the interaction of the components of the treatment medium with the cells. The protective effect on E. coli cells was due to the presence of organic acids such as citric, acetic, lactic or malic at pH 4.0. The protective effect of citric acid at pH 4.0 depended on its concentration. A linear relationship was observed between the Log10 of the citric acid concentration and the degree of inactivation. Organic acids contained in laboratory treatment media (citrate-phosphate buffer) or in fruit juices did not sensitize E. coli cells to PEF but, on the contrary, they induced a protective effect that made E. coli cells more resistant at pH 4.0 than at neutral pH. This work could be useful for improving food preservation by PEF technology and it contributes to the knowledge of the mechanism of microbial inactivation by PEF. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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