Lozano R.,Nicolaus Copernicus University |
Ceulemans K.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Alonso-Almeida M.,Autonomous University of Madrid |
Huisingh D.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014
During the last two decades, many higher education institutions have become involved in embedding sustainable development into their academic systems. The research for this paper was built upon discussions on declarations, charters, and other initiatives designed to commit their institutions to education for sustainable development. It analyses if such commitment leads to more sustainable development implementation within the academic institution. The research was performed using a survey, based upon a literature review of 60 peer-reviewed papers. The survey was divided into eight categories: background; institutional framework; campus operations; education; research; outreach and collaboration; on-campus experiences; and assessment and reporting. The survey was answered by 84 respondents from 70 institutions, worldwide. The responses were analysed via descriptive analysis, grounded theory, and inferential statistics. The results revealed that there were many examples of sustainable development implementation throughout the system; however, generally the efforts tended to be compartmentalised. The analyses also highlighted strong linkages between the institution's commitment to sustainability, implementation, and signing a declaration, charter, or initiative. The findings suggested that academic leadership's commitment was a leading cause for signing a declaration, charter, or initiative, and implementing sustainable development. The research team provided recommendations for higher educational leaders, including acknowledge that the higher education institution system is comprised of several inter-related elements; commit to sustainability by integrating it into policies and strategies; show the commitment by signing a declaration, charter, or initiative; establish short-, medium-, and long-term plans for its institutionalisation; and ensure that sustainable development is implemented throughout the system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Berardi M.,University of Brescia |
Martinez-Romero O.,Tecnolo gico De Monterrey |
Elias-Zuniga A.,Tecnolo gico De Monterrey |
Rodriguez M.,Tecnolo gico De Monterrey |
And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine | Year: 2014
A very important medical problem for females is urinary incontinence, sometimes associated with faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. One of the most common reasons these issues are increasing is clearly the muscle damage during childbirth. This article focusses on understanding the complex behaviour of the levator ani muscles involved in the second stage of labour. A geometrical model obtained from a 23-year-old nulliparous woman was used to simulate childbirth. Several assumptions were introduced in order to simplify the problem without significantly affecting the global response of the system. An anisotropic hyperelastic model was used to characterize the material behaviour; the muscle fibres were assumed to be mostly orientated circumferentially. In addition, particular attention was also put to the boundary conditions of the model. The introduction of the constraints imposed by the coccyx bone in the central area of the levator ani group represents one the most important improvement compared to previous computational models. The maximum deformation and stress were found in the pubococcygeus muscle of the levator ani group. A stretch value close to 2.2 was determined by considering different material parameters. The results seem convincing with respect to medical observation and previous analysis. However, there are still some limitations concerning the material definition and the geometry and trajectory of the head that can be further improved. © IMechE 2014.