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Orléans, France

Moreau A.,University of Rennes 1 | Le Vee M.,University of Rennes 1 | Jouan E.,University of Rennes 1 | Parmentier Y.,Technology Servier | And 2 more authors.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Macrophages represent major cellular targets of various drugs, especially antibiotics and anti-viral drugs. Factors that may govern intracellular accumulation of drugs in these cells, especially those related to activity of drug transporters, are consequently likely important to consider. The present study was therefore designed to extensively characterize expression of solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in primary human macrophages generated from blood monocytes. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, these cells were found to exhibit very high or high levels of mRNA expression of concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1, MCT4, peptide/histidine transporter (PHT) 1, PHT2, organic anion transporting polypeptide transporter 2B1 and ABC pumps multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 1/ABCC1 and MRP3/ABCC3. By contrast, other transporters, including the efflux pump ABCB1/P-glycoprotein, were found at lower levels or were not expressed. Concomitantly, human macrophages displayed notable uptake of the MCT substrate lactate and of the CNT substrate uridine and also exhibited cellular efflux of the MRP substrate carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein. Such a functional expression of these transporters has likely to be considered with respect to cellular pharmacokinetics of drugs targeting macrophages. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Source


Marcucci F.,University of Milan | Rumio C.,University of Milan | Lefoulon F.,Technology Servier
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2016

Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells with elevated tumor-initiating potential. Upon differentiation, they replenish the bulk of the tumor cell population. Enhanced tumor-forming capacity, resistance to antitumor drugs, and metastasis-forming potential are the hallmark traits of CSCs. Given these properties, it is not surprising that CSCs have become a therapeutic target of prime interest in drug discovery. In fact, over the last few years, an enormous number of articles describing compounds endowed with anti-CSC activities have been published. In the meanwhile, several of these compounds and also approaches that are not based on the use of pharmacologically active compounds (e.g., vaccination, radiotherapy) have progressed into clinical studies. This article gives an overview of these compounds, proposes a tentative classification, and describes their biological properties and their developmental stage. Eventually, we discuss the optimal clinical setting for these compounds, the need for biomarkers allowing patient selection, the redundancy of CSC signaling pathways and the utility of employing combinations of anti-CSC compounds and the therapeutic limitations posed by the plasticity of CSCs. © 2016 Marcucci, Rumio and Lefoulon. Source


Boiret M.,Technology Servier | Meunier L.,Technology Servier
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2011

A near infrared (NIR) method was developed for determination of tablet potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a complex coated tablet matrix. The calibration set contained samples from laboratory and production scale batches. The reference values were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to establish a model. The model was challenged by calculating tablet potency of two external test sets. Root mean square errors of prediction were respectively equal to 2.0% and 2.7%. To use this model with a second spectrometer from the production field, a calibration transfer method called piecewise direct standardisation (PDS) was used. After the transfer, the root mean square error of prediction of the first test set was 2.4% compared to 4.0% without transferring the spectra. A statistical technique using bootstrap of PLS residuals was used to estimate confidence intervals of tablet potency calculations. This method requires an optimised PLS model, selection of the bootstrap number and determination of the risk. In the case of a chemical analysis, the tablet potency value will be included within the confidence interval calculated by the bootstrap method. An easy to use graphical interface was developed to easily determine if the predictions, surrounded by minimum and maximum values, are within the specifications defined by the regulatory organisation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Jouan E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Le Vee M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Denizot C.,Technology Servier | Da Violante G.,Technology Servier | And 2 more authors.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent cationic dye commonly used as a mitochondrial probe and known or suspected to be transported by certain drug membrane transporters. The present study was designed to characterize the putative interactions of rhodamine 123 with human organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2. Intracellular uptake of the dye was demonstrated to be enhanced in both hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells when compared with control HEK293 cells. This increase of rhodamine 123 influxes was found to be a saturable carrier-mediated process, with low Km values (Km = 0.54 μm and Km = 0.61 μm for transport of the dye in hOCT1- and hOCT2-positive HEK293 cells, respectively). Known inhibitors of hOCT1 and hOCT2 activities such as verapamil, amitriptyline, prazosin, and quinine were next demonstrated to decrease rhodamine 123 accumulation in hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells. In addition, the dye was found to inhibit hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a model substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2; rhodamine 123 appeared nevertheless to be a more potent inhibitor of hOCT1-mediated TEA transport (IC50 = 0.37 μm) than of that mediated by hOCT2 (IC50 = 61.5 μm). Taken together, these data demonstrate that rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2. This dye may be therefore useful for fluorimetrically investigating cellular hOCT1 or hOCT2 activity, knowing, however, that other factors potentially contributing to cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, including mitochondrial membrane potential or expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, have also to be considered. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. Source


Noel G.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Le Vee M.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Moreau A.,Technology Servier | Stieger B.,University of Zurich | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

Primary hepatocyte cultures are now considered as convenient models for in vitro analyzing liver drug transport. However, if primary human and rat hepatocytes have been well-characterized with respect to drug transporter expression and regulation, much less is known for primary mouse hepatocytes. The present study was therefore designed to gain insights about this point. The profile of sinusoidal and canalicular drug transporter mRNA expression in short time (4 h)-cultured mouse hepatocytes was found to be highly correlated with that of freshly isolated hepatocytes; by contrast, those of counterparts cultured for a longer time (until 4 days) either in monolayer configurations on plastic or collagen or in sandwich configuration with matrigel were profoundly altered: uptake drug transporters such as Oct1, Oatps and Oat2 were thus down-regulated, whereas most of efflux transporters such as Mdr1a/b, Mrp3, Mrp4 and Bcrp were induced. Moreover, short time-cultured hepatocytes exhibited the highest levels of sinusoidal influx transporter activities. Transporter-mediated drug secretion into canalicular networks was however only observed in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes. Mouse hepatocytes cultured either in monolayer or sandwich configurations were finally shown to exhibit up-regulation of referent transporters in response to exposure to prototypical activators of the drug sensing receptors pregnane X receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor or constitutive androstane receptor. Taken together, these data demonstrate the feasibility of using primary mouse hepatocytes for investigating potential interactions of xenobiotics with hepatic transporter activity or regulation, provided that adequate culture conditions are retained. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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