Shepard T.,Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency MHRA |
Scott G.,Takeda Development Center Europe |
Cole S.,Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency MHRA |
Nordmark A.,Swedish Medical Products Agency MPA |
Bouzom F.,Technology Servier
CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology | Year: 2015
Under the remit of the Ministerial Industry Strategy Group (MISG), the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI) and Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) hosted a meeting to explore physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation, focusing on the clinical component of regulatory applications. The meeting took place on 30 June 2014 with international representatives from industry, academia, and regulatory agencies. Discussion topics were selected to be complementary to those discussed at an earlier US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) meeting. This report summarizes the meeting outcomes, focusing on the European regulatory perspective. © 2015 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Jouan E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Le Vee M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Denizot C.,Technology Servier |
Da Violante G.,Technology Servier |
And 2 more authors.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2014
Rhodamine 123 is a fluorescent cationic dye commonly used as a mitochondrial probe and known or suspected to be transported by certain drug membrane transporters. The present study was designed to characterize the putative interactions of rhodamine 123 with human organic cation transporter (OCT) 1 and OCT2. Intracellular uptake of the dye was demonstrated to be enhanced in both hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells when compared with control HEK293 cells. This increase of rhodamine 123 influxes was found to be a saturable carrier-mediated process, with low Km values (Km = 0.54 μm and Km = 0.61 μm for transport of the dye in hOCT1- and hOCT2-positive HEK293 cells, respectively). Known inhibitors of hOCT1 and hOCT2 activities such as verapamil, amitriptyline, prazosin, and quinine were next demonstrated to decrease rhodamine 123 accumulation in hOCT1- and hOCT2-overexpressing HEK293 cells. In addition, the dye was found to inhibit hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a model substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2; rhodamine 123 appeared nevertheless to be a more potent inhibitor of hOCT1-mediated TEA transport (IC50 = 0.37 μm) than of that mediated by hOCT2 (IC50 = 61.5 μm). Taken together, these data demonstrate that rhodamine 123 is a high-affinity substrate for both hOCT1 and hOCT2. This dye may be therefore useful for fluorimetrically investigating cellular hOCT1 or hOCT2 activity, knowing, however, that other factors potentially contributing to cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, including mitochondrial membrane potential or expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, have also to be considered. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
Fardel O.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany |
Le Vee M.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany |
Jouan E.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany |
Denizot C.,Technology Servier |
Parmentier Y.,Technology Servier
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology | Year: 2015
Drug transporters are now recognized as major players involved in pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Methods for assessing their activity are important to consider, particularly owing to regulatory requirements with respect to inhibition of drug transporter activity and prediction of drug-drug interactions. In this context, the use of fluorescent-dye-based transport assays is likely to deserve attention.Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the nature of fluorescent dye substrates for ATP-binding cassette and solute carrier drug transporters. Their use for investigating drug transporter activity in cultured cells and clinical hematological samples, drug transporter inhibition, drug transporter imaging and drug transport at the organ level are summarized.Expert opinion: A wide range of fluorescent dyes is now available for use in various aspects of drug transporter studies. The use of these dyes for transporter analyses may, however, be hampered by classic pitfalls of fluorescence technology, such as quenching. Transporter-independent processes such as passive diffusion of dyes through plasma membrane or dye sequestration into subcellular compartments must also be considered, as well as the redundant handling by various distinct transporters of some fluorescent probes. Finally, standardization of dye-based transport assays remains an important on-going issue. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.
Hamm G.,ImaBiotech |
Bonnel D.,ImaBiotech |
Legouffe R.,ImaBiotech |
Pamelard F.,ImaBiotech |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012
In order to quantify small molecules at the early stage of drug discovery, we developed a quantitation approach based on mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) without the use of a labeled compound. We describe a method intended to respond to the main challenges encountered in quantification through MALDI imaging dedicated to whole-body or single heterogeneous organ samples (brain, eye, liver). These include the high dependence of the detected signal on the matrix deposition, the MALDI ionization yield of specific target molecules, and lastly, the ion suppression effect on the tissue. To address these challenges, we based our approach on the use of a normalization factor called the TEC (Tissue Extinction Coefficient). This factor takes into account the ion suppression effect that is both tissue- and drug-specific. Through this protocol, the amount of drug per gram of tissue was determined, which in turn, was compared with other analytical techniques such as Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Mass Spectrometry: A User's Guide to a New Technique for Biological and Biomedical Research. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Gravel E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center |
Ogier J.,Technology Servier |
Arnauld T.,Technology Servier |
MacKiewicz N.,French Atomic Energy Commission |
And 2 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2012
This concept article summarizes our recent findings regarding photopolymerized micelles obtained from the self-assembly of diacetylene-containing amphiphiles. Their synthesis and characterization are presented as well as some biomedical applications, such as tumor imaging and drug delivery. Finally, ongoing studies and future challenges are briefly discussed. Photopolymerized micelles obtained from the self-assembly of diacetylene-containing amphiphiles have been developed for biomedical applications in the fields of imaging and drug delivery (see figure). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Boiret M.,Technology Servier |
Meunier L.,Technology Servier |
Ginot Y.-M.,Technology Servier
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2011
A near infrared (NIR) method was developed for determination of tablet potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a complex coated tablet matrix. The calibration set contained samples from laboratory and production scale batches. The reference values were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to establish a model. The model was challenged by calculating tablet potency of two external test sets. Root mean square errors of prediction were respectively equal to 2.0% and 2.7%. To use this model with a second spectrometer from the production field, a calibration transfer method called piecewise direct standardisation (PDS) was used. After the transfer, the root mean square error of prediction of the first test set was 2.4% compared to 4.0% without transferring the spectra. A statistical technique using bootstrap of PLS residuals was used to estimate confidence intervals of tablet potency calculations. This method requires an optimised PLS model, selection of the bootstrap number and determination of the risk. In the case of a chemical analysis, the tablet potency value will be included within the confidence interval calculated by the bootstrap method. An easy to use graphical interface was developed to easily determine if the predictions, surrounded by minimum and maximum values, are within the specifications defined by the regulatory organisation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Bouzom F.,Technology Servier |
Ball K.,Technology Servier |
Perdaems N.,Technology Servier |
Walther B.,Technology Servier
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition | Year: 2012
In 2005, a survey compared a number of commercial PBPK software available at the time, mainly focusing on 'ready to use' modelling tools. Since then, these tools and software have been further developed and improved to allow modellers to perform WB-PBPK modelling including ADME processes at a high level of sophistication. This review presents a comparison of the features, values and limitations of both the 'ready to use' software and of the traditional user customizable software that are frequently used for the building and use of PBPK models, as well as the challenges associated with the various modelling approaches regarding their current and future use. PBPK models continue to be used more and more frequently during the drug development process since they represent a quantitative, physiologically realistic platform with which to simulate and predict the impact of various potential scenarios on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. The 'ready to use' PBPK software has been a major factor in the increasing use of PBPK modelling in the pharmaceutical industry, opening up the PBPK approach to a broader range of users. The challenge is now to educate and to train scientists and modellers to ensure their appropriate understanding of the assumptions and the limitations linked both to the physiological framework of the 'virtual body' and to the scaling methodology from in vitro to in vivo (IVIVE). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Boiret M.,Technology Servier |
Rutledge D.N.,Agro ParisTech |
Gorretta N.,IRSTEA |
Ginot Y.-M.,Technology Servier |
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2014
Independent component analysis (ICA) was used as a blind source separation method on a Raman image of a pharmaceutical tablet. Calculations were performed without a priori knowledge concerning the formulation. The aim was to extract the pure signals from the initial data set in order to examine the distribution of actives and major excipients within the tablet. As a method based on the decomposition of a matrix of mixtures of several components, the number of independent component to choose is a critical step of the analysis. The ICA_by_blocks method, based on the calculation of several models using an increasing number of independent components on initial matrix blocks, was used. The calculated ICA signals were compared with the pure spectra of the formulation compounds. High correlations between the two active principal ingredient spectra and their corresponding calculated signals were observed giving a good overview of the distributions of these compounds within the tablet. Information from the major excipients (lactose and avicel) was found in several independent components but the ICA approach provides high level of information concerning their distribution within the tablet. However, the results could vary considerably by changing the number of independent components or the preprocessing method. Indeed, it was shown that under-decomposition of the matrix could lead to better signal quality (compared to the pure spectra) but in that case the contributions due to minor components or effects were not correctly identified and extracted. On the contrary, over-decomposition of the original dataset could provide information about low concentration compounds at the expense of some loss of signal interpretability for the other compounds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Croixmarie V.,Technology Servier
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2010
Mechanisms involved in induction processes have been investigated using fresh human hepatocytes in culture as a cellular model and using mass spectrometry-based metabonomics as a global investigation tool. Sample preparation to data analysis have been detailed in an approach enabling to separate drug-induced (endogenous metabolites) and drug-related (drug metabolites) biomarkers for reference inducers. Rifampicin, a nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR) ligand; CITCO, a nuclear constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) ligand; and phenobarbital, which activates both CAR and PXR, have been used. Specific intra-cellular metabolites have been isolated for rifampicin and CITCO as potential endogenous biomarkers of their respective induction mechanism. A mixture of these two types of biomarkers modified in the same way after treatment with either rifampicin or CITCO on the one hand and with phenobarbital on the other hand has been found.
Boiret M.,Technology Servier |
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2016
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that enables better-understanding and optimization of pharmaceutical processes and final drug products. The use in line is often limited by acquisition speed and sampling area. This work focuses on performing a multipoint measurement at high acquisition speed at the end of the manufacturing process on a conveyor belt system to control both the distribution and the content of active pharmaceutical ingredient within final drug products, i.e., tablets. A specially designed probe with several collection fibers was developed for this study. By measuring spectral and spatial information, it provides physical and chemical knowledge on the final drug product. The NIR probe was installed on a conveyor belt system that enables the analysis of a lot of tablets. The use of these NIR multipoint measurement probes on a conveyor belt system provided an innovative method that has the potential to be used as a new paradigm to ensure the drug product quality at the end of the manufacturing process and as a new analytical method for the real-time release control strategy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg