Technology nische University Berlin

Grunewald, Germany

Technology nische University Berlin

Grunewald, Germany

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Koehler R.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | Steitz R.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | Von Klitzing R.,Technology nische University Berlin
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

The review addresses swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayers in water. Different models for the determination of the water content are compared. It is clearly shown that voids under dry conditions present cavities for water which contribute to the water content of the multilayer in the swollen state. This so-called "void water" does not lead to any changes in thickness but in scattering length density during swelling. The "swelling water" leads to both changes in scattering length density and in thickness. Depending on the preparation conditions like the type polymers, polymer charge density, ionic strength and type of salt the ratio of "void water" differs between 1 and 15 vol.% while the amount of "swelling water" is of several ten's of vol.%. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Legitimacy and acceptance of planning and decision processes for the implementation of the turnaround in energy policy are to be increased by public participation. In 2009 the 'law on energy line extension' (Energieleitungsausbaugesetz) has been adopted with the aim to tighten the approval procedures of extra-high voltage lines. One major criticism of this law was the assessment of demand which had been perceived as being intransparent. In view of the public participation carried out the study investigated a stratified sampling of projects of the requirement plan. The participation in the context of these projects was analysed investigating the aspects length and timing of paticipation, number and content of objections, kind of information provided, use of the internet etc. The results showed that many projects provided comprehensive information. Some projects even included the citizens concerned and the local communities very early during the development of the plans. Altogether, consultation and cooperation however only rarely comprised more than the legally required minimum requirements.


PubMed | Helmholtz Center Berlin and Technology nische University Berlin
Type: | Journal: Advances in colloid and interface science | Year: 2014

The review addresses swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayers in water. Different models for the determination of the water content are compared. It is clearly shown that voids under dry conditions present cavities for water which contribute to the water content of the multilayer in the swollen state. This so-called void water does not lead to any changes in thickness but in scattering length density during swelling. The swelling water leads to both changes in scattering length density and in thickness. Depending on the preparation conditions like the type polymers, polymer charge density, ionic strength and type of salt the ratio of void water differs between 1 and 15 vol.% while the amount of swelling water is of several tens of vol.%.

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