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Muttana S.B.,Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council TIFAC | Sardar A.,Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council TIFAC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

Mass reduction of vehicle is crucial for increasing fuel efficiency and reducing emissions so as to address rising environmental concerns. In case of battery electric vehicles, this will further augment the benefits in reducing the energy storage capacity required at a given electric drive range. The range of an electric vehicle depends on the stored energy in the battery pack and energy use by the vehicle. The energy use by a vehicle depends on several factors including vehicle mass, power train efficiency as well as driving cycle. Given a range requirement, vehicle's energy efficiency determines the energy storage required. A lighter vehicle will typically require a smaller battery for a given electric range, which in turn will result in energy savings. Hence, vehicle mass and battery mass are critical factors in energy efficiency of the vehicle. In case of ICE vehicles, any unplanned increase in the mass of a component during vehicle design has a ripple effect throughout the vehicle; other components need to be resized increasing vehicle mass even more (termed as 'mass compounding'). A more encouraging view of this behavior is considering a reduction in the mass of a component enabled by new technology resulting in a greater mass saving for the overall vehicle (termed as 'mass decompounding'). In this case, secondary mass changes are considerable. The same logic applies to battery electric vehicles also: primary mass change results in secondary mass change and the reduced compounded vehicle mass would reduce the battery energy capacity required to meet the same range requirement of the vehicle, thus reducing the mass of the vehicle further. The present paper investigates impacts and benefits of Lightweighting of Electric Car. In the present case, the conventional steel car body is replaced with aluminum. A comparative lifecycle impacts in terms of energy consumption and emissions will be estimated using Indian Driving Cycle (IDC). A typical mid size sedan is chosen for the analysis. © 2013 SAE International. Source


Sardar A.,Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council TIFAC | Mubashir S.,Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council TIFAC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Emission reduction and fuel economy are the primary drivers for public transport authorities. Electric propulsion is efficient, and do not produce any local emissions. However, achieving range similar to IC engine vehicles would require large battery pack, and considering this plug-in hybrid technology may be attractive options for public transport buses. Advances in battery technology and power electronics have enhanced the possibility of plug-in hybrid vehicles penetrating market in near future. Rising fuel prices and concerns over green house gases as well as other emissions have made it essential to consider such options seriously. Globally there are many efforts towards development of plug-in hybrid vehicles and Indian vehicle manufacturers have also demonstrated plug-in hybrid buses. Such vehicles can offer higher benefits in Indian congested traffic. However, it is required to evaluate the comparative environmental performance of plug-in hybrid vehicles in life-cycle analysis. It is also essential to evaluate the impact on grid, and the charging infrastructure required. This paper attempts to quantify the impacts of introduction of a fleet of plug-in hybrid buses in Delhi. Estimations are made on the benefits achievable in terms of emission reduction, and additional electric power demand for charging the vehicles. While comparing the benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles with conventional IC engine vehicles, life cycle emissions are calculated. The charging infrastructure required is also briefly discussed. The impact on electricity grid and the required infrastructure depend on the charging pattern. Various charging scenarios are considered to find the impact on the peak demand of the power grid. Copyright © 2011 SAE International. Source


Muttana S.B.,Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council TIFAC | Sardar A.,Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council TIFAC | Mubashir S.,Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council TIFAC
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Sustainable mobility has become priority in the wake of environmental concerns viz. emissions and depletion of fossil fuels. The growing demand for more fuel-efficient vehicles to reduce energy consumption and air pollution is a challenge for the automotive industry. Significant improvements in fuel economy can be obtained by weight reduction of vehicle as well as by improvements in engine and powertrain efficiency. If the vehicle body mass is reduced, there will be secondary mass reductions at the component level, particularly in the powertrain. Globally, automotive manufacturers have been engaged in efforts to develop lighter alternatives using aluminium alloys and other light weight materials, so as to reduce the energy requirement, improve the fuel consumption and reduce vehicular emissions. While the growth in mobility is growing rapidly in India, the installed base is still comparatively small, compared to the developed countries. Hence it would be possible to influence the growth of transportation systems, through policy measures, to lower the carbon footprint. This paper highlights potential of light weighting of public transport buses by use of aluminium for the super structure, body closure panels, and other structural components viz. seat frames, windows etc., and discusses a few innovative technologies that have to be employed for lightweight construction. A comparative study was carried out for lifecycle energy savings potential of aluminium intensive bus in comparison to conventional steel body bus, by taking into consideration Driving Cycle developed for Delhi city, India. Copyright © 2011 SAE International. Source

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