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Ulutas F.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Bogurcu M.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Sustainable Cities and Society | Year: 2012

Cleaner (sustainable) production is addressed in various legal documents including legislations, policy plans and government incentives in Turkey. However if the factors such as population, level of development, industrial activities and regional policy targets of the country are taken into consideration, the level and extent of cleaner (sustainable) production activities are not at the desired level. So as to overcome this deficiency, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry supported the project "Determination of the Framework Conditions and Research-Development Needs for the Dissemination of Cleaner (Sustainable) Production Applications in Turkey" which was carried out in 2009 by Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) and Prof. Dr. Göksel N. Demirer, as the consultant. This paper summarizes one of the outcomes of this project, namely "national capacity assessment on cleaner (sustainable) production". In this study, an assessment of cleaner (sustainable) production oriented activities/capacities of the related institutions/organizations in Turkey is presented. The objective is to determine the background for future activities as well as informing related stakeholders about the national capacity on the subject. This assessment is based on questionnaires carried out among related institutions/organizations and a workshop conducted. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of different sustainable production measures and demonstrate environmental and economical benefits in a woven fabric manufacturing mill in Bursa, Turkey. As a result of an Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE) evaluation, five sustainable production applications were proposed and implemented to decrease water consumption, wastewater generation, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and salt (NaCl) consumption in the company. As a result, the total water consumption of the company was decreased 40.2% while wastewater generation was reduced by 43.4%. Total energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions of the company were decreased 17.1 and 13.5%, respectively. While total salt (NaCl) consumption was decreased by 46.0%. The payback period was calculated as approximately 1.5 months. This study can be regarded as a successful example of adoption of "Communiqué of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in Textile Sector" with tangible economical and environmental achievements in the Turkish textile industry. The results of the study show that the wide-spread uptake of proposed sustainable production measures would generate a tremendous change in the Turkish textile industry without a need for heavy investments in technology. Moreover the economic returns would help Turkish textile industry to sustain its competitive position in the global textile market which faces a pressing challenge of low cost, high quality and environmentally benign production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2014

The European Commission has an objective of improved resource efficiency in manufacturing enterprises (particularly small- and medium-sized enterprises - SMEs) by structural and technological changes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the concrete improvements as a result of a systematic resource efficiency methodology applied to an SME in surface coating/painting industry in Turkey which is an EU accession country. Within the context of this study, cadmium plating process was substituted with a less toxic and more environmentally benign alternative coating process (silane-based coating). Therefore, cadmium oxide (CdO) and sodium cyanide (NaCN) consumption was eliminated from the processes of the company. Moreover, degreasing chemical consumption of the company was reduced by 92.9 %. Owing to the improvements in the resource efficiency, the total specific chemical consumption of the company was reduced from 44.07 to 16.01 g/m2, corresponding to a chemical saving of 63.7 %. Total annual cost saving was calculated to be 43,372year. It was determined that the annual cost saving (43,372year) was as high as 8.4 % of annual turnover (512.500) of the company. The payback period of the implementations was approximately 8.2 months. Based on the outcomes of this study, it is recommended that the resource efficiency concept should be used as a key strategy in Turkey, an EU accession country, to adopt norms and standards set by the European Commission (e.g., restrictions on the use of cadmium and cyanide in production processes). © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ulutas F.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Bogurcu M.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

The term cleaner (sustainable) production has been cited in many policy and strategy documents of the top level agency/institutions on science, technology, development, etc., in Turkey for over a decade. However, it is not sufficiently known and applied except its energy efficiency aspect in Turkey. So as to overcome this deficiency, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry supported the project 'Determination of the Framework Conditions and Research-Development Needs for the Dissemination of Cleaner (Sustainable) Production Applications in Turkey' which was carried out in 2009 by TTGV and Göksel N. Demirer, as the consultant. This paper summarises this analysis which was one of the outcomes of this project. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Food and Bioproducts Processing | Year: 2016

This study investigated waste minimization and recycling opportunities in a seafood processing industry. An environmental performance evaluation was done to benchmark performance of the company with published data including Best Available Techniques (BATs) determined by The European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB). Four broad objectives were set improving the resource efficiency and adding value to solid wastes/by-products. 18 different techniques/measures for reducing waste and adding value to the by-product were identified. Three of the techniques/measures were selected and implemented within the company. Specific water consumption decreased 65% and 77% in anchovy thawing and gutting processes, respectively. Because anchovy is the major product of the company, total water saving was 45.0%. Annual total water saving was estimated to be 29,002 m3. The water recycling system introduced in the gutting process enabled t production of valuable fish oil/grease by-product. Payback period for the implementations was estimated to be 1.6 years. This study demonstrated that environmental and economic benefits can be obtained in the Turkish seafood industry. © 2016 Institution of Chemical Engineers


Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2013

Although it was indicated through various studies from around the world that resource efficiency can be adapted in metal processing plants, a very limited number of projects could be realized in Turkish metal processing industry so far. In this study it was aimed at investigating process modifications and management practices to increase water and chemical use efficiency thus increasing environmental and economic performance of a metal processing company. As a result of the applications in heat treatment and zinc phosphating processes total water consumption of the company was reduced by 34.1% corresponding to an annual water saving of 18,831 m3. Moreover, total chemical consumption in zinc phosphating as one of the most chemical intensive processes in the company, was decreased by 1401 kg/year (26.1%). Applications in zinc phosphating process led to a significant decrease in the amount of treated wastewater and wastewater treatment sludge which is labelled as hazardous waste according to national legislations. Total wastewater generation was decreased by 3255 m3/year (50.9%) while wastewater treatment sludge was reduced 4656 kg/year (16.9%). Moreover, energy consumption of the company was reduced by 32.647 kW h/year which corresponds to 36% energy saving in water pumping. Implementation cost of the applications were 34,233$ which is calculated to be paid back in 2.3 years. This study is expected to fill a gap in Turkey by demonstrating that environmental performance in metal processing industry could be improved by process modifications and improved management practices resulting in tangible economic gains. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

In this study, a polyethylene terephthalate manufacturing plant was subjected to environmental performance evaluation and analyses/benchmarking of water consumption. The objective was to determine processes/practices where significant water and related energy saving potential was present. Based on evaluations and analyses, a technology change was realized in heat transfer systems from water-to air-cooled process. As a result of the applications, soft cooling water consumption of the company was reduced by 46.7% which corresponds to water saving of 151,428 m3/year. Moreover, 117,848 kWh/year of energy was saved due to electricity saving in electric motors of pumps of heat transfer systems as well as pumps/fans of cooling towers. Owing to the improved energy efficiency, total carbon emissions of the company was reduced by 69,530 kg CO2/year. Auxiliary material consumption was also reduced since the maintenance requirements of heat transfer pumps were minimized. The total cost saving was 104,905 $/year, while the payback period was calculated as 6 months. This study was conducted to be used as a successful model to increased water and energy efficiency in manufacturing industries based on systematic environmental performance evaluations and benchmarking. Furthermore, it could serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of cleaner and sustainable production approach into national agenda which is currently being structured by the European Union harmonization efforts of this country. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Journal of the Textile Institute | Year: 2015

The major objective of this study was to conduct a sectoral assessment for the textile industry and develop recommendations in order to successfully diffuse sustainable production approach within this sector in Turkey. Three scale analyses (micro, meso, and macro) were conducted by means of survey studies taking into account (i) the textile producer firms’ capacities and awareness, (ii) standards and demands of retailer companies as well as (iii) the existing institutional framework, strategies, supports, and incentives. Survey study covered 76 textile producer firms, 10 retailer companies (e.g. multinational corporations), and 17 institutions. The results of survey studies indicate that sustainable production approach is not adapted in the majority of the producer firms. Meanwhile, retailer companies have recently started to focus on the supply management issues putting stress on sustainable production approaches as integral parts of their corporate social responsibility policies. Moreover, there is a considerable movement and institutional intention in public and other relevant institutions in relation to the development of activities in line with the sustainable production approach. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey on sustainable production with a sector-specific dimension. © 2015 The Textile Institute.


Alkaya E.,Technology Development Foundation of Turkey | Demirer G.N.,Middle East Technical University
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to investigate water conservation and reuse opportunities in a soft drink/beverage manufacturing company. Water use analysis and benchmarking were carried out to determine the areas and processes where significant water saving potential is present. Based on evaluations, water recycling and reuse practices were realized in cooling systems. As a result of applying these practices, the total specific cooling water demand of the company was reduced from 14.4 to 1.2m3/m3 product or by 91.8%. Moreover, the total specific water intensity of the company was decreased 55.0%. Thus, the achieved total annual water saving was 503,893m3. After applications, specific wastewater generation of the company was reduced by 57.4% and hydraulic overload issues in wastewater treatment plant of Kayseri organized industrial zone were resolved. During the implementation of water saving measures/techniques 56,960$ was spent for equipments. Annual cost saving of the company were 97,000$. So, the payback period of the implementations was approximately 7 months. This study proved that water recycling and reuse can successfully be implemented in soft drink/beverage industry as a sustainable industrial water management approach. If successfully replicated in other manufacturing sectors besides soft drink/beverage sector, outcomes of this study can be a solution for excessive cooling water consumption in Turkey as well as other parts of the world where similar processes are employed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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