Straubing, Germany
Straubing, Germany

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Bachmaier H.,Technology and Support Center | Effenberger M.,Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Animal Husbandry | Gronauer A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Boxberger J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2013

For five agricultural biogas plants with a high share of energy crops in the input material, a detailed balance of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and cumulated energy demand (CED) was calculated for the years 2007 and 2010. The results vary considerably between plants and over time. In 2010 compared with 2007, all of the five biogas plants reduced their impact on climate change and four of them also reduced their consumption of fossil energy. The strongest influence was from the enhanced utilization of surplus heat energy, whereas variations of environmental impact due to direct emissions from the biogas plants were less distinctive. Compared with a reference system based on fossil resources, electricity production in the biogas plants avoided GHG emissions of 603 g to 940 g carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq)•kilowatt hours electrical energy (kWhel-1) and saved 2.48 to 3.23 kilowatt hours primary energy from fossil energy carriers (kWhfossil)•kWhel-1 CED (results for 2010). © The Author(s) 2013.


Weber E.A.,University of Hohenheim | Gruber S.,University of Hohenheim | Stockmann F.,Technology and Support Center | Claupein W.,University of Hohenheim
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

The potential of oilseed rape seeds from harvest losses to persist in the soil and to emerge later as volunteers in following crops is mainly driven by the ability of the seeds to go into dormancy under certain soil conditions. Using low-dormant oilseed rape cultivars could reduce volunteer problems considerably, but up to now there are unanswered questions as to whether (1) the trait is heritable and robust in different environments and whether (2) the variability in dormancy between and within cultivars allows for the selection of low-dormancy lines. Three field trials and one greenhouse trial were conducted from 2008 to 2010 at two locations in South West and Northern Germany to assess the effect of cultivar, location and year on dormancy characteristics of open-pollinated winter oilseed rape cultivars. A simple selection was performed in the field and in the greenhouse for low-dormant individual plants, and the offspring of these plants (potential volunteers) were tested for the stability of the trait under field conditions.Dormancy was mainly influenced by cultivar, and to a lesser extent by location, year and their interactions. There was also variation between cultivars depending on location and year between 1% and 90%, with a heritability of the trait 'dormancy' of h2=0.96. The dormancy values of the seeds from cultivars at both locations in both years were strongly correlated (R2=0.93). Individual plants within nearly every cultivar also varied significantly in their dormancy potential. The offspring of low-dormant individual plants, which had been selected from different cultivars, also produced seeds with a level of dormancy<5% under field conditions. In conclusion it seems feasible to use the trait 'low dormancy' in oilseed rape to successfully control volunteers in following crops in different environments. Variability of the dormancy trait between and within cultivars should enable breeders to select low-dormancy cultivars or individual plants to further develop low-dormant lines from nearly every open-pollinated cultivar. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Orasche J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Orasche J.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Orasche J.,University of Rostock | Seidel T.,The Interdisciplinary Center | And 6 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

An investigation was performed to study the emissions of state of the art small-scale residential heating appliances. The different combustion systems were compared at optimal combustion conditions. A comprehensive characterization of released organic species of all combustion systems was performed. An approach was performed to estimate the toxicity of the emitted particulate matter by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is based on the proposal of the German Research Foundation (DFG) that the health risk is proportionally summarized by different PAHs with different health risk potentials. This approach allows for a rough but fast comparison of different furnaces by the calculation of the toxic equivalent (TEQ) value in addition to the emission of particulate matter (PM). Best results were obtained by combusting wood as pellets in a modern pellet boiler (PM = 11-13 mg MJ -1 and TEQ = 0.12-0.75 μg MJ-1). On the opposite of the emission scale, the toxic potentials of the typical log wood stove were found to be about 2 orders of magnitude higher (PM = 67-119 mg MJ-1 and TEQ = 14-28 μg MJ-1) compared to the pellet boiler, despite optimized combustion conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Orasche J.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Orasche J.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Orasche J.,University of Rostock | Schnelle-Kreis J.,Helmholtz Center Munich | And 6 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2013

The impact of combustion conditions on emission factors and characteristics of log wood combustion was investigated. Two different kinds of log woods (spruce and beech) and one kind of briquette (spruce sawdust) were used to study differences in emission behavior depending upon the wood type. Beech wood was used to examine additionally the impact of different moisture contents and maloperation on emissions of fine particulate matter (PM). Therefore, wood logs with three different levels of moisture content were used. Maloperation was simulated by an overload scenario and an air deficiency scenario. Toxicity equivalent (TEQ) values were calculated for the different combustion conditions. It was found that PM mass varies only by a factor of 8 at a maximum, whereas TEQ values can vary more than a factor of 80 (regular beech wood combustion, 6 μg MJ-1; beech wood combustion in an overloaded combustion chamber, 500 μg MJ-1). In particular, wood with a higher moisture content (19%) released high amounts of intermediate products from lignin and cellulose degradation. The PM emissions in this case were the highest among the tested operation conditions, especially during the initial (cold start) inflaming (660 μg MJ-1), but were not in correspondence with the toxicity potential. The TEQ (37 μg MJ-1) in that case was much lower than during maloperation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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