Technological University of Tulancingo

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Tulancingo, Mexico
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Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2017

Considering the deficiency of time elapsed for phase-stepping interferometric techniques and the need of developing non-contact and on-line measurement with high accuracy, a single-shot phase-shifting triple-interferometer (PSTI) is developed for analysis of characteristics of transparent structures and optical path difference (OPD) measurements. In the proposed PSTI, coupled three interferometers which generate four interference patterns, and a polarizer array is used as phase shifters to produce four spatially separated interferograms with π/2-phase shifts, which are recorded in a single capture by a camera. The configuration of the PSTI allows dynamic measurements (4D measurements) and does not require vibration isolation. We have applied the developed system to examine the size and OPD of cells, and the slope of thin films © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Lopez-Ortiz B.,Technological University of Tulancingo
Optics Express | Year: 2014

We present a technique which allows us to generate two parallel interferograms with phase shifts of π/2 using a Cyclic Shear Interferometer (CSI) and a polarizing splitter. Because of the use of a CSI, we obtain the derivative phase data map directly, due to its configuration, it is immune to vibrations because the reference wavefront and the object wavefront have a common path; the shearing interferometer is insensitive to temperature and vibration. To obtain the optical phase data map, two interferograms are generated by collocating a polarizing device at the output of the CSI. The optical phase was processed using a Vargas-Quiroga algorithm. Related experimental results obtained for dynamic microscopic transparent samples are presented. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Rodriguez-Zurita G.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Montes-Perez A.,Autonomous University of Puebla
Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

This communication describes some details of polarization modulation that are useful in phase-shifting interferometry when applied to phase profile measurements of phase objects. Since non-destructive optical techniques allow surface measurement with high accuracy, a Mach-Zehnder configuration coupled to a 4-f arrangement using phase gratings placed on the Fourier plane was implemented to analyze phase objects. Each beam of the interferometer goes through a birefringent wave plate in order to achieve nearly circular polarization of opposite rotations, with respect to each other. The interference of the fields associated with replicated beams, centered on each diffraction order, is achieved varying the spacing of windows with respect to the grating period. Experimental results are presented for cases of four and nine simultaneously captured interferograms. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Serrano-Garcia D.-I.,Utsunomiya University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

We present a parallel polarizing phase shifting interferometer based in a Double Cyclic Shear Interferometer (DCSI) to analyze transparent samples. The system itself has the advantage of retrieve the derivative phase data map directly and,due of its configuration itself, it presents betters stability against external configurations than other types of interferometers. The DCSI generates two π-shifted interferograms, which are recorded by the camera in a single-shot. The optical phase is processed by the four-step algorithm. Related simulations and experimental results obtained for transparent samples are also presented. © 2013 SPIE.


Serrano-Garcia D.I.,Utsunomiya University | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Otani Y.,Utsunomiya University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

An optical system capable of simultaneously grabbing three phase-shifted interferometric images was developed for dynamic temperature field measurements outside of a thin flame. The polarization phase shifting technique and a Michelson interferometer that is coupled to a 4-f system with a Ronchi grating placed at the frequency plane are used. This configuration permits the phase-shifted interferograms to be grabbed simultaneously by one CCD. The temperature field measurement is based on measuring the refraction index difference by solving the inverse Abel transform, which requires information obtained by the fringe order localization. Experimental results of a dynamic event are presented varying in time. © 2014 SPIE.


Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Zurita G.R.,Autonomous University of Puebla
Journal of Optics | Year: 2012

An interferometric method to measure the radial slope of dynamic transparent samples is presented. We have implemented a simultaneous phase shifting MachZehnder radial-shear interferometer (SPS-MZRI) using a phase grating to replicate the interference patterns and phase shifts modulated by polarization; the interferometer is capable of processing the optical phase data through the acquisition of n-interferograms captured simultaneously. The SPS-MZRI is capable of obtaining the radial phase derivative and associating it with its corresponding radial slope. The experimental results for static and dynamic samples are presented in this work, as well as the experimental evidence for the generation of spiral patterns. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Serrano-Garcia D.I.,Utsunomiya University | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Otani Y.,Utsunomiya University
Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In this study, an optical system capable of simultaneously grabbing three phase-shifted interferometric images was developed for dynamic temperature field measurements of a thin flame. The polarization phaseshifting technique and a Michelson interferometer that is coupled to a 4-f system with a Ronchi grating placed at the frequency plane are used. This configuration permits the phase-shifted interferograms to be grabbed simultaneously by one CCD. The temperature field measurement is based on measuring the refraction index difference by solving the inverse Abel transform, which requires information obtained by the fringe order localization. The phase map is retrieved by a three-step algorithm. Experimental results of a dynamic thin flame are presented. © 2014 The Authors.


Fernandez-Luqueno F.,CINVESTAV | Fernandez-Luqueno F.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Reyes-Varela V.,CINVESTAV | Cervantes-Santiago F.,CINVESTAV | And 3 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

We investigated how amending maize with wastewater at 120 kg N ha-1 affected crop growth, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) compared to plants fertilized with urea. Maize growth response was similar when fertilized with urea or wastewater despite a delayed release of nutrients upon mineralization of the organic material in the wastewater. Applying wastewater to soil significantly increased the mean CO2 emission rate 2.4 times to 1.74 μg C kg-1 soil h-1 compared to the unamended soil (0.74 μg C kg-1 soil h-1), and cultivating maize further increased it 3.2 times (5.61 μg C kg-1 soil h-1). Irrigating soil with wastewater, cultivating it with maize or applying urea had no significant effect on the emission of N2O compared to the unamended soil (1.49 × 10-3 μg N kg-1 soil h-1). Adding urea to soil did no affect the CH4 oxidation rate (0.1 × 10-3 μg C kg-1 soil h-1), nor did cultivating maize in the urea-amended soil, but adding wastewater to soil resulted in a significant production of CH4 (128.4 × 10-3 μg C kg-1 soil h-1). Irrigating soil with wastewater increased the global warming potential (GWP) 2.5 fold compared to the urea amended soil, while in soil cultivated with maize GWP increased 1.4 times. It was found that irrigating crops with wastewater might limit the use of N fertilizer and water from aquifers, but the amount applied should be limited because nitrate (NO3-) leaching and emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 will be substantial and the increased soil salt content will limit crop growth. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Geochemical transactions | Year: 2016

The presence of natural and industrial jarosite type-compounds in the environment could have important implications in the mobility of potentially toxic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic, chromium, among others. Understanding the dissolution reactions of jarosite-type compounds is notably important for an environmental assessment (for water and soil), since some of these elements could either return to the environment or work as temporary deposits of these species, thus would reduce their immediate environmental impact.This work reports the effects of temperature, pH, particle diameter and Cr(VI) content on the initial dissolution rates of K-Cr(VI)-jarosites (KFe3[(SO4)2-X(CrO4)X](OH)6). Temperature (T) was the variable with the strongest effect, followed by pH in acid/alkaline medium (H3O(+)/OH(-)). It was found that the substitution of CrO4 (2-)in Y-site and the substitution of H3O(+) in M-site do not modify the dissolution rates. The model that describes the dissolution process is the unreacted core kinetic model, with the chemical reaction on the unreacted core surface. The dissolution in acid medium was congruent, while in alkaline media was incongruent. In both reaction media, there is a release of K(+), SO4 (2-) and CrO4 (2-) from the KFe3[(SO4)2-X(CrO4)X](OH)6 structure, although the latter is rapidly absorbed by the solid residues of Fe(OH)3 in alkaline medium dissolutions. The dissolution of KFe3[(SO4)2-X(CrO4)X](OH)6 exhibited good stability in a wide range of pH and T conditions corresponding to the calculated parameters of reaction order n, activation energy E A and dissolution rate constants for each kinetic stages of induction and progressive conversion.The kinetic analysis related to the reaction orders and calculated activation energies confirmed that extreme pH and T conditions are necessary to obtain considerably high dissolution rates. Extreme pH conditions (acidic or alkaline) cause the preferential release of K(+), SO4 (2-) and CrO4 (2-) from the KFe3[(SO4)2-X(CrO4)X](OH)6 structure, although CrO4 (2-) is quickly adsorbed by Fe(OH)3 solid residues. The precipitation of phases such as KFe3[(SO4)2-X(CrO4)X](OH)6, and the absorption of Cr(VI) after dissolution can play an important role as retention mechanisms of Cr(VI) in nature.


Fernandez-Luqueno F.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Fernandez-Luqueno F.,CINVESTAV | Valenzuela-Encinas C.,CINVESTAV | Marsch R.,CINVESTAV | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2011

Background, aim, and scope: Although highly diverse and specialized prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities in soil degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), most of these are removed slowly. This review will discuss the biotechnological possibilities to increase the microbial dissipation of PAHs from soil as well as the main biological and biotechnological challenges. Discussion and conclusions: Microorganism provides effective and economically feasible solutions for soil cleanup and restoration. However, when the PAHs contamination is greater than the microbial ability to dissipate them, then applying genetically modified microorganisms might help to remove the contaminant. Nevertheless, it is necessary to have a more holistic review of the different individual reactions that are simultaneously taking place in a microbial cell and of the interactions microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-soil, and microorganisms-PAHs. Perspectives: Elucidating the function of genes from the PAHs-polluted soil and the study in pure cultures of isolated PAHs-degrading organisms as well as the generation of microorganisms in the laboratory that will accelerate the dissipation of PAHs and their safe application in situ have not been studied extensively. There is a latent environmental risk when genetically engineered microorganisms are used to remediate PAHs-contaminated soil. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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