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Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Rodriguez-Zurita G.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Montes-Perez A.,Autonomous University of Puebla
Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

This communication describes some details of polarization modulation that are useful in phase-shifting interferometry when applied to phase profile measurements of phase objects. Since non-destructive optical techniques allow surface measurement with high accuracy, a Mach-Zehnder configuration coupled to a 4-f arrangement using phase gratings placed on the Fourier plane was implemented to analyze phase objects. Each beam of the interferometer goes through a birefringent wave plate in order to achieve nearly circular polarization of opposite rotations, with respect to each other. The interference of the fields associated with replicated beams, centered on each diffraction order, is achieved varying the spacing of windows with respect to the grating period. Experimental results are presented for cases of four and nine simultaneously captured interferograms. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source

Serrano-Garcia D.-I.,Utsunomiya University | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Otani Y.,Utsunomiya University
Advanced Optical Technologies | Year: 2014

An interferometer capable of retrieving the phase information in a single shot was implemented, the system was made by taking into account the double interferogram output obtained in a Mach Zehnder interferometer and then retrieving the phase information using a two-step algorithm already encountered in the literature. By controlling the polarization properties of the system, a new polarization phase shifting technique was implemented based upon the rotation of two quarter wave retarders placed in each of the arms of the interferometer. We present the analytical model taking into account the necessary conditions presented by the demodulation method. The configuration presented does not require micro-polarizer arrays or diffraction gratings presenting the advantage of avoiding the use of conventional polarizing filters to control the phase shift. Experimental results are presented. Copyright © 2014 THOSS Media and De Gruyter. Source

Fernandez-Luqueno F.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Fernandez-Luqueno F.,CINVESTAV | Valenzuela-Encinas C.,CINVESTAV | Marsch R.,CINVESTAV | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2011

Background, aim, and scope: Although highly diverse and specialized prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities in soil degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), most of these are removed slowly. This review will discuss the biotechnological possibilities to increase the microbial dissipation of PAHs from soil as well as the main biological and biotechnological challenges. Discussion and conclusions: Microorganism provides effective and economically feasible solutions for soil cleanup and restoration. However, when the PAHs contamination is greater than the microbial ability to dissipate them, then applying genetically modified microorganisms might help to remove the contaminant. Nevertheless, it is necessary to have a more holistic review of the different individual reactions that are simultaneously taking place in a microbial cell and of the interactions microorganism-microorganism, microorganism-plant, microorganism-soil, and microorganisms-PAHs. Perspectives: Elucidating the function of genes from the PAHs-polluted soil and the study in pure cultures of isolated PAHs-degrading organisms as well as the generation of microorganisms in the laboratory that will accelerate the dissipation of PAHs and their safe application in situ have not been studied extensively. There is a latent environmental risk when genetically engineered microorganisms are used to remediate PAHs-contaminated soil. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Serrano-Garcia D.I.,Utsunomiya University | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Otani Y.,Utsunomiya University
Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In this study, an optical system capable of simultaneously grabbing three phase-shifted interferometric images was developed for dynamic temperature field measurements of a thin flame. The polarization phaseshifting technique and a Michelson interferometer that is coupled to a 4-f system with a Ronchi grating placed at the frequency plane are used. This configuration permits the phase-shifted interferograms to be grabbed simultaneously by one CCD. The temperature field measurement is based on measuring the refraction index difference by solving the inverse Abel transform, which requires information obtained by the fringe order localization. The phase map is retrieved by a three-step algorithm. Experimental results of a dynamic thin flame are presented. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Technological University of Tulancingo | Toto-Arellano N.-I.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Zurita G.R.,Autonomous University of Puebla
Journal of Optics | Year: 2012

An interferometric method to measure the radial slope of dynamic transparent samples is presented. We have implemented a simultaneous phase shifting MachZehnder radial-shear interferometer (SPS-MZRI) using a phase grating to replicate the interference patterns and phase shifts modulated by polarization; the interferometer is capable of processing the optical phase data through the acquisition of n-interferograms captured simultaneously. The SPS-MZRI is capable of obtaining the radial phase derivative and associating it with its corresponding radial slope. The experimental results for static and dynamic samples are presented in this work, as well as the experimental evidence for the generation of spiral patterns. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

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