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San Michele all'Adige, Italy

Eccel E.,Research and Innovation Center | Cordano E.,Research and Innovation Center | Zottele F.,Technological Transfer Center
Italian Journal of Agrometeorology | Year: 2014

Project IdroClima had the aim of studying the high-resolution (500 m) water content of Trentino soils under a climatological perspective. The water budget model GEOtop 2.0 was applied to a 21-year period (1992-2012), corresponding to the hourly coverage of meteorological data. GEOtop accepts a thorough meteorological input, including several atmospheric variables. Pedology was described with a uniform soil over the domain, with 9 theoretical layers. Soil use was input according to the CORINE Land Cover classes. A qualitative validation of the model was done with pre-existent probe measurements of soil moisture (2006 - 2008) and with comparison with measured data from weather stations. A thorough set of post-processing was carried out, to consider several possible aggregation algorithms for daily maps. The main results are analyzed and discussed in this work. The simulation shows geographical patterns of proneness to drought or to proximity with a wider water availability, according to areas. © 2015, Patron Editore S.r.l. All rights reserved.

Rossi-Stacconi M.V.,Research and Innovation Center | Kaur R.,Research and Innovation Center | Mazzoni V.,Research and Innovation Center | Ometto L.,Research and Innovation Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2016

Successful management of invasive pests, such as Drosophila suzukii, relies on a fine understanding of their biology. Genomic and physiological studies have suggested that the invasive success of D. suzukii is strongly associated with its ability to overwinter in a reproductive diapause state. Here, we coupled field surveys with comparative morphology and genetics to increase our understanding of D. suzukii overwintering behavior and provide useful indications for its management. The results of a 4-year-long field trapping in an Italian mountain region indicate that D. suzukii is continuously captured during winter months and that the number of captures is correlated with temperature. Capture patterns are also contrasting between sexes: while females are more abundantly caught during winter and summer, males are more abundant in spring and autumn. We found that overwintering could occur not only in natural environments, such as woods, but also in anthropic shelters. Comparative morphology and genetics further indicate that spermathecae may play an important adaptive role during winter. Our results unveil complex winter biology in D. suzukii and highlight how the number of overwintering females is an earlier predictor of summer population size. We hence propose that in a given year infestation may be better forecasted by taking into account the captures of the previous winter. We recommend that control methods be diapause-aware. For instance, they should take place in late winter/early spring and close to natural environments, and not only in fruit ripening season and close to orchards. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Porro D.,Technological Transfer Center | Policarpo M.,Vivaio F. Paulsen Regione Siciliana | Stefanini M.,Research and Innovation Center | Dorigatti C.,Research and Innovation Center | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Avoiding nitrogen (N) deficiency in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) is necessary to satisfy its annual nutrient requirements. Foliar nutrition is a rapid method to decrease temporary N deficiency while reducing uptake during the vegetative and reproductive season. To better understand N uptake dynamics by foliar spray applications and its partitioning in vine organs, labeled N (15N) was used in the present study. The trial was undertaken at the IASMA vineyard on fifteen - year old vines of the cultivar 'Cabernet Sauvignon' raised on a cordon spur training system. Foliar N nutrition was applied during four main phenological phases (pre-flowering, pre-bunch closure, veraison and harvest) on four vines per time using an ammonium sulfate solution where 15N was enriched to 10 atom %. Each vine was fertilized with 10 ml of solution applied on both sides of the leaf which therefore received a total of 21.2 mg of 15N. After one week the vines were destructively harvested and then divided into: axis of shoot, leaves, bunches and/or inflorescences, wood, bark, fine (<2 mm) and coarse (>2 mm) roots. Each sample was dried and weighed, and a subsample was used to determine N uptake. There was a large difference in N uptake efficiency between the phenological phases. Pre-flowering uptake efficiency was 38.0%, in pre-bunch closure 30.0%, at veraison 21.7% and at harvest 66.0%. This difference can be explained by quantifying the timing and quantity of rain fall after treatment.

Porro D.,Technological Transfer Center | Ramponi M.,Technological Transfer Center | Rolle L.,University of Turin | Tomasi T.,Technological Transfer Center | Poni S.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Deficit irrigation may be used to control canopy development, yield, and fruit composition in order to enhance fruit colour, texture, and juice composition. The present study was carried out in 2007 using five-year old Lambrusco grapevines grown with the root system split into two pots. Water stress was applied on half of the vines (stressed) by withholding water from one out of the two pots from pre- veraison till harvest. At harvest, yield and cluster number per vine were recorded. Leaves and berries were collected and their mineral composition analyzed. Samples of 200-berries were collected to obtain qualitative parameters and to investigate mechanical properties using a TAxT2i Texture Analyzer. In order to confirm berry skin values obtained using texture analysis, microscope observations were made on frozen samples. Berry development (cluster and berry weight) was reduced by water stress; yield, sugar concentration, acidity and pH were similar between treatments, while malic acid and potassium concentrations in control vines were greater than in stressed vines. Water stress significantly enhanced the total anthocyanins. Mechanical properties of berries were strongly affected by water stress, showing a significant increase of berry skin thickness and a decrease of firmness. Microscope observations confirmed greater skin thickness as a result of water stress. Calcium, Mg, and B content in leaves and in berries significantly changed when water stress conditions were imposed. Sulphur and Mn content in leaves and P content in berries were also affected by treatment. These changes probably resulted from differential uptake and flow of nutrients from leaves to berries under water stress. In particular low Ca in leaves and high Ca levels in berries were registered in stressed vines, indicating the important role of Ca in enhancing berry skin thickness. The same pattern of flow from leaves to berries was noticed for Mg. In contrast, low levels of B were found both in leaves and in berries of stressed plants.

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