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Einstein's idea concerning the mass-energy equivalence is confirmed in a new form. The equivalence manifests itself in similar functionality in the processes of the pulsations (focusing and rebounding) of the "excessive" energy in the generalized Kepler 2D problem and the "excessive" mass in the Vysikaylo-Chandrasekhar 3D problem on the accumulation and dissipation of the de Broglie waves in quantum stars (the pulsing accretion of quantum stars) with mass more than that of Chandrasekhar (~1.46 masses of the sun). A new mechanism (type) of a thermonuclear reactor at the surface of charged quantum stars and dense cores of normal stars and planets is proposed. The acceleration of electrons to MeV energies in the synergistic electric fields of uncompensated charged particles in the nuclei of giant plasmoids-quantum stars-and their transmutation into neutrons in the surface layer in the reactions with protons is the basis for such a mechanism. The problems concerning the stabilization of neutrons in relation to the β-disintegration of the neutrons on the surface of neutron stars and the keeping of high energy electrons in any CD structures with condensed media with a Fermi gas or a Fermi liquid have been solved. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc. Source


The processes of the accumulation and dissipation of electron flows in polarizable plasma structures with spatially distributed electric charges are investigated. It is proved that a slight violation of neutrality (about 10 -18) because of forcing the electrons out of the structures leads to sputtering (bouncing) of neutral structures that were gravitating before. As the de Broglie wavelength of an electron is many times greater than that of a nucleon or atomic nucleus at equal temperatures, in the case of condensation of matter into quantum structures (in which there occurs degeneration of the sharing electron gas), there should happen the violation of neutrality and the generation of giant peripheral electric fields that self-focus the plasmoid thus being a dynamic surface tension. Electric fields are effective catalysts of thermonuclear reactions leading to neutronization of the substance compressed by gravitation. Einstein's idea concerning mass-energy equivalence is confirmed in a new form. The equivalence manifests itself in a similar functionality in the process of the pulsation (focusing and rebounding) of "excessive" energy in the generalized Kepler 2D-problem (for the gravitational and the electric potential) and the "excessive" mass in the Vysikaylo-Chandrasekhar 3D problem concerning the accumulation and dissipation of the de Broglie waves in quantum stars (pulsating accretion of quantum stars) with a mass greater than that of Chandrasekhar (~1.46 masses of the sun). A new mechanism (type) of a thermonuclear reactor at the surface of charged quantum stars and dense cores of ordinary stars and planets is proposed by the author. The acceleration of electrons to MeV energies in the synergistic electric fields of uncompensated for charged particles in the nuclei of giant plasmoids-quantum stars-and their transmutation into the neutrons on the surface layer in the reactions with the protons is the basis for such a mechanism. In the presence of dynamic surface tension caused by the Coulomb forces the cumulation of plasma and energy takes place during the compressing electric field jumps. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc. Source


Vysikaylo P.I.,Technological Institute of Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry | Year: 2012

The processes of physical doping of nanostructured (meta-) materials have been investigated. Two types of interference and diffraction (in the center) in hollow quantum resonators for the de Broglie waves of electrons and two types of the Vysikaylo quantum-size effects due to the polarization capture of electrons in the cavity of quantum resonators are described on the basis of the cumulative quantum mechanics (CQM) formulated by the author. The first type of interference and, accordingly, diffraction in the resonator center corresponds to de Broglie-Fresnel interference (sin-wave with a node in the resonator center). This type is used to describe the localization (cumulation) of electrons in the atom quantum resonator with an atomic nucleus in the center. The second type of interference and, accordingly, diffraction is called Vysikaylo-de Broglie-Fraunhofer interference (diffraction with the antinode of the electron de Broglie wave in the center of a hollow resonator), wherein the Ψn-functions of the electron infinitely cumulate (are focused by a polarization "mirror") towards the center of a hollow quantum spherically or cylindrically symmetric resonator (Ψn(r) ~ cos(knr)/rk). It is shown that the cos-solutions, irregular in the resonator center, are regularized for any wave phenomena by the geometric coefficient. It is proved in the framework of CQM that, alongside with the classical energy spectrum for asymmetric Ψn-functions (sin waves (overtones)) with En ~ n2, for hollow quantum resonators, there exist and are realized in experiments the quantum resonances for symmetric Ψn-functions (cos waves (the principal tone)) with En ~ (n - 1/2)2. The spectrum of energy states, localized by a barrier, with En > 0 (a metastable IQ-particle (a partially open quantum dot, line, or well)), as in the case of En < 0 (a stable FQ-particle (a close dot, line, or well)), is determined by the effective internal sizes of the box (R + rind) with polarization forces effectively acting at the distance of rind from the molecule. The comparison of the analytical results with the experimental observations proves convincingly the validity of the CQM application in describing the quantum-size effects in the case of physical doping of metamaterials. It has been demonstrated for the first time that, in nanocomposite materials, the pair of "eigenfunction Ψn-self-energy En" comprising the quantum state in the nanoworld noted by the basic quantum number n and in the mesoworld of nanocomposites by physically doped by traps is replaced by two nanoworld parameters: the nanocrystal diameter D and the relative resonance concentration of the modifier (a trap, such as C60, 70) ζn. The self-assembly of hollow allotropic forms of carbon on resonant electrons is discussed. © 2012 Allerton Press, Inc. Source


Sorokin P.B.,Rice University | Lee H.,Rice University | Antipina L.Y.,Technological Institute of Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials | Singh A.K.,Rice University | And 2 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. Hydrogen adsorption on calcium-decorated carbyne chain was studied using ab initio density functional calculations. The estimation of surface area of carbyne gives the value four times larger than that of graphene, which makes carbyne attractive as a storage scaffold medium. Furthermore, calculations show that a Ca-decorated carbyne can adsorb up to 6 H2 molecules per Ca atom with a binding energy of ∼0.2 eV, desirable for reversible storage, and the hydrogen storage capacity can exceed ∼8 wt %. Unlike recently reported transition metal-decorated carbon nanostructures, which suffer from the metal clustering diminishing the storage capacity, the clustering of Ca atoms on carbyne is energetically unfavorable. Thermodynamics of adsorption of H2 molecules on the Ca atom was also investigated using equilibrium grand partition function. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Vysikaylo P.I.,Technological Institute of Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry | Year: 2011

The values of the cathode drop (CD) are estimated in nanosecond discharges with a slot cathode in argon plasma to view the total number of strata in the discharge gap (n ∼ 10), and the dependence of the CD on the discharge parameters is studied. In the experiments, the structurization of a nanosecond discharge with a hollow cathode (stratum) in argon is analytically simulated by the author. It is proved that the strata in nanosecond discharges are caused by the drift of electrons and the direct ionization by the electron impact, thus, being ionization-drift waves. The drift removal of electrons leads to the formation of positively charged layers of the space charge, a significant increase of the role of the peripheral ionization, and the cumulation of electrons in the plasma focuses (similar to the Lagrange libration points discovered by Euler in 1769). © 2011 Allerton Press, Inc. Source

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