Technological Institute of La Zona Maya

www.itzonamaya.edu.mx
Chetumal, Mexico
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Pineiro-Vazquez A.T.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Pineiro-Vazquez A.T.,Colegio de Mexico | Jimenez-Ferrer G.O.,Colegio de Mexico | Chay-Canul A.J.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | And 6 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum and housed in metabolic crates. Five crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) heifers (BW: 295 ± 6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and five increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The intake of DM was similar (P > 0.05) among treatments, with an average of 7.03 kg of DM/day. While the crude protein intake (CPI) linearly increased (P < 0.001) with the inclusion of L. leucocephala, the DM digestibility (average 492.3 g/kg DM) and OM digestibility (average 501.6 g/kg OM) were not affected (P > 0.05) by the incorporation of L. leucocephala into the ration. The N intake and excretion in the urine increased linearly (P = 0.0001, 0.0001) as the level of L. leucocephala in the ration increased. In addition, methane energy loss as a percentage of that in the control ration, was of only 61% (P = 0.0005) with 80% incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration. We concluded that the inclusion of L. leucocephala has the capacity to reduce energy losses in the form of methane emissions. Nevertheless, the energy losses in the urine increased with the addition of L. leucocephala to the ration, with the optimal levels of incorporation in the ration fluctuating between 20 and 40% of the ration DM, which had no effects on the dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI) or the digestibility of dry matter (DMD). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Tzuc-Martinez R.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Caamal-Maldonado A.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Tun-Garrido J.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | And 2 more authors.
Agrociencia | Year: 2017

The factors that limit maize production in Yucatán, México are decreasing yields and a constant increase of weedy species. A strategy to deal with these problems is to develop diversified productive schemes, such as agroforestry systems (SAF). This study determined the cover dynamics and biomass of weeds in an SAF composed of forage trees and maize during two cropping cycles (CC). Leucaena leucocephala, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Moringa oleifera, associated with maize, and a plot of maize monocrop were evaluated with a complete random block design with three replications. Weed cover, biomass, diversity and density were measured at the beginning, middle and end of the two CC. The weeds were collected in squares delimited by 50×50 cm frames distributed randomly in each experimental unit, separated by species and dried. With this data, an ANOVA was performed, and when significance was detected, the Tukey test (p≤0.05) was used. At the beginning of the first CC, the SAF Guazuma + maize had lower weed cover (41 %), while Moringa + maize was higher at the middle and end (71 and 49 %). At the beginning of the second CC, the Guazuma + maize SAF had less weed cover, and Guazuma + maize and Leucaena + maize were lower (54 and 48 %). In both CC, weed biomass in the SAF was almost half that of monocropped maize. At the end of both CC, the Guazuma + maize system had less weed diversity than the maize monocrop. At the beginning and end of the two CC, weed density was greater in the monocrop. Eighteen botanical families were identified and, of these, 21 % were leguminous. The suppression of weeds in the SAF was 23 to 36 %. Woody species in SAF reduce weed cover and biomass, relative to maize monocrop.


Pineiro-Vazquez A.T.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Pineiro-Vazquez A.T.,Colegio de Mexico | Canul-Solis J.R.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | And 5 more authors.
Revista Mexicana De Ciencias Pecuarias | Year: 2017

The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing in the foliage's on dry matter intake and organic matter (DMI and OMI), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and methane (CH4) emissions in sheep fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass. Four hair sheep with an average live weight of 21.6±2.0 kg were allotted to four treatments in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The treatments were P. purpureum (PP), P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA), P. purpureum +Bursera simaruba (PPBS), and purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP), the foliage of tree was included 300 g/kg DM of the ration. Intake, digestibility of DM and total methane emissions (L/d) were recorded for periods of 23 h when sheep were housed in open-circuit respiration head boxes. Intake and digestibility of the dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) between treatments PP, PPHA, PPBS and PPAP, were not affected by inclusion the foliage's of trees in the ration (P>0.05). When the production of methane was expressed in L/kg of DMI, OMI or neutral detergent fiber intake, the results were similar between treatments (PP, PPHA, PPBS, PPAP) (P>0.05). It is concluded that CT contained in the foliage of Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba not affected the CH4 emissions an levels of incorporation as 30 % of ration DM, since there are no effects on DMI, OMI, DMD and molar concentration of volatile fatty acids.


Villanueva-Partida C.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Gonzalez-Valdivia N.,China Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

The rapid deforestation of Tabasco due to extensive livestock farming has resulted in a decrease in the original forest cover. Silvopastoral systems represent an option for reversing this problem. A comparative study was conducted to determine the influence of tree density on the structure and species composition of scattered trees in pastures (STP) as well as the herbaceous coverage. A total of 16 livestock systems with 3 STP densities were selected: low (from 24 to 49 individuals ha−1), medium (from 53 to 85 individuals ha−1) and high (from 129 to 212 individuals ha−1. The diameter at breast height, total height, clear bole height and crown area of all trees in each plot were measured. Shannon's and Simpson's index values were determined along with the relative importance values (RIVs), and the herbaceous cover under the tree canopy was measured in dry and rainy seasons. A total of 64 species representing 31 botanical families were found. The structure and composition of the STPs are correlated with arboreal density, and thus, species diversity was greater under low and medium densities. The tree species with the highest RIVs were Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn., Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.), and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. in low-density STPs; Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F. Blak., and T. rosea in medium-density STPs and Swietenia macrophylla (King.), Gmelina arborea (Roxb.), and C. alliodora in high-density STPs. The herbaceous cover was lower under high arboreal densities in both seasons. The STPs at high densities are inferred to be more specialized because they present less arboreal species diversity and structure than low-density STPs, and these properties also affect the coverage of the associated herbaceous component. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Ramirez-Aviles L.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Deforestation of tropical forests for the establishment of grass monoculture for livestock production is responsible for about 30 % of CO2 emissions. This issue is particularly severe in degraded pastures because degraded soils favor CO2 flow to the soil surface. Silvopastoral systems could reduce CO2 emissions, notably by using live fences. Here, we hypothesized that live fences of Gliricidia sepium in livestock systems should reduce variations in environmental relative humidity and soil temperature and, in turn, reduce soil CO2 emissions. Here, we studied two livestock systems: (1) grass monoculture of Brachiaria decumbens with live fences of G. sepium and (2) grass monoculture of B. decumbens without live fences. We measured soil CO2 seasonal emissions at different times of the day, soil temperature, and environmental relative humidity. Nine 600-m2 plots were established in each system. All variables were measured over four 6-h period during a 24-h period, twice a month from April to September. Our results show that soil CO2 emissions showed less variability with G. septum live fences than without live fences. This lower variability is explained by the creation of a microclimate with a higher and more stable environmental relative humidity, provided by the shade of trees. Results also show, however, that global soil CO2 emissions did not differ between the two systems, with and without live fence. Moreover, soil CO2 emissions varied according to season, as shown by 1.082 g CO2 m−2 h−1 in the wet season versus 0.871 g CO2 m−2 h−1 in the dry season. Soil CO2 emissions varied also according to sampling time, as shown by 1.116 g CO 2 m−2 h−1 in the night versus 0.960 CO 2 m−2 h−1 in the morning. © 2016, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Gonzalez-Gomez J.C.,Sociedad de Innovadores para la Agroforesteria Tropical Science | Flores-Estrada M.X.,Fundacion Produce Michoacan A.C. | Lopez-Santiago G.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Garcia-Gomez M.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to determine the structure, composition and use of trees and shrubs of tropical deciduous forest in the mountains of Apatzingán, Michoacan. For this, six sampling units were established and each 7 sub-plots (squares) of 10 x 10 m were delineated. A floristic inventory was conducted and diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (TH), crown diameter (CD), (BA) basal area and the importance value index (IVI) was determined. Further, based on local knowledge the use of each species found was determined. The results show that 97.1% of species having a DAP ≤ 10 cm. Over 90% of the sampled trees had a DC ≤ 4 m. 84.4% of the sampled individuals had an AT ≤ 6 m, and 85% of species had an AB ≤ 30 cm2. The species most IVI were Cordia elaeagnoides, Randia watsoni, Apoplanesia paniculate, Caesalpinia platyloba, Capparis asperifolia and Triunfetta sp. 38% of the sampled species belong to the legume family and almost 80% of the sampled species has forage use. We conclude that local knowledge of the species of deciduous forest can help establish the basis for designing new proposals to the use and conservation of local resources and generate resilient livestock production systems. © 2014, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. All rights reserved.


Chavarria-Aguilar L.M.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Garcia-Herrera R.A.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Salazar-Cuytun R.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Chay-Canul A.J.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | And 3 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body condition score (BCS), and body energy reserves in Pelibuey ewes. Twenty-four hours before slaughter, withers height (WH) and body length (BL) were measured on 28 ewes. Their BMIs were calculated as follows: BMI = (body weight (kg)/withers height (m)/body length (m))/10. The BMI and BCS showed a correlation coefficient of 0.80 (P < 0.05). The regression equation for BMI and BCS had a determination coefficient of 0.64 (RSD: 0.75). The correlation between BMI and the muscle (MUS), internal fat (IF), carcass fat and total body fat (TBF) weights ranged from 0.73 to 0.81 (P < 0.05), while the regression equations had an R2 that ranged from 0.54 for IF (RSD: 1.98 kg) to 0.60 for carcass fat (CF, RSD: 1.81 kg). BMI and body energy reserves showed a positive relationship with each other; therefore, BMI could be used as a predictor of body energy reserves in non-pregnant and non-lactating Pelibuey ewes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Ramirez-Aviles L.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Parsons D.,University of Tasmania | Caamal-Maldonado A.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | And 2 more authors.
Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente | Year: 2016

The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of agroforestry systems in providing environmental services, including more diverse and sustainable agricultural production, increased carbon stocks and enhanced biodiversity conservation, plus improved soil fertility, methane emission mitigation, and water and air quality. There is evidence that agroforestry systems have an important role in providing environmental services, as approximately 20 % of the world's population, primarily in rural and urban areas of developing countries, depends directly on agroforestry products. The adoption of agroforestry contributes to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide and methane), diminishes the pressure on vulnerable ecosystems, and improves the livelihoods of rural communities. © 2016 Coordinación de Revistas Institucionales.


Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Ramirez-Aviles L.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Colegio de Mexico
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to quantify rates of soil respiration on livestock systems with live fences (LF) formed by Gliricidia sepium trees and on livestock systems in signal grass monoculture (MP) ( Brachiaria decumbens); examine the variation of flows in the rainy and dry seasons, and fluctuations during the day, as well as soil temperature and relative humidity. Soil respiration was measured twice a month, four times a day between the hours of 00:00 to 06:00 h, 6:00 to 12:00 h, 12:00 to 18:00 h, and 18:00 to 24:00 h, in both seasons. Soil temperature and the relative humidity were simultaneously measured. The results show that the rate of soil respiration is similar between these systems, LF issued 0.97 and MP 1.01 mol CO2m2h-1. In contrast, there was influence of the time of year and time of collection of the samples. In both systems the soil flows were higher in the rainy season (1.1 mol CO2m2h-1on average) and slightly lower in the dry season (0.90 mol CO2m2h-1on average) and were higher during the night (00:00 to 06:00 hours), during the early morning hours (6:00 to 12:00 hours). Soil temperature was higher in the MP, and the relative humidity in LF. It is concluded that the main factor that caused the variation in soil respiration rates was the presence of G. sepium trees in LF, which led to lower temperatures and more stable humidity, which resulted in lower soil CO2fluxes. © 2014, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. All rights reserved.


Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | And 2 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Agroforestry systems (AFS) play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C). The objectives of this study were to quantify the organic C stocks in the above- and below-ground tree biomass and in the soil in a cattle-farming system with live fences (CFSLF) of Gliricidia sepium and to compare the levels with those of a cattle-farming system based on a grass monoculture (CFSGM). The methodology included a forest inventory in nine randomly assigned plots and the destructive sampling of G. sepium 32 trees, measuring for each tree the diameter at breast height (DBH), stem height, total tree height, branch weight, leaf weight and coarse root weight. In addition, we measured grass biomass, collected litterfall and collected soil samples at depths of 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm in the plots. A logarithmic model was developed to quantify the above- and below-ground tree biomass. The soil organic matter was determined by the dry combustion method. The total carbon stored in the CFSLF was 119.82 Mg C ha−1, with the G. sepium trees contributing 5.7 % of the total C (6.48 Mg C ha−1). The CFSGM stored 113.34 Mg C ha−1. The grass biomass stored 15.32 Mg C ha−1 year−1 in the CFSGM and 15.68 Mg C ha−1 year−1 in the CFSLF, and the litterfall in the CFSLF stored 0.205 Mg C ha−1 year−1. Despite the modest contribution of G. sepium trees to the C storage, the total carbon accumulated in the CFSLF and CFSGM was similar. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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