Technological Institute of La Zona Maya

www.itzonamaya.edu.mx
Chetumal, Mexico

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Villanueva-Partida C.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Gonzalez-Valdivia N.,China Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

The rapid deforestation of Tabasco due to extensive livestock farming has resulted in a decrease in the original forest cover. Silvopastoral systems represent an option for reversing this problem. A comparative study was conducted to determine the influence of tree density on the structure and species composition of scattered trees in pastures (STP) as well as the herbaceous coverage. A total of 16 livestock systems with 3 STP densities were selected: low (from 24 to 49 individuals ha−1), medium (from 53 to 85 individuals ha−1) and high (from 129 to 212 individuals ha−1. The diameter at breast height, total height, clear bole height and crown area of all trees in each plot were measured. Shannon's and Simpson's index values were determined along with the relative importance values (RIVs), and the herbaceous cover under the tree canopy was measured in dry and rainy seasons. A total of 64 species representing 31 botanical families were found. The structure and composition of the STPs are correlated with arboreal density, and thus, species diversity was greater under low and medium densities. The tree species with the highest RIVs were Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn., Guazuma ulmifolia (Lam.), and Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC. in low-density STPs; Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F. Blak., and T. rosea in medium-density STPs and Swietenia macrophylla (King.), Gmelina arborea (Roxb.), and C. alliodora in high-density STPs. The herbaceous cover was lower under high arboreal densities in both seasons. The STPs at high densities are inferred to be more specialized because they present less arboreal species diversity and structure than low-density STPs, and these properties also affect the coverage of the associated herbaceous component. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Ramirez-Aviles L.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Deforestation of tropical forests for the establishment of grass monoculture for livestock production is responsible for about 30 % of CO2 emissions. This issue is particularly severe in degraded pastures because degraded soils favor CO2 flow to the soil surface. Silvopastoral systems could reduce CO2 emissions, notably by using live fences. Here, we hypothesized that live fences of Gliricidia sepium in livestock systems should reduce variations in environmental relative humidity and soil temperature and, in turn, reduce soil CO2 emissions. Here, we studied two livestock systems: (1) grass monoculture of Brachiaria decumbens with live fences of G. sepium and (2) grass monoculture of B. decumbens without live fences. We measured soil CO2 seasonal emissions at different times of the day, soil temperature, and environmental relative humidity. Nine 600-m2 plots were established in each system. All variables were measured over four 6-h period during a 24-h period, twice a month from April to September. Our results show that soil CO2 emissions showed less variability with G. septum live fences than without live fences. This lower variability is explained by the creation of a microclimate with a higher and more stable environmental relative humidity, provided by the shade of trees. Results also show, however, that global soil CO2 emissions did not differ between the two systems, with and without live fence. Moreover, soil CO2 emissions varied according to season, as shown by 1.082 g CO2 m−2 h−1 in the wet season versus 0.871 g CO2 m−2 h−1 in the dry season. Soil CO2 emissions varied also according to sampling time, as shown by 1.116 g CO 2 m−2 h−1 in the night versus 0.960 CO 2 m−2 h−1 in the morning. © 2016, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Gonzalez-Gomez J.C.,Sociedad de Innovadores para la Agroforesteria Tropical Science | Flores-Estrada M.X.,Fundacion Produce Michoacan A.C. | Lopez-Santiago G.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Garcia-Gomez M.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to determine the structure, composition and use of trees and shrubs of tropical deciduous forest in the mountains of Apatzingán, Michoacan. For this, six sampling units were established and each 7 sub-plots (squares) of 10 x 10 m were delineated. A floristic inventory was conducted and diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (TH), crown diameter (CD), (BA) basal area and the importance value index (IVI) was determined. Further, based on local knowledge the use of each species found was determined. The results show that 97.1% of species having a DAP ≤ 10 cm. Over 90% of the sampled trees had a DC ≤ 4 m. 84.4% of the sampled individuals had an AT ≤ 6 m, and 85% of species had an AB ≤ 30 cm2. The species most IVI were Cordia elaeagnoides, Randia watsoni, Apoplanesia paniculate, Caesalpinia platyloba, Capparis asperifolia and Triunfetta sp. 38% of the sampled species belong to the legume family and almost 80% of the sampled species has forage use. We conclude that local knowledge of the species of deciduous forest can help establish the basis for designing new proposals to the use and conservation of local resources and generate resilient livestock production systems. © 2014, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. All rights reserved.


Chavarria-Aguilar L.M.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Garcia-Herrera R.A.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Salazar-Cuytun R.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Chay-Canul A.J.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | And 3 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body condition score (BCS), and body energy reserves in Pelibuey ewes. Twenty-four hours before slaughter, withers height (WH) and body length (BL) were measured on 28 ewes. Their BMIs were calculated as follows: BMI = (body weight (kg)/withers height (m)/body length (m))/10. The BMI and BCS showed a correlation coefficient of 0.80 (P < 0.05). The regression equation for BMI and BCS had a determination coefficient of 0.64 (RSD: 0.75). The correlation between BMI and the muscle (MUS), internal fat (IF), carcass fat and total body fat (TBF) weights ranged from 0.73 to 0.81 (P < 0.05), while the regression equations had an R2 that ranged from 0.54 for IF (RSD: 1.98 kg) to 0.60 for carcass fat (CF, RSD: 1.81 kg). BMI and body energy reserves showed a positive relationship with each other; therefore, BMI could be used as a predictor of body energy reserves in non-pregnant and non-lactating Pelibuey ewes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,University of Valladolid | Ramirez-Aviles L.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | And 2 more authors.
Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria | Year: 2014

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two livestock systems, a livestock system with live fences (LSLF) of Gliricidia sepium associated with signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and a livestock system based on a grass monoculture (LSPM), on specific physical and chemical soil characteristics at different depths and distances from the fence. In each system, we randomly selected 9 plots of 600 m2. A completely randomized design was used with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in which we analyzed the influence of the livestock systems (LSLF and LSPM), soil strata (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and the interaction of both factors using a multivariate analysis of variance. In addition, we performed analysis of variance to determine the effect of distance sampling in the LSLF (0-3, 3-6 and 6-9 m). The LSLFs were associated with higher (P≤0.05) soil organic matter (OM), carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content as well as lower pH and bulk density (BD) when compared with the LSPM. In both livestock systems, the soil OM, C and N were higher (P≤0.05) in the upper (0-10 cm) strata and in the LSLF at a 3 to 6 m distance from the live fences. In the LSLF soil, the pH and BD were similar (P>0.05) at different depths and distances from the live fences. However, the soil pH varied between soil depths in the LSPM. Regarding the physical soil properties, only the sand and clay content varied (P≤0.05) at different depths in both systems but not at different distances from the LSLF. We concluded that the LSLF presents high potential to substantially improve the physical and chemical soil properties and provide an important option for reducing soil degradation in future in livestock production systems based on pasture monoculture. © 2014 Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Agronomia e Ingenieria Forestal. All rights reserved.


Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Ramirez-Aviles L.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Parsons D.,University of Tasmania | Caamal-Maldonado A.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | And 2 more authors.
Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente | Year: 2016

The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of agroforestry systems in providing environmental services, including more diverse and sustainable agricultural production, increased carbon stocks and enhanced biodiversity conservation, plus improved soil fertility, methane emission mitigation, and water and air quality. There is evidence that agroforestry systems have an important role in providing environmental services, as approximately 20 % of the world's population, primarily in rural and urban areas of developing countries, depends directly on agroforestry products. The adoption of agroforestry contributes to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide and methane), diminishes the pressure on vulnerable ecosystems, and improves the livelihoods of rural communities. © 2016 Coordinación de Revistas Institucionales.


Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | Ramirez-Aviles L.,Autonomous University of Yucatán | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Colegio de Mexico
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to quantify rates of soil respiration on livestock systems with live fences (LF) formed by Gliricidia sepium trees and on livestock systems in signal grass monoculture (MP) ( Brachiaria decumbens); examine the variation of flows in the rainy and dry seasons, and fluctuations during the day, as well as soil temperature and relative humidity. Soil respiration was measured twice a month, four times a day between the hours of 00:00 to 06:00 h, 6:00 to 12:00 h, 12:00 to 18:00 h, and 18:00 to 24:00 h, in both seasons. Soil temperature and the relative humidity were simultaneously measured. The results show that the rate of soil respiration is similar between these systems, LF issued 0.97 and MP 1.01 mol CO2m2h-1. In contrast, there was influence of the time of year and time of collection of the samples. In both systems the soil flows were higher in the rainy season (1.1 mol CO2m2h-1on average) and slightly lower in the dry season (0.90 mol CO2m2h-1on average) and were higher during the night (00:00 to 06:00 hours), during the early morning hours (6:00 to 12:00 hours). Soil temperature was higher in the MP, and the relative humidity in LF. It is concluded that the main factor that caused the variation in soil respiration rates was the presence of G. sepium trees in LF, which led to lower temperatures and more stable humidity, which resulted in lower soil CO2fluxes. © 2014, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan. All rights reserved.


Villanueva-Lopez G.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Colegio de Mexico | Martinez-Zurimendi P.,Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute UVa INIA | Casanova-Lugo F.,Technological Institute of La Zona Maya | And 2 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Agroforestry systems (AFS) play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C). The objectives of this study were to quantify the organic C stocks in the above- and below-ground tree biomass and in the soil in a cattle-farming system with live fences (CFSLF) of Gliricidia sepium and to compare the levels with those of a cattle-farming system based on a grass monoculture (CFSGM). The methodology included a forest inventory in nine randomly assigned plots and the destructive sampling of G. sepium 32 trees, measuring for each tree the diameter at breast height (DBH), stem height, total tree height, branch weight, leaf weight and coarse root weight. In addition, we measured grass biomass, collected litterfall and collected soil samples at depths of 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm in the plots. A logarithmic model was developed to quantify the above- and below-ground tree biomass. The soil organic matter was determined by the dry combustion method. The total carbon stored in the CFSLF was 119.82 Mg C ha−1, with the G. sepium trees contributing 5.7 % of the total C (6.48 Mg C ha−1). The CFSGM stored 113.34 Mg C ha−1. The grass biomass stored 15.32 Mg C ha−1 year−1 in the CFSGM and 15.68 Mg C ha−1 year−1 in the CFSLF, and the litterfall in the CFSLF stored 0.205 Mg C ha−1 year−1. Despite the modest contribution of G. sepium trees to the C storage, the total carbon accumulated in the CFSLF and CFSGM was similar. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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