Technological Institute of La Paz
Mexicali, Mexico
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Jesus Raygoza B.,Technological Institute of La Paz
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

A spaceport is an infrastructure at either the origin or destination of a spaceflight, or both. At the spaceport, an aerospace vehicle carry with components required to service and ready it for departure. A spaceport gives supply with capability to receive, process, and depart space payloads. Between receiving and departing operations, the aerospace vehicle might receive payload, unload, and receive a crew and, if required, having maintenance. The spaceport itself can provide a communication system to other modes of transportation: Air, land, and sea. The spaceport operator provides the facilities and launch site infrastructure for recovery, postflight and preflight processing, and departure operations. A spaceport can host a single user or accommodate multiple users. Technology investment for spaceport hosts will typically focus on the shared infrastructure available to spaceport users, benefiting a variety of stakeholders. The overall evaluation of this feasibility will have to include not only the preferred physical approach, but also the realities of market demand and the portion of this demand that can realistically be attracted by a Jalisco spaceport1. It is often exemplified the similitude between the state of commercial space travel now and the aviation industry briefly after the Wright brothers premiered powered flight by the first time in history. And it is just as they could not have foreseen the pace and direction particularly of commercial aviation development, so is it difficult now to see the path of commercial space development. JASP also will be open to be evaluated on the viability as a spaceport for commercial space transportation. For a spaceport evaluation a mechanism has been created and tested on existing and potential spaceports, which is called Spaceport Evaluation Mechanism (SEM). In the paper "Spaceports: The Necessary Infrastructure for Private Spaceflight" 2 is provided an outline of the SEM developed by the Spaceport Team Project at the International Space University (ISU).

Angulo C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Maldonado M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Delgado K.,Technological Institute of La Paz | Reyes-Becerril M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2017

Application of yeast is increasing to improve welfare and promotes growth in aquaculture. The halotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii is normally a non-pathogenic yeast with probiotic properties and potential source of antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase. Here, first, we characterized the sequence features of MnSOD and icCu/ZnSOD from Pacific red snapper, and second, we evaluated the potential antioxidant immune responses of the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii strain CBS004 in leukocytes which were then subjected to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. In silico analysis revealed that LpMnSOD consisted of 1186 bp, with an ORF of 678 bp encoding a 225 amino acid protein and LpicCu/ZnSOD consisted of 1090 bp in length with an ORF of 465 bp encoding a 154 amino acid protein. Multiple alignment analyzes revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. In vitro assays using head-kidney and spleen leukocytes immunostimulated with D. hansenii and zymosan in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection reveled that D. hansenii strain CBS004 significantly increased transcriptions of MnSOD and icCu/ZnSOD genes. Flow cytometry assay showed that D. hansenii was able to inhibit apoptosis caused by V. parahaemolyticus in the Pacific red snapper leukocytes and enhanced the phagocytic capacity in head-kidney leukocytes. Immunological assays reveled an increased in superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, as well as, in nitric oxide production and reactive oxygen species production (respiratory burst) in fish stimulated with D. hansenii. Finally, our results. These results strongly support the idea that marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii strain CBS004 can stimulate the antioxidant immune mechanism in head-kidney and spleen leukocytes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

De-Leon-Gomez V.,Technological Institute of La Laguna | Santibanez V.,Technological Institute of La Laguna | Sandoval J.,Technological Institute of La Paz
International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems | Year: 2017

A novel procedure for designing an interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control to perform different walking gaits of a compass-like biped robot is presented. The interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control method is often used to achieve asymptotic stability of the closed-loop desired equilibrium point in underactuated systems. Nevertheless, in this article, for the first time, this method is used to shape the kinetic energy of the robot and thus perform different gaits by modifying its limit cycle. One degree of underactuation of the compass-like biped robot is considered, and a suitable change of coordinates is made in order to design the proposed control law. The effectiveness of this controller and some advantages with respect to another similar approach are shown through a deep numerical simulation study. © The Author(s) 2017.

Castellanos-Barriga L.G.,Technological Institute of La Paz | Santacruz-Ruvalcaba F.,University of Guadalajara | Hernandez-Carmona G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Ramirez-Briones E.,University of Guadalajara | Hernandez-Herrera R.M.,University of Guadalajara
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2017

Seaweed extracts contain a variety of compounds, such as macro- and micronutrients and plant growth regulators, which can be used by plants. Such extracts can have both negative and positive effects (depending on the concentration) when directly applied to seeds and plants. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acid seaweed liquid extracts on growth and biochemical parameters of mung bean (Vigna radiata) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using direct applications to seeds and seedlings. Extracts of Ulva lactuca were obtained by hydrolysis with H2SO4 at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% concentrations. The effects of seaweed extracts with different concentrations, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0% were tested on germination parameters (percentage index, mean time, seedling vigour index) and growth parameters (plumule and radicle length, shoot and root length as well as fresh and dry weight) in addition to biochemical parameters (protein content, total chlorophyll, total and reduced sugar) in mung bean. The results suggest that addition of acid extracts at low concentrations (0.2%) can significantly enhance seed germination rates. Higher germination rates were associated with lower mean germination time, high germination index and, consequently, greater seedling vigour and greater plumule, radicle, shoot and root length. In addition, production (fresh and dry weight) of mung bean was significantly higher compared to the control treatments. Biochemical analysis of the seedlings treated with acid seaweed liquid extracts at 0.2% showed higher protein contents. Total chlorophyll concentration of seedlings in all treatments was significantly higher than in the controls plants, whereas the accumulation of total and reducing sugars was highest in treated plants with almost all treatments at higher concentrations. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Background: Crassostrea gigas accumulates diarrheic shellfish toxins (DSP) associated to Prorocentrum lima of which Okadaic acid (OA) causes specific inhibitions of serine and threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A. Its toxic effects have been extensively reported in bivalve mollusks at cellular and physiological levels, but genomic approaches have been scarcely studied. Methodology/ Principal Findings: Acute and sub-chronic exposure effects of P. lima were investigated on farmed juvenile C. gigas (3-5 mm). The Pacific oysters were fed with three dinoflagellate concentrations: 0.3, 3, and 30×103 cells mL-1 along with a nontoxic control diet of Isochrysis galbana. The effects of P. lima on C. gigas were followed by analyzing expression levels of a total of four genes, three involved in cell cycle regulation and one in immune response by polymerase chain reaction and real time quantitative PCR, where changes in time and cell concentration were found. The highest expression levels were found in oysters fed 3×103 cells mL-1 at 168 h for the cycle regulator p21 protein (9 fold), chromatin assembly factor 1 p55 subunit (8 fold), elongation factor 2 (2 fold), and lipopolysaccharide/ β-1, 3 glucan binding protein (13 fold above base line). Additionally, the transcript level of all the genes decreased in oysters fed wich the mixed diet 30×103 cells mL-1 of dinoflagellate after 72 h and was lowest in the chromatin assembly factor 1 p55 subunit (0.9 fold below baseline). Conclusions: On C. gigas the whole cell ingestion of P lima caused a clear mRNA modulation expression of the genes involved in cell cycle regulation and immune system. Over-expression could be related to DNA damage, disturbances in cell cycle continuity, probably a genotoxic effect, as well as an activation of its innate immune system as first line of defense. © 2014 de Jesús Romero-Geraldo et al.

De-Leon Almaraz S.,R.A.U.M. | Azzaro-Pantel C.,R.A.U.M. | Montastruc L.,R.A.U.M. | Pibouleau L.,R.A.U.M. | Senties O.B.,Technological Institute of La Paz
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2013

This work considers the potential future use of hydrogen in fuel cell electrical vehicles to face problems such as global warming, air pollution, energy security and competitiveness. The lack of current infrastructure has been identified as one of the main barriers to develop the hydrogen economy. This work is focused on the design of a hydrogen supply chain through mixed integer linear programming used to find the best solutions for a multi-objective optimization problem in which three objectives are involved, i.e., cost, global warming potential and safety risk. This problem is solved by implementing an É-constraint method. The solution consists of a Pareto front, corresponding to different design strategies in the associated variable space. Multiple choice decision making is then recommended to find the best solution through an M-TOPSIS analysis. The model is applied to the Great Britain case study previously treated in the dedicated literature. Mono and multicriteria optimizations exhibit some differences concerning the degree of centralization of the network and the selection of the production technology type. © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Background:Crassostrea gigas accumulates paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) associated with red tide species as Gymnodinium catenatum. Previous studies demonstrated bivalves show variable feeding responses to toxic algae at physiological level; recently, only one study has reported biochemical changes in the transcript level of the genes involved in C. gigas stress response.Principal Findings:We found that 24 h feeding on toxic dinoflagellate cells (acute exposure) induced a significant decrease in clearance rate and expression level changes of the genes involved in antioxidant defense (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, Cu/Zn-SOD), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase, GST and cytochrome P450, CPY450), intermediate immune response activation (lipopolysaccharide and beta glucan binding protein, LGBP), and stress responses (glutamine synthetase, GS) in Pacific oysters compared to the effects with the non-toxic microalga Isochrysis galbana. A sub-chronic exposure feeding on toxic dinoflagellate cells for seven and fourteen days (30×103 cells mL-1) showed higher gene expression levels. A significant increase was observed in Cu/Zn-SOD, GST, and LGBP at day 7 and a major increase in GS and CPY450 at day 14. We also observed that oysters fed only with G. catenatum (3×103 cells mL-1) produced a significant increase on the transcription level than in a mixed diet (3×103 cells mL-1 of G. catenatum+0.75×106 cells mL-1 I. galbana) in all the analyzed genes.Conclusions:Our results provide gene expression data of PST producer dinoflagellate G. catenatum toxic effects on C. gigas, a commercially important bivalve. Over expressed genes indicate the activation of a potent protective mechanism, whose response depends on both cell concentration and exposure time against these toxic microalgae. Given the importance of dinoflagellate blooms in coastal environments, these results provide a more comprehensive overview of how oysters respond to stress generated by toxic dinoflagellate exposure. © 2013 García-Lagunas et al.

Martinez-Diaz S.,Technological Institute of La Paz | Martinez-Chavelas S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

Geometrical distortions are a major problem in image recognition. Composite correlation filters can be used for distortion-invariant image recognition by incorporating rotated versions of the target object. Traditionally composite filters are designed with linear techniques; but, these filters are sensitive to non-Gaussian noise. On the other hand, for the same purpose, composite nonlinear filters have been proposed too. These filters have a good discrimination capability and they are robust to non-Gaussian noise and illumination changes; however, the performance of filter could be reduced when the number of training images incorporated increases. In this paper, we propose a method for designing rotation-invariant composite nonlinear filters. The method tries to maximize the number of objects incorporated into the filter and preserve its performance. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

Martinez-Diaz S.,Technological Institute of La Paz
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Recently, nonlinear composite correlation filters have been proposed for distortion-invariant pattern recognition. The filter design is based on logical operations and the correlation is computed with a nonlinear operation called morphological correlation. In this paper a new implementation in parallel hardware of these kinds of filters for image recognition is proposed. The architecture is designed for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device. The proposed design performs the most time consuming task of the recognition procedure. In consequence, it reduces the time required for the nonlinear operations in the spatial domain. Simulation results are provided and discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

PubMed | National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico and Technological Institute of La Paz
Type: | Journal: Marine environmental research | Year: 2016

Bivalve mollusks bioaccumulate toxins via ingestion of toxic dinoflagellates. In this study, Crassostrea gigas was used to investigate the effects related to Prorocentrum lima exposure. Oysters were fed with three diets Isochrysis galbana (210(6)cellmL(-1)) control treatment; algal mix of I.galbana (210(6)) and P.lima (310(3)cellmL(-1)); and P.lima alone (310(3)cellmL(-1)). Feeding behavior changes, histopathological alterations, and expression patterns changes of genes involved in cell cycle (p21, cafp55, p53), cytoskeleton (tub, act), and inflammatory process (casp1) were evaluated. Results indicated that the presence of diarrheic shellfish poisoning by P.lima cells decreased the clearance rate (p<0.05), induced structural loss, significantly decreased tubule area of the digestive gland (p<0.05), and up-regulated in expression all gene (p<0.05), suggesting that toxic cells might trigger inflammatory tissue process, disturb cell cycle and cytoskeleton representing a risk to oysters integrity.

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