Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal
Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2008-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 4.03M | Year: 2009
Besides the European Global Energy Policy, the European Council adopted an action plan that covers nuclear technologies and supports research in order to further improve nuclear safety and the management of radioactive waste. To obtain a more efficient and sustainable management of radioactive waste and hence reduce the burden on geological storage, one can apply partitioning and transmutation independently of future commitment or not to nuclear energy. Within European Union many R&D organisations and industries are conducting since a decade strong R&D in the Partitioning &Transmutation (P&T) field with substantial support from the European Commission. Fostering the European efforts towards a major facility realisation would be very beneficial. This will speed up the development and put Europe at lead in this field. The design of a fast spectrum transmutation experimental facility (FASTEF), able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical mode (ADS) and/or critical mode, is thus the next step after FP6 IP-EUROTRANS. In the vision report of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technological Platform, the need was clearly expressed for a fast-spectrum experimental system to support the development and demonstration of an alternative technology to sodium. Therefore, FASTEF is proposed to be designed to an advanced level for decision to embark for its construction at the horizon of 2012 with the following objectives: to demonstrate the ADS technology and the efficient transmutation of high level waste; to operate as a flexible irradiation facility; to contribute to the demonstration of the Lead Fast Reactor technology without jeopardising the above objectives. The work programme is subdivided in 5 WPs: WP0: Management of the Project WP1: Definition of specifications and detailed work programme of FASTEF WP2: Design of the FASTEF in sub-critical & critical mode WP3: Plant Requirements WP4: Key issues towards realisation
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2009-2.3.2 | Award Amount: 5.96M | Year: 2010
According to the recent publications of the European Technological Platform for a Sustainable Nuclear Energy (SNETP) (Vision report and Strategic Research Agenda) the sustainability require the combination of the present LWR, future Advanced Fast reactors and the waste minimization in closed cycles with Partitioning and Transmutation. To implement these new nuclear systems and their fuel cycles it is necessary to improve the accuracy, uncertainties and validation of related nuclear data and models, required for those systems but also for the experimental and demonstration facilities involved in the their validation. The project will include new nuclear data measurements, dedicated benchmarks, based on integral experiments, and improved evaluation and modeling specifically oriented to obtain high precision nuclear data for the major actinides present in advanced reactor fuels, to reduce uncertainties in new isotopes in closed cycles with waste minimisation and to better assess the uncertainties and correlations in their evaluation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2011-3.5.1 | Award Amount: 1.55M | Year: 2012
Creating a sustainable network in biological dosimetry that involves a large number of experienced laboratories throughout the EU will significantly improve the accident and emergency response capabilities in case of a large-scale radiological emergency. A well organised cooperated action involving EU laboratories will offer the only chance for a fast and trustworthy dose assessment urgently needed in an emergency situation. The goal of RENEB is to establish a sustainable European network in biological dosimetry involving 23 organisations from 16 countries identified by the TENEB survey, that will guarantee highest efficiency in processing and scoring of biological samples for fast, reliable results implemented in the EU emergency management. This goal will be achieved through 5 tasks: 1) To create an operational basis of the network, based on coordination of the existing reliable and proven methods in biological dosimetry. 2) To expand and improve the network implementing appropriate new, molecular biology methods and integrating new partners. 3) To assure high quality standards by education and training activities of members and interested non-members. Here, special focus will be placed on quality assurance and management regarding the performed assays and involved laboratories. 4) To develop an operational structure of the network including contacts to national first responders, a well organised transnational infrastructure to facilitate cross-border transport of human biological samples, a long term funding strategy and to prepare an agenda to transform RENEB into a legal organisation. 5) To guarantee dissemination of knowledge by providing access to internal and external communication platforms and databases and close cooperation with national and global emergency preparedness systems and organisations. All of these activities are strictly complementary to on-going projects in the EU Security Research Programme, specifically to MULTIBIODOSE and to EURADOS.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 8.96M | Year: 2009
SPIRIT is an Integrating Activities project integrating 7 leading ion beam facilities and 4 research providers from 7 Member States and 1 Associated State. The 7 partners providing TransNational Access supply ions in an energy range from ~10 keV to 100 MeV for modification and analysis of solid surfaces, interfaces, thin films and nanostructured systems. The techniques cover materials, biomedical and environmental research and technology, and are complementary to the existing synchrotron and neutron radiation networks. The partners have highly complementary equipment and areas of specialization. SPIRIT will increase User access and the quality of research by sharing best practice, balancing supply and demand, harmonizing procedures and extending the services into new emerging fields and to new users especially from the NMS and industry. An independent International User Selection Panel will examine proposals under a common SPIRIT procedure. Networking activities include the development of common standards for quality assessment; training and consultancy for User researchers and foresight studies. Joint Research Activities will promote emerging fields such as targeted single ion implantation for irradiation of living cells; ion-beam based analysis with ultrahigh depth resolution; ion-based 3-D tomography, and chemical and molecular imaging. Joint efforts are necessary to improve the systems for detection of ion-induced secondary radiation and to develop means to reduce sample deterioration by the analyzing ion beam. Finally, a unified software package for ion-beam based analysis shall be developed and made available to the community. The management structure of SPIRIT will consist of a Management Board, 3 Activity Boards (Networking, Transnational Access and Joint Research) and a Project Steering Team. A European Users Panel will provide input on user needs, evaluate service improvements against the benchmark level and assess new capabilities resulting from the JRA.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2009-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 1.93M | Year: 2010
Nuclear Safety Culture is a topic of paramount importance for all nuclear operators as well as for all operators of installations dedicated to radiology and radiotherapy. It concerns also the regulators and related support organisations. Its efficient practice is an absolute must for nuclear power plants, for production and transport of fissile materials and radioisotopes, and for related research activities. The objective of this project is to design, develop and test two relevant training schemes on Nuclear Safety Culture with a European dimension, based on a specific evaluation of the training needs. Through this coordination action, involving training providers, industry, regulators and universities, the two new training schemes with a common generic module will benefit from a multi-cultural approach, diversified resources, and the search for high quality. The central objective being the mutual recognition of good practices and behaviours related to the safety culture management of the nuclear installations in Europe, the safety managers will be the first beneficiaries of this coordination action. Two groups of users will be set up: a nuclear industry group and a use of ionising radiation based technology group. The analysis team (WP1) will collect and analyse the data on the needs. It will exchange information on a regional basis. The links between the ALARA principle and the safety culture will be subject of a specific action in WP2. Two reflection groups will be organised with the European ALARA Network and the European Platform EUTERP. Using the results of WP1, the design and development team (WP3) will involve several European training providers, as well as university specialists of the technical topics and methods to be dealt with, including distance learning. The validation team (WP4) will test the new teaching modules by means of pilot sessions. The Quality Assurance will be established as a support to the project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2010-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 5.06M | Year: 2011
Building up on the former activities accomplished in the previous FPs, namely MUSE in FP5 and EUROTRANS in FP6, it is proposed in the FREYA project to extend the investigations of the subcritical configurations for validation of the methodology for on-line reactivity monitoring of ADS systems. The investigations will be related to the different subcriticality levels for the nominal operation mode of ADS. In order to investigate the robustness of several proposed measurement techniques with regard to the reflector effect, it is foreseen to perform experiments with different reflector materials. To complete the validation of the methodology for subcriticality monitoring, the robustness of the reactivity indicators with regard to a change in vertical position of the neutron source will be investigated in view of possible variations of the height of the spallation source in a real ADS. On the other hand given the objectives for MYRRHA/FASTEF as studied within FP7 CDT to be operated as a subcritical facility and a critical facility, an experimental programme in support of the design and licensing of both operation modes is needed. Although the experimental programme with regard to the critical mode operation of MYRRHA/FASTEF can generate useful information for the validation of reactor codes for LFR development, a dedicated effort for the validation of reactor codes for LFR developments is envisaged by the LFR community.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.1.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.27M | Year: 2011
We propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity of it based on the latest needs and also on the budget.
Marques J.G.,Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2010
Nuclear energy is attracting new interest around the world as countries look for low-carbon alternatives to fossil fuels to increase the diversity of their sources of energy and improve security of supply. Nuclear fission reactors provided approximately one sixth of the world's electricity needs in recent years. The vast majority of these reactors were built in the seventies and eighties. They are thus considered second generation systems, as they are based on experience gained with the first generation or prototypes built in the fifties and early sixties. Third generation reactors, developed in the nineties, are already a reality and will dominate the market in the coming decades. A significant research effort is underway on systems of the fourth generation. Better economics, improved use of natural resources, less production of radioactive waste, competitive production of hydrogen, and increased resistance to proliferation are within reach with these new systems. A review will be done on the most important features of third and fourth generation systems, together with a brief overview of the R&D challenges to be met. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rabaca S.,Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal |
Almeida M.,Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2010
The chemistry of transition metal dithiolene complexes containing N coordinating groups and the corresponding TTF donors, is reviewed starting from the ligand synthesis to the coordination structures where these dithiolene complexes are used as bridging units. The dithiolene ligands containing N coordinating atoms present two coordination poles which can selectively bind different metals and act as bridging units in a variety of coordination architectures. The transition metal dithiolene complexes based on these N containing ligands and the corresponding TTF donors can be themselves regarded as ligands. These can be used to coordinate other metals, potentially leading to a diversity of hetero metallic coordination architectures. With the use of appropriate auxiliary ligands they can lead to discrete metal complexes. In addition they can lead to more extended polymeric structures of different dimensionality such as 1D chains, 2D layers or even 3D polymers can also be obtained. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carvalho F.P.,Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2011
The determination of 210Po and 210Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10-1 Bq kg-1 (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 104 Bq kg-1 (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of 210Po > 210Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that 210Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As 210Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, 210Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. 210Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased 210Po:210Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.