Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
Quito, Ecuador
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Hutter C.R.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato | Guayasamin J.M.,Grande Rio University
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

We describe a new species of Nymphargus from Reserva Las Gralarias, in the montane forests of the Pacific versant of the Andes of Ecuador. The new species, Nymphargus lasgralarias sp. nov., is nearly morphologically identical to sym-patric Nymphargus griffithsi (Goin 1961), with the exception of the following characters: (i) a gold colored iris with nu-merous small spots and lighter reticulation, (ii) absence of dark dorsal spotting, and (iii) a significantly larger body size. Additionally, we describe the vocalizations for N. griffithsi and N. lasgralarias. The call of N. lasgralarias sp. nov. is eas-ily distinguished from N. griffithsi through the following temporal and spectral characteristics: (i) calls are emitted in se-ries, (ii) waveform shape is always pulsed, (iii) significantly shorter call duration, and (iv) lower dominant frequency. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Castroviejo-Fisher S.,American Museum of Natural History | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,Grande Rio University | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato | Gonzalez-Voyer A.,EBD Group | Vila C.,EBD Group
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2014

Aim: We used frogs of the clade Allocentroleniae (Centrolenidae + Allophrynidae; c. 170 species endemic to Neotropical rain forests) as a model system to address the historical biogeography and diversification of Neotropical rain forest biotas. Location: Neotropical rain forests. Methods: We used an extensive taxon (109 species) and gene (seven nuclear and three mitochondrial genes) sampling to estimate phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, ancestral area distributions, dispersal-vicariance events, and the temporal pattern of diversification rate. Results: The Allocentroleniae started to diversify in the Eocene in South America and by the early Miocene were present in all major Neotropical rain forests except in Central America, which was colonized through 11 late range expansions. The initial uplifts of the Andes during the Oligocene and early Miocene, as well as marine incursions in the lowlands, are coincidental with our estimates of the divergence times of most clades of Allocentroleniae. Clades with broad elevational distributions occupy more biogeographical areas. Most dispersals involve the Andes as a source area but the majority were between the Central and the Northern Andes, suggesting that the Andes did not play a major role as a species pump for the lowlands. The diversification of glassfrogs does not follow a south-to-north pattern of speciation for Andean clades, and the establishment of a transcontinental Amazon drainage system is coincidental in time with the isolation of the Atlantic Forest glassfrogs. Diversification analyses indicated that a model of constantly increasing diversity best fits the data, compatible with the 'evolutionary museum' hypothesis or 'ancient cradle' hypothesis. Main conclusions: Our work illustrates how the different geological and climatic historical events of the Neotropics shaped, at different levels of the phylogeny, the diversity of a species-rich clade, highlighting the importance of studying large evolutionary radiations at a continental scale. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Mateo R.G.,Real Jardin Botanico RJB CSIC | de la Estrella M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Felicisimo A.M.,University of Extremadura | Munoz J.,Real Jardin Botanico RJB CSIC | And 2 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

Knowledge about spatial biodiversity patterns is a basic criterion for reserve network design. Although herbarium collections hold large quantities of information, the data are often scattered and cannot supply complete spatial coverage. Alternatively, herbarium data can be used to fit species distribution models and their predictions can be used to provide complete spatial coverage and derive species richness maps. Here, we build on previous effort to propose an improved compositionalist framework for using species distribution models to better inform conservation management. We illustrate the approach with models fitted with six different methods and combined using an ensemble approach for 408 plant species in a tropical and megadiverse country (Ecuador). As a complementary view to the traditional richness hotspots methodology, consisting of a simple stacking of species distribution maps, the compositionalist modelling approach used here combines separate predictions for different pools of species to identify areas of alternative suitability for conservation. Our results show that the compositionalist approach better captures the established protected areas than the traditional richness hotspots strategies and allows the identification of areas in Ecuador that would optimally complement the current protection network. Further studies should aim at refining the approach with more groups and additional species information. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nadeau N.J.,University of Cambridge | Nadeau N.J.,University of Sheffield | Ruiz M.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Salazar P.,University of Cambridge | And 9 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2014

Hybrid zones can be valuable tools for studying evolution and identifying genomic regions responsible for adaptive divergence and underlying phenotypic variation. Hybrid zones between subspecies of Heliconius butterflies can be very narrow and are maintained by strong selection acting on color pattern. The comimetic species, H. erato and H. melpomene, have parallel hybrid zones in which both species undergo a change from one color pattern form to another. We use restriction-associated DNA sequencing to obtain several thousand genome-wide sequence markers and use these to analyze patterns of population divergence across two pairs of parallel hybrid zones in Peru and Ecuador. We compare two approaches for analysis of this type of data - alignment to a reference genome and de novo assembly - and find that alignment gives the best results for species both closely (H. melpomene) and distantly (H. erato, ∼15% divergent) related to the reference sequence. Our results confirm that the color pattern controlling loci account for the majority of divergent regions across the genome, but we also detect other divergent regions apparently unlinked to color pattern differences. We also use association mapping to identify previously unmapped color pattern loci, in particular the Ro locus. Finally, we identify a new cryptic population of H. timareta in Ecuador, which occurs at relatively low altitude and is mimetic with H. melpomene malleti. © 2014 Nadeau et al.

Bonaccorso E.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato | Bonaccorso E.,University of Kansas | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

To understand the origin of Pantepui montane biotas, we studied the biogeography of toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus. These birds are ideal for analyzing historical relationships among Neotropical montane regions, given their geographic distribution from Mexico south to Bolivia, including northern Venezuela (Cordillera de la Costa), and the Pantepui. Analyses were based on molecular phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Topology tests were applied to compare alternative hypotheses that may explain the current distribution of Aulacorhynchus toucanets, in the context of previous hypotheses of the origin of Pantepui montane biotas. Biogeographic reconstructions in RASP and Lagrange were used to estimate the ancestral area of the genus, and an analysis in BEAST was used to estimate a time framework for its diversification. A sister relationship between the Pantepui and Andes+Cordillera de la Costa was significantly more likely than topologies indicating other hypothesis for the origin of Pantepui populations. The Andes was inferred as the ancestral area for Aulacorhynchus, and the group has diversified since the late Miocene. The biogeographic patterns found herein, in which the Andes are the source for biotas of other regions, are consistent with those found for flowerpiercers and tanagers, and do not support the hypothesis of the geologically old Pantepui as a source of Neotropical montain diversity. Based on the high potential for cryptic speciation and isolation of Pantepui populations, we consider that phylogenetic studies of additional taxa are important from a conservation perspective. © 2013 Bonaccorso, Guayasamin.

Hutter C.R.,University of Arizona | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato | Wiens J.J.,University of Arizona
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

The Tropical Andes are an important global biodiversity hotspot, harbouring extraordinarily high richness and endemism. Although elevational richness and speciation have been studied independently in some Andean groups, the evolutionary and ecological processes that explain elevational richness patterns in the Andes have not been analysed together. Herein, we elucidate the processes underlying Andean richness patterns using glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) as a model system. Glassfrogs show the widespread mid-elevation diversity peak for both local and regional richness. Remarkably, these patterns are explained by greater time (montane museum) rather than faster speciation at mid-elevations (montane species pump), despite the recency of the major Andean uplift. We also show for the first time that rates of climatic-niche evolution and elevational change are related, supporting the hypothesis that climatic-niche conservatism decelerates species' shifts in elevational distributions and underlies the mid-elevation richness peak. These results may be relevant to other Andean clades and montane systems globally. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

Cruz-Cardenas J.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2014

Within the framework of consumer behaviour, products received as gifts are a complex accumulation of values and meanings that continue to change over time, from their origin as primarily commercial products until their disposition. Through a survey of 1088 adults in Ecuador, a Latin American country with a high level of collectivism, this study aimed to determine the predictors of the gift's status in the receiver's life. Results showed that the comparison of the giver's and receiver's resources and ages, the receiver's liking for the product received, being a gift from a first-time giver, the receiver's satisfaction with the experience and the impact of the gift on the giver-receiver relationship were significant predictors of whether a commercial product received as a gift would become a special, common or hated object for the receiver. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Paez-Moscoso D.J.,Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

As Darwin observed, the differentiation among varieties, subspecies, and species seems, often times, arbitrary. Nowadays, however, novel tools provide the possibility of testing hypotheses of species. Using the Andean toad genus Osornophryne, we address the following questions: (1) How many species are within the genus? (2) Are morphological and molecular traits congruent when delimiting species? (3) Which morphological traits are the most divergent among species? We use recently developed methods for testing species boundaries and relationships using a multilocus data set consisting of two mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S; 1647. bp aligned matrix), one exon (RAG-1; 923 aligned matrix), and one intron (RPL3. Int5; 1410. bp aligned matrix). As another line of evidence for species delimitation, we integrated analyses of 12 morphometric variables and 10 discrete traits commonly used in amphibian systematics. The molecular and morphological approaches support the validity of most of the described species in Osornophryne. We find, however, contradictory lines of evidence regarding the status of O. angel. Within O. guacamayo, we found a genetically divergent population that, we argue, represents a new species. We consider that O. bufoniformis represents a species complex that deserves further study. We highlight the importance of incorporating morphological data when delimiting species, especially for lineages that have a recent origin and have not achieved reciprocal monophyly in molecular phylogenies. Finally, the most divergent morphological traits among Osornophryne species are associated with locomotion (finger, toes and limbs) and feeding (head), suggesting an association between morphology and the ecological habits of the species. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

I describe a new glassfrog from the cloud forest of the Andes of southwestern Ecuador (Plan de Milagro-Gualaceo road; 3.0077°S, 78.53318°W), at elevations between 2140-2160 m. The new species is distinguished mostly by having a pale yellow dorsal coloration instead of the green that characterizes most centrolenids. Morphological traits (i.e., reduced web-bing between Fingers III and IV and lack of humeral spines) support the placement of the new species in the genus Nymph-argus. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Arteaga-Navarro A.F.,Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

We describe a new small sized (SVL in females ≤ 25.7 mm; in males, ≤20.1 mm) Pristimantis, associated with bamboodominated forests in the Reserva Mazar, Andes of Southeastern Ecuador, at elevations between 2876-2989 m. This species is assigned to the P. orestes group, from whose members it differs by the absence of tubercles on heel and outer edge of tarsus, lacking a discoidal fold, presence of slightly expanded finger and toe pads, and bright yellow blotches on groi , axilla and anterior surfaces of thigh. The advertisement call of the new species consists of a series of short, indistinctly pulsed notes, and has a dominant frequency of 2.50-2.56 kHz. A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S shows that the new species is sister to a clade formed by Pristimantis simonbolivari and an undescribed Pristimantis. © 2011 Magnolia Press.

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