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Cruz-Cardenas J.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2014

Within the framework of consumer behaviour, products received as gifts are a complex accumulation of values and meanings that continue to change over time, from their origin as primarily commercial products until their disposition. Through a survey of 1088 adults in Ecuador, a Latin American country with a high level of collectivism, this study aimed to determine the predictors of the gift's status in the receiver's life. Results showed that the comparison of the giver's and receiver's resources and ages, the receiver's liking for the product received, being a gift from a first-time giver, the receiver's satisfaction with the experience and the impact of the gift on the giver-receiver relationship were significant predictors of whether a commercial product received as a gift would become a special, common or hated object for the receiver. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Nadeau N.J.,University of Cambridge | Nadeau N.J.,University of Sheffield | Ruiz M.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Salazar P.,University of Cambridge | And 9 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2014

Hybrid zones can be valuable tools for studying evolution and identifying genomic regions responsible for adaptive divergence and underlying phenotypic variation. Hybrid zones between subspecies of Heliconius butterflies can be very narrow and are maintained by strong selection acting on color pattern. The comimetic species, H. erato and H. melpomene, have parallel hybrid zones in which both species undergo a change from one color pattern form to another. We use restriction-associated DNA sequencing to obtain several thousand genome-wide sequence markers and use these to analyze patterns of population divergence across two pairs of parallel hybrid zones in Peru and Ecuador. We compare two approaches for analysis of this type of data - alignment to a reference genome and de novo assembly - and find that alignment gives the best results for species both closely (H. melpomene) and distantly (H. erato, ∼15% divergent) related to the reference sequence. Our results confirm that the color pattern controlling loci account for the majority of divergent regions across the genome, but we also detect other divergent regions apparently unlinked to color pattern differences. We also use association mapping to identify previously unmapped color pattern loci, in particular the Ro locus. Finally, we identify a new cryptic population of H. timareta in Ecuador, which occurs at relatively low altitude and is mimetic with H. melpomene malleti. © 2014 Nadeau et al.

Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

I describe a new glassfrog from the cloud forest of the Andes of southwestern Ecuador (Plan de Milagro-Gualaceo road; 3.0077°S, 78.53318°W), at elevations between 2140-2160 m. The new species is distinguished mostly by having a pale yellow dorsal coloration instead of the green that characterizes most centrolenids. Morphological traits (i.e., reduced web-bing between Fingers III and IV and lack of humeral spines) support the placement of the new species in the genus Nymph-argus. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Hutter C.R.,University of Arizona | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato | Wiens J.J.,University of Arizona
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

The Tropical Andes are an important global biodiversity hotspot, harbouring extraordinarily high richness and endemism. Although elevational richness and speciation have been studied independently in some Andean groups, the evolutionary and ecological processes that explain elevational richness patterns in the Andes have not been analysed together. Herein, we elucidate the processes underlying Andean richness patterns using glassfrogs (Centrolenidae) as a model system. Glassfrogs show the widespread mid-elevation diversity peak for both local and regional richness. Remarkably, these patterns are explained by greater time (montane museum) rather than faster speciation at mid-elevations (montane species pump), despite the recency of the major Andean uplift. We also show for the first time that rates of climatic-niche evolution and elevational change are related, supporting the hypothesis that climatic-niche conservatism decelerates species' shifts in elevational distributions and underlies the mid-elevation richness peak. These results may be relevant to other Andean clades and montane systems globally. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

Castroviejo-Fisher S.,American Museum of Natural History | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,Grande Rio University | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato | Gonzalez-Voyer A.,EBD Group | Vila C.,EBD Group
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2014

Aim: We used frogs of the clade Allocentroleniae (Centrolenidae + Allophrynidae; c. 170 species endemic to Neotropical rain forests) as a model system to address the historical biogeography and diversification of Neotropical rain forest biotas. Location: Neotropical rain forests. Methods: We used an extensive taxon (109 species) and gene (seven nuclear and three mitochondrial genes) sampling to estimate phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, ancestral area distributions, dispersal-vicariance events, and the temporal pattern of diversification rate. Results: The Allocentroleniae started to diversify in the Eocene in South America and by the early Miocene were present in all major Neotropical rain forests except in Central America, which was colonized through 11 late range expansions. The initial uplifts of the Andes during the Oligocene and early Miocene, as well as marine incursions in the lowlands, are coincidental with our estimates of the divergence times of most clades of Allocentroleniae. Clades with broad elevational distributions occupy more biogeographical areas. Most dispersals involve the Andes as a source area but the majority were between the Central and the Northern Andes, suggesting that the Andes did not play a major role as a species pump for the lowlands. The diversification of glassfrogs does not follow a south-to-north pattern of speciation for Andean clades, and the establishment of a transcontinental Amazon drainage system is coincidental in time with the isolation of the Atlantic Forest glassfrogs. Diversification analyses indicated that a model of constantly increasing diversity best fits the data, compatible with the 'evolutionary museum' hypothesis or 'ancient cradle' hypothesis. Main conclusions: Our work illustrates how the different geological and climatic historical events of the Neotropics shaped, at different levels of the phylogeny, the diversity of a species-rich clade, highlighting the importance of studying large evolutionary radiations at a continental scale. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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