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Terron M.P.,University of Extremadura | Delgado-Adamez J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Pariente J.A.,University of Extremadura | Barriga C.,University of Extremadura | And 2 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of the administration of melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, on the body weight in male Wistar rats. Main methods: The animals were housed for 4. months in cages equipped to log horizontal activity within a thermostatically-controlled chamber, under a 12. h/12. h light/dark photoperiod (lights on at 08:00. h). After acclimatization, the animals were divided into two groups: (1) control animals, and (2) melatonin-treated animals. Melatonin was administered in tap water (20. μg/ml), and fresh drinking fluid was changed twice weekly. Rats were fed a standard diet ad libitum. Key findings: Food and water intake, body weight, the amplitude of the activity/rest rhythm (motor activity), and blood melatonin and glucose concentrations were measured. The administration of melatonin did not influence either food or water intake or glucose levels relative to those found in the control animals. However, melatonin administration reduced body weight gain and increased nocturnal locomotor activity. The peak concentration of melatonin was found at night coinciding with the increase in nocturnal activity. Significance: The results show that exogenous melatonin reduces body weight gain without having marked effects on metabolism. This may be due in part to the increased nocturnal activity shown by the animals treated with the indoleamine. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Cava R.,University of Extremadura | Ladero L.,University of Extremadura | Cantero V.,University of Extremadura | Rosario Ramirez M.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
Journal of Food Science

Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists ®. Source

Mateos-Vivas M.,University of Salamanca | Rodriguez-Gonzalo E.,University of Salamanca | Dominguez-Alvarez J.,University of Salamanca | Garcia-Gomez D.,University of Salamanca | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry

A simple, efficient and green analytical method for the determination of free nucleotide monophosphates in human milk is proposed. It involves centrifugal ultrafiltration (CUF) as sample treatment and capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) for separation and simultaneous quantification. The optimised method, applied to the analysis of human milk samples, included their dilution (1:5) with water followed by CUF treatment. No matrix effects were found. The method provided limits of detection between 0.08 and 0.13 μg mL-1 and limits of quantification between 0.26 and 0.43 μg mL-1. The intralaboratory repeatability and reproducibility afforded relative standard deviation values lower than 10%. The method was applied to the study of the effects of Holder pasteurisation and high-pressure processing on the nucleotide contents in samples from a human milk bank. The results showed concentration values between 0.5 and 10 μg mL-1, with higher concentrations for the samples treated by pasteurisation. The effect of freezing time on the content of nucleotides was also assessed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Delgado F.J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Cava R.,University of Extremadura | Delgado J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Ramirez R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
Dairy Science and Technology

The treatment traditionally utilised for the conservation of human milk is the Holder pasteurisation (62.5 C for 30 min). In the present study, the application of an alternative processing method of breast milk was studied. High-pressure processing is an emerging food treatment that allows the food to keep many of its nutritional and healthy properties and inactivates pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the effect of the Holder pasteurisation and high-pressure processing (400 or 600 MPa for 3 or 6 min) on tocopherols, fatty acids and cytokines present in human milk was evaluated. Thermal treatment and pressurisation at 600 MPa of human milk significantly decreased the levels of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol compared with control samples. In addition, pressurisation at 600 MPa for 6 min caused a significant reduction in the relative proportions of some key fatty acids, such as α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3) acids. Regarding the effect of the different treatments on cytokines, in contrast to thermal treatment, pressurisation (400 or 600 MPa) did not affect the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Therefore, the effect of pressurisation on human milk cytokines was lower than that of thermal pasteurisation. In conclusion, high-pressure processing at 400 MPa (for 3 or 6 min) caused minor changes in the parameters analysed and could be an alternative treatment for human milk preservation. © 2013 INRA and Springer-Verlag France. Source

Contador R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Delgado-Adamez J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Delgado F.J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Cava R.,University of Extremadura | Ramirez R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
International Dairy Journal

High pressure processing (HPP) could be an alternative to Holder Pasteurisation (HoP, 62.5°C for 30min) for breast milk preservation in human milk banks. The effect of HPP (at 400 or 600MPa for 3 or 6min) was compared with that of HoP. The effect of processing on the immune cells (leukocyte content) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA and IgG) was evaluated. Treatment at 400MPa (for 3 or 6min) maintained the original levels of immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA and IgG) of breast milk better than HoP. In contrast, at 600MPa the reduction of the original immunoglobulins levels was similar to that following HoP. HPP and HoP destroyed most leukocytes in breast milk; the percentage of retention of leukocytes after processing was between 4 and 14%. Overall, HPP could be a suitable alternative for the preservation of immunoglobulins in human milk. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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