Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX

Badajoz, Spain

Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX

Badajoz, Spain
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Franco M.N.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Galeano-Diaz T.,University of Extremadura | Lopez O.,University of Seville | Fernandez-Bolanos J.G.,University of Seville | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Terron M.P.,University of Extremadura | Delgado-Adamez J.,Technological Agri food Institute INTAEX | Pariente J.A.,University of Extremadura | Barriga C.,University of Extremadura | And 2 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2013

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of the administration of melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, on the body weight in male Wistar rats. Main methods: The animals were housed for 4. months in cages equipped to log horizontal activity within a thermostatically-controlled chamber, under a 12. h/12. h light/dark photoperiod (lights on at 08:00. h). After acclimatization, the animals were divided into two groups: (1) control animals, and (2) melatonin-treated animals. Melatonin was administered in tap water (20. μg/ml), and fresh drinking fluid was changed twice weekly. Rats were fed a standard diet ad libitum. Key findings: Food and water intake, body weight, the amplitude of the activity/rest rhythm (motor activity), and blood melatonin and glucose concentrations were measured. The administration of melatonin did not influence either food or water intake or glucose levels relative to those found in the control animals. However, melatonin administration reduced body weight gain and increased nocturnal locomotor activity. The peak concentration of melatonin was found at night coinciding with the increase in nocturnal activity. Significance: The results show that exogenous melatonin reduces body weight gain without having marked effects on metabolism. This may be due in part to the increased nocturnal activity shown by the animals treated with the indoleamine. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Mateos-Vivas M.,University of Salamanca | Rodriguez-Gonzalo E.,University of Salamanca | Dominguez-Alvarez J.,University of Salamanca | Garcia-Gomez D.,University of Salamanca | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

A simple, efficient and green analytical method for the determination of free nucleotide monophosphates in human milk is proposed. It involves centrifugal ultrafiltration (CUF) as sample treatment and capillary electrophoresis-electrospray mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) for separation and simultaneous quantification. The optimised method, applied to the analysis of human milk samples, included their dilution (1:5) with water followed by CUF treatment. No matrix effects were found. The method provided limits of detection between 0.08 and 0.13 μg mL-1 and limits of quantification between 0.26 and 0.43 μg mL-1. The intralaboratory repeatability and reproducibility afforded relative standard deviation values lower than 10%. The method was applied to the study of the effects of Holder pasteurisation and high-pressure processing on the nucleotide contents in samples from a human milk bank. The results showed concentration values between 0.5 and 10 μg mL-1, with higher concentrations for the samples treated by pasteurisation. The effect of freezing time on the content of nucleotides was also assessed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Cava R.,University of Extremadura | Ladero L.,University of Extremadura | Cantero V.,University of Extremadura | Rosario Ramirez M.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2012

Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists ®.


Franco M.N.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Galeano-Diaz T.,University of Extremadura | Sanchez J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | De Miguel C.,University of Extremadura | Martin-Vertedor D.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
Journal of Oleo Science | Year: 2014

This article reports about the presence of some of the components of minor fraction of virgin olive oils, polyphenols and tocopherols, in several of the VOO varieties from Extremadura. The relationship between both classes of compounds and the oxidative stability of the oils is also examined. The levels of total phenols, α, β, and γ tocopherols showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the different varieties. The concentration of total phenolic compounds varied from 130 to 1203 mg/kg. The α-tocopherol was the most representative in the seven varieties (95.97%) and ranged from (288 - 170) to (485 - 244) mg/kg in the Morisca and Carrasqueña varieties respectively. On the other hand, a positive high lineal correlation was observed between oxidative stability and studied along the maturity of the fruit and the total phenolic compounds (natural antioxidants) (r2>0.90; p <0.05), a-tocopherol (r2>0.85; p<0.05), p-tocopherol (r2>0.70; pK0.05) and total-tocopherols (r2>0.87; p <0.05), in all the olive oils obtained from the seven varieties of olive from Extremadura. It is noticeable that α-tocopherol fraction contributed equally to the oxidative stability of all the VOO whereas the largest contribution was provided by the oil phenolic fraction, as it was the case of the Carrasqueña variety. © 2013 by Japan Oil Chemists' Society.


Delgado F.J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Contador R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Alvarez-Barrientos A.,University of Extremadura | Cava R.,University of Extremadura | And 2 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2013

The influence of high pressure thermal (HPT) processing (300, 600 or 900 MPa at an initial temperature of 50, 65 or 80 C, for 1 min) on the levels of tocopherols, fatty acids, cytokines, leukocytes and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA and IgG) was evaluated in breast milk. Breast milk treated at 65 or 80 C at any intensity of pressure caused a significant decrease in the content of α-tocopherol compared with untreated milk. The relative proportions of some important fatty acids were affected by HPT treatment. HPT processing had a minimal effect on the levels of some cytokines, such as IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ. Leukocytes viable cells did not survive to any of the treatments applied. Only the treatments at 300 MPa and 50 C maintained certain levels of Igs such as IgM (~ 75% retention), IgA (~ 48%) and IgG (~ 100%), while the rest of combinations produced important decreases of their contents. Industrial relevance Human milk banks use low-temperature/long-time thermal pasteurisation for the preservation of milk and to avoid risks of infections. Thermal treatment reduces nutritional and immunological properties of breast milk. The study of new methods to preserve milk quality could produce important benefits for the infants' receptor of milk. The application of high pressure processing at low temperatures has showed certain advantageous respect to the thermal treatment, however, the effect of high pressure at moderate-high temperatures have never been evaluated in breast milk. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Delgado F.J.,Technological Agri food Institute INTAEX | Cava R.,University of Extremadura | Delgado J.,Technological Agri food Institute INTAEX | Ramirez R.,Technological Agri food Institute INTAEX
Dairy Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The treatment traditionally utilised for the conservation of human milk is the Holder pasteurisation (62.5 C for 30 min). In the present study, the application of an alternative processing method of breast milk was studied. High-pressure processing is an emerging food treatment that allows the food to keep many of its nutritional and healthy properties and inactivates pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the effect of the Holder pasteurisation and high-pressure processing (400 or 600 MPa for 3 or 6 min) on tocopherols, fatty acids and cytokines present in human milk was evaluated. Thermal treatment and pressurisation at 600 MPa of human milk significantly decreased the levels of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol compared with control samples. In addition, pressurisation at 600 MPa for 6 min caused a significant reduction in the relative proportions of some key fatty acids, such as α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3) acids. Regarding the effect of the different treatments on cytokines, in contrast to thermal treatment, pressurisation (400 or 600 MPa) did not affect the levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Therefore, the effect of pressurisation on human milk cytokines was lower than that of thermal pasteurisation. In conclusion, high-pressure processing at 400 MPa (for 3 or 6 min) caused minor changes in the parameters analysed and could be an alternative treatment for human milk preservation. © 2013 INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


Contador R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Delgado-Adamez J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Delgado F.J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Cava R.,University of Extremadura | Ramirez R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2013

High pressure processing (HPP) could be an alternative to Holder Pasteurisation (HoP, 62.5°C for 30min) for breast milk preservation in human milk banks. The effect of HPP (at 400 or 600MPa for 3 or 6min) was compared with that of HoP. The effect of processing on the immune cells (leukocyte content) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA and IgG) was evaluated. Treatment at 400MPa (for 3 or 6min) maintained the original levels of immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA and IgG) of breast milk better than HoP. In contrast, at 600MPa the reduction of the original immunoglobulins levels was similar to that following HoP. HPP and HoP destroyed most leukocytes in breast milk; the percentage of retention of leukocytes after processing was between 4 and 14%. Overall, HPP could be a suitable alternative for the preservation of immunoglobulins in human milk. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Gonzalez-Cebrino F.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Duran R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Delgado-Adamez J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Contador R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Ramirez R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2013

Physicochemical parameters (instrumental color, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, and pH), bioactive compounds (total phenols and anthocyanins), total antioxidant activity, and enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated after the application of hydrostatic high-pressure (HP) treatment on a plum purée (cv. Crimson Globe, with red flesh and peel). Different pressure levels (400, 500, and 600 MPa) were applied at different processing times (1, 150, and 300 s). HP-treated purées were compared with the untreated purée. The inactivation of indigenous microorganisms (total aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts, and molds and yeasts) of the plum purée after all high-pressure treatments was sufficient to reduce spoilage microorganisms present in plum purée to undetected levels in most of HP-treated purées. No significant changes were observed in pH and soluble solid content after processing. The combined treatments (pressure level and processing time) did not reach a sufficient inhibition of PPO enzyme. Processing induced a significant increase in L*, a*, hue, and chroma, which could enhance the redness perception of treated purées. All HP-treated purées showed a slight reduction in anthocyanins and antioxidant activity after processing. Nevertheless, total phenols were not significantly affected by HP-treatments. In conclusion, high-pressure processing keep most quality parameters and nutritional compounds levels, although, it did not achieve the inhibition of browning related enzymes, which could reduce the shelf-life of plum products during storage. Industrial relevance High-pressure processing is one of the most successful technologies to obtain high-quality fruit purées. However, the application of this technology to certain products presents some difficulties due to high-pressure and usually does not affect the activity of browning related enzymes. The present study evaluates the effect of high-pressure treatments on the color, bioactive compounds, and polyphenol oxidase enzyme of plum purée. This is one of the first studies about the application of high pressure technology for the preservation of red flesh and peel plum. High-pressure treatments did not achieve the total inactivation of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme, however, total phenols and anthocyanins were well preserved after the treatments. Our results also show that redness and color luminosity of plum HP-treated purées were well retained. Therefore, high pressure processing offers the opportunity to processing plum purée with fresh-like properties. Nevertheless, the storage of the product could be limited due to the lack of effect of the pressure on the enzyme activity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Garcia-Parra J.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Gonzalez-Cebrino F.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Cava R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX | Ramirez R.,Technological Agri Food Institute INTAEX
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2014

The effect of the application of different high pressure thermal (HPT) treatments on the instrumental color, the activity of the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzyme, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and anthocyanins) content and the antioxidant activity were was evaluated after processing a red flesh and peel plum purée and compared to an equivalent thermal treatment (TT). Different pressure levels (300, 600, and 900 MPa) at different initial processing temperatures (60, 70, and 80 °C) were applied. HPT treatments produced a similar inactivation of the PPO as the TT (~ 50%). In addition, HPT treatment was more effective than the TT in preserving the original colour, the anthocyanins content and the antioxidant activity of the processed purées. The application of pressures at 600 MPa combined with initial temperatures of 70 °C was the treatment which gave the highest inactivation of the PPO and best maintained the bioactive compounds of purées. Industrial relevance The exploration of new technologies, such as the combination of pressure and heating for short times (high pressure thermal or HPT treatments), could be a new way to extend the shelf-life of fruit-derived products. HPT treatments can better preserve bioactive compared to most traditional thermal treatment. While there are currently no HPT-processed shelf-stable foods commercially available, it's possible to provide a viable process for heat-sensitive products such as fruit-derived products that would suffer a severe loss of quality by the application of a traditional thermal process. A previous study (González-Cebrino et al.; 2013) showed that high pressure processing (HPP) did not inactivate polyphenoloxidase enzyme in plum purée. Results of this paper could allow production of a plum purée with an enzyme activity similar to a thermally treated purée. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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