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A method for constructing data acquisition systems with focusing controlled sensitivity, capable of resolving physical parameters of the targeted area of a medium under investigation. The sensors of a data acquisition system may measure different physical fields and signals, generated by natural or artificial sources, including seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and/or magnetic fields, and/or optical, radio, low and high frequency radiation signals. A sensitivity of the data acquisition system to the parameters of the examined medium may be calculated. A priori integrated sensitivity, having maximum values within desirable parts of the examined medium, may be selected. The parameters of the optimal transformation of the original data acquisition system into a new one with integrated sensitivity closely duplicating the preselected sensitivity may be determined. This optimal transformation may be applied to the sensors of the original data acquisition system to construct a new data acquisition system with focusing controlled sensitivity.


A method for holographic imaging an object having density and/or magnetization is described, the object being located in an examined medium using potential field data including but not limited to gravity and/or magnetic total field and/or vector and/or tensor data. The potential field sensors may measure the gravity and/or magnetic total field and/or vector and/or tensor data at least one receiving position with respect to the examined medium. At least one component of the measured potential field in at least one receiver location (potential field data) may be used as at least one artificial source of the potential field data. Artificial sources may produce a back-propagating (migration) field. An integrated sensitivity of the potential field data to density and/or magnetization perturbation may be calculated. A spatial weighting of at least one of the back-scattering (migration) fields may form a potential field holographic image. At least one desired property of the medium, such as density and/or magnetization, may be derived from this holographic image.


A method for terrain correction of potential field geophysical survey data measured above an examined medium having density and/or magnetization is described, using potential field data including but not limited to gravity and/or magnetic total field and/or vector and/or tensor data. The potential field sensors may measure the gravity and/or magnetic total field and/or vector and/or tensor data at least one receiving position with respect to the examined medium. The terrain of the examined medium may be described by a spatially variable analytic function of the material properties of the examined medium. The terrain response for at least one component of the measured potential field in at least one receiver location (potential field data) may be calculated using special form of surface integral over the terrain based on 3D analog of the Cauchy-type integrals. This surface integration ensures accurate representation of the terrain response.


A method for measuring the resistivity of geologic formations is described. An electromagnetic field may be generated using at least one stationary long-range transmitter. The frequency of the electromagnetic field may be between and/or including the ULF/ELF range. At least one component of the electromagnetic field may be measured by land, marine, submarine, and/or airborne receiver. A conductivity distribution may be determined based on the at least one measured component. The determined conductivity distribution may be correlated with geological formations and/or hydrocarbon deposits.


A method for the real time volume imaging of geological structures and/or man-made objects having electrical conductivity is described, using electromagnetic (EM) sources and/or EM sensors mounted from at least one moving platform. The EM sources may include natural EM sources and/or man-made inductive sources and/or man-made galvanic sources. The EM sensors may measure at least one component of the EM field at the at least one sensor position. The EM fields measured for each combination of EM source and EM sensor may be volume imaged in real time using a moving sensitivity domain that captures the finite spatial sensitivity of each combination of EM sources and EM sensors. At least one desired property, such as conductivity, dielectric permittivity and/or induced polarization parameters, may be derived from the volume image, providing a reconstruction or classification of the physical properties of the geological structures and/or man-made objects.

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