Technisches Buro fur Biologie

Absam, Austria

Technisches Buro fur Biologie

Absam, Austria
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Glaser F.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Lush M.J.,ExeGesIS SDM Ltd. | Seifert B.,Senckenberg Museum fur Naturkunde Gorlitz
Myrmecological News | Year: 2010

The inquiline ant Myrmica myrmicoxena FOREL, 1895 had not been found since itsfirst discovery from the Alp Anzeindaz (Switzerland) in 1869. Two new sites have been discovered in Switzerland (Eggishorn, Fiesch, 2,213 m a.s.l.) in 2009 and Northern Italy (Laas, South Tyrol, 1,700 m a.s.l.) in 2006. The species inhabits subalpine, short-turfedgrassland. Myrmica lobulicornis NYLANDER, 1857 seems to be the main and probably exclusive host species, which is supported by field data and vertical distribution. Morphometric data from all three sites of M. myrmicoxena are presented and com-pared. There exists no obvious morphological difference between the material from the locus typicus and the specimens from the two new sites.

Raab R.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Schutz C.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Schutz C.,University of Vienna | Spakovszky P.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | And 3 more authors.
Bird Conservation International | Year: 2015

Winter oilseed rape represents an important food source for Great Bustards. Great Bustard surveys during four consecutive winters (2005/2006-2008/2009) were used to identify characteristics of oilseed rape fields, which increase their attractiveness for the species in its West Pannonian wintering area. The study was conducted in study areas in Eastern Austria, around the Austrian-Slovakian-Hungarian border and in the Hungarian Moson Plain. To test for effects of field size and isolation of fields from other rape fields, and the distance to the nearest paved road on occurrence and abundance of Great Bustards (maximum number of birds counted in individual rape fields per winter), we calculated generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) including all three predictor variables as fixed effects and winter as random effect for each of the three study areas. Field size most strongly affected occurrence and abundance of Great Bustards. The availability of large (>>15 ha) winter rape fields far from paved roads is recommended as a prime conservation measure to improve the quality of rape fields as foraging habitat for Great Bustards during the winter months (November-March). Copyright © BirdLife International 2014.

Raab R.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Schutz C.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Spakovszky P.,University of West Hungary | Julius E.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Schulze C.H.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie
Bird Conservation International | Year: 2012

Collisions with power lines represent an important mortality factor for Great Bustards Otis tarda throughout the distribution range of the species. This study evaluates the success of two conservation measures implemented in the West-Pannonian distribution range to reduce the number of power line collision casualties: (1) extensive underground cabling of 43.1 km power lines, and (2) marking of 89.7 km power lines starting in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mortality rate of Great Bustards in our study area (covering 686.5 km 2) decreased significantly between 2002 and 2011, predominantly caused by reduced mortality due to power line collisions. Univariate tests indicate that underground cabling and power line marking significantly decreased power line collision casualties. Generalised linear models (GLMs) highlighted the prominent effect of underground cabling. Our results indicate that five years after underground cabling and marking of power lines within core areas of the West-Pannonian distribution range of the Great Bustard, the population already benefited through a significantly decreased mortality rate. Both conservation measures most likely contributed strongly to the rapid recovery of the West-Pannonian Great Bustard population observed within the last decade. © 2011 BirdLife International.

Zulka K.P.,University of Vienna | Zulka K.P.,Environment Agency Austria | Abensperg-Traun M.,University of Vienna | Milasowszky N.,University of Vienna | And 17 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2014

According to island biogeography theory, the species richness of patches is determined by their size and spatial isolation, while in conservation practice, it is patch quality that determines protection and guides management. We analysed whether size, isolation or habitat quality are most important for the species richness in a set of 50 dry grassland fragments in agricultural landscapes of eastern Austria. We studied two plant taxa (vascular plants, bryophytes) and 11 invertebrate taxa (gastropods, spiders, springtails, grasshoppers, true bugs, leafhoppers and planthoppers, ground beetles, rove beetles, butterflies and burnets, ants and wild bees). The species richness of three categories was analysed: (1) dry grassland specialist species, (2) all grassland species and (3) all species. We used regression and hierarchical partitioning techniques to determine the relationship between species richness and environmental variables describing patch size and shape, patch quality, landscape configuration and landscape quality. The area-isolation paradigm was only applicable for dry grassland specialists, which comprised 12% of all species. Richness of all grassland species was determined mostly by landscape heterogeneity parameters. Total species richness was highly influenced by spillover from adjacent biotopes, and was significantly determined by the percentage of arable land bordering the patches. When analysing all taxa together, species richness of dry grassland specialists was significantly related to historical patch size but not to current patch size, indicating an extinction debt. At the landscape scale, the variable 'short-grass area' was a better predictor than the less specific variable 'area of extensively used landscape elements'. 'Distance to mainland' was a good predictor for specialists of mobile animal taxa. Plant specialists showed a pronounced dependence on quality measures at the patch scale and at the landscape scale, whereas animal specialists were influenced by patch size, patch quality, landscape quality and isolation measures. None of the taxa benefited from linear structures in the surroundings. In conclusion, high patch quality and a network of high-quality areas in the surrounding landscape should be the best conservation strategy to ensure conservation of dry grassland specialists. This goal does not conflict with the specific demands of single taxa. © 2013 The Authors.

Horreo J.L.,University of Lausanne | Raab R.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Spakovszky P.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Spakovszky P.,University of West Hungary | Alonso J.C.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences
PeerJ | Year: 2016

The genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow of the Great Bustards (Otis tarda) living in Austria-Slovakia-West Hungary (West-Pannonian region), one of the few populations of this globally threatened species that survives across the Palaearctic, has been assessed for the first time in this study. Fourteen recently developed microsatellite loci identified one single population in the study area, with high values of genetic diversity and gene flow between two different genetic subunits. One of these subunits (Heideboden) was recognized as a priority for conservation, as it could be crucial to maintain connectivity with the central Hungarian population and thus contribute to keeping contemporary genetic diversity. Current conservation efforts have been successful in saving this threatened population from extinction two decades ago, and should continue to guarantee its future survival. © 2016 Horreo et al.

Schiestl F.P.,University of Zürich | Glaser F.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie
Alpine Botany | Year: 2012

Several studies have recently shown that floral scent can deter ants from flowers. However, when ants serve as reliable pollen vectors, for example in harsh, windy habitats, were flying insects are less active, plants should have evolved floral signals to attract them to the flowers. We tested this hypothesis in the alpine orchid, Chamorchis alpina. C. alpina was found to be predominantly ant pollinated, with some occasional pollination by ichneumonid wasps. In all three investigated populations, only two species of ants, Formica lemani and Leptothorax acervorum visited the flowers and removed pollinaria. These two pollinator ants were found to be among the most common ant species in all habitats, but other, non-pollinating ants were also frequently found, suggesting a factor that mediates specific pollination. Floral morphology was found to be compatible with at least one of the common non-pollinator ants. Floral scent consistently comprised five terpenoid compounds, β-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, and β-caryophyllene. A synthetic blend of these five compounds emitting from rubber septa, was found to be attractive to one pollinator ant-species, F. lemani, in the field. The floral scent of C. alpina, through attracting only specific ants, may thus play a role in filtering floral visitors. © 2011 Swiss Botanical Society.

Sztatecsny M.,University of Vienna | Glaser F.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie
Herpetological Journal | Year: 2011

Chytridiomycosis is a fungal disease that has been made responsible for amphibian declines around the globe. We found the causative agent of the disease, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, at six amphibian breeding sites in the eastern lowlands of Austria and four in the western parts of the country (30% of all sampled sites), including the highest record for the European Alps to date at 1630 m a.s.l. Nine amphibian species were infected, and metamorphosing Bombina bombina had the highest prevalence (40%). No individual showed obvious signs of disease, but our data are insufficient to draw any conclusions on disease-associated effects.

Raab R.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Spakovszky P.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | Spakovszky P.,University of West Hungary | Julius E.,Technisches Buro fur Biologie | And 2 more authors.
Bird Conservation International | Year: 2011

Flight directions of Great Bustards Otis tarda after take-off were used to analyse effects of power lines on spatial movements of this highly endangered bird species. Data on flight directions came from Great Bustard observations conducted in eastern Austria (northern and eastern parts of Lower Austria, northern part of Burgenland), western Slovakia and western Hungary. Flight directions were determined by a constructed line connecting take-off site and the bird's position after a flown distance of 100 m. Up to a distance of 800 m from the nearest power line, mean flight direction of Great Bustards after take-off deviated significantly from a random distribution. The mean flight direction angles clearly indicate that take-off flight routes point away from power lines at an angle of approximately 180°. Furthermore, flight directions of bustards still deviated from a random distribution in two 200-m distance bands much further away from power lines (> 1,200-1,400 m, > 1,400-1,600 m), possibly suggesting that even at larger distances from power lines flight directions might still be affected by such artificial linear landscape structures. With increasing distance to nearest power lines, mean vector length r values of flight paths decrease significantly, while circular standard deviations S values increase significantly. Very similar results were achieved independently if all data were pooled or analysed separately for individual study areas for which the number of flight observations was large enough to conduct reliable analyses. Our study reports a strong effect of power lines on the flight behaviour of Great Bustards, at least up to a distance of 800 m, perhaps even up to 1,600 m. Although this may significantly reduce the risk of collision with power lines it most likely has severe consequences for the spatial movements of birds within the entire landscape and between potentially suitable breeding and foraging habitats. © Copyright BirdLife International 2010.

Aquatic Neuroptera in Europe are represented with 17 species in 3 families; Osmylidae, Sisyridae and Nevrorthidae. Four species are known from Croatia, Osmylus fulvicephalus, Sisyra bureschi, Sisyra nigra and Sisyra terminalis. Their faunistics and distribution in Croatia are given in this paper.

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