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Diaz A.,Technical University Valencia Upv Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Csic | Zarouri B.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Fergany M.,Ain Shams University | Alvarez J.M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agroalimentaria | And 2 more authors.

A mapping F2 population from the cross 'Piel de Sapo' x PI124112 was selectively genotyped to study the genetic control of morphological fruit traits by QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis. Ten QTL were identified, five for FL (Fruit Length), two for FD (Fruit Diameter) and three for FS (Fruit Shape). At least one robust QTL per character was found, flqs8.1 (LOD = 16.85, R2 = 34%), fdqs12.1 (LOD = 3.47, R2 = 11%) and fsqs8.1 (LOD = 14.85, R2 = 41%). flqs2.1 and fsqs2.1 cosegregate with gene a (andromonoecious), responsible for flower sex determination and with pleiotropic effects on FS. They display a positive additive effect (a) value, so the PI124112 allele causes an increase in FL and FS, producing more elongated fruits. Conversely, the negative a value for flqs8.1 and fsqs8.1 indicates a decrease in FL and FS, what results in rounder fruits, even if PI124112 produces very elongated melons. This is explained by a significant epistatic interaction between fsqs2.1 and fsqs8.1, where the effects of the alleles at locus a are attenuated by the additive PI124112 allele at fsqs8.1. Roundest fruits are produced by homozygous for PI124112 at fsqs8.1 that do not carry any dominant A allele at locus a (PiPiaa). A significant interaction between fsqs8.1 and fsqs12.1 was also detected, with the alleles at fsqs12.1 producing more elongated fruits. fsqs8.1 seems to be allelic to QTL discovered in other populations where the exotic alleles produce elongated fruits. This model has been validated in assays with backcross lines along 3 years and ultimately obtaining a fsqs8.1-NIL (Near Isogenic Line) in 'Piel de Sapo' background which yields round melons. © 2014 Díaz et al. Source

Munoz-Bertomeu J.,University of Valencia | Munoz-Bertomeu J.,Technical University Valencia Upv Consejo Superior Of Investigaciones Cientificas Csic | Miedes E.,University of Valencia | Miedes E.,Technical University of Madrid | Lorences E.P.,University of Valencia
Journal of Plant Physiology

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTHs: EC and/or EC, a xyloglucan modifying enzyme, has been proposed to have a role during tomato and apple fruit ripening by loosening the cell wall. Since the ripening of climacteric fruits is controlled by endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, we wanted to study whether XET activity was ethylene-regulated, and if so, which specific genes encoding ripening-regulated XTH genes were indeed ethylene-regulated. XET specific activity in tomato and apple fruits was significantly increased by the ethylene treatment, as compared with the control fruits, suggesting an increase in the XTH gene expression induced by ethylene. The 25 SlXTH protein sequences of tomato and the 11 sequences MdXTH of apple were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped into three major clades. The SlXTHs genes with highest expression during ripening were SlXTH5 and SlXTH8 from Group III-B, and in apple MdXTH2, from Group II, and MdXTH10, and MdXTH11 from Group III-B. Ethylene was involved in the regulation of the expression of different SlXTH and MdXTH genes during ripening. In tomato fruit fifteen different SlXTH genes showed an increase in expression after ethylene treatment, and the SlXTHs that were ripening associated were also ethylene dependent, and belong to Group III-B (SlXTH5 and SlXTH8). In apple fruit, three MdXTH showed an increase in expression after the ethylene treatment and the only MdXTH that was ripening associated and ethylene dependent was MdXTH10 from Group III-B. The results indicate that XTH may play an important role in fruit ripening and a possible relationship between XTHs from Group III-B and fruit ripening, and ethylene regulation is suggested. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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