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Marti P.,Technical University Valencia | Provenzano G.,University of Palermo | Royuela T.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Palau-Salvador G.,Universidad Politecnica de Ingenieria
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

This paper describes an application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the prediction of local losses from integrated emitters. First, the optimum input-output combination was determined. Then, the mapping capability of ANNs and regression models was compared. Afterwards, a five-input ANN model, which considers pipe and emitter internal diameter, emitter length, emitter spacing, and pipe discharge, was used to develop a local losses predicting tool which was obtained from different training strategies while taking into account a completely independent test set. Finally, a performance index was evaluated for the test emitter models studied. Emitter data with low reliability were removed from the process. Performance indexes over 80% were obtained for the remaining test emitters. © 2010 ASCE. Source

Nerva J.-G.,Technical University Valencia | Yamaguchi T.,Meiji University | Iguma H.,Meiji University | Nishigai H.,Meiji University | And 5 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers

For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray. © Copyright 2011 Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc. and SAE International. Source

Monleon S.,Technical University Valencia | Domingo A.,Technical University Valencia | Lazaro C.,Technical University Valencia
Revista de Obras Publicas

This article is based on the following three ideas: 1) In both the enlargement of historic bridges and the design of medium-span bridges (40-90m), problems of structural nature and design strength become less relevant while those of a formal nature take on greater importance. 2) This then adds an additional dimension to the engineering project and one that may, in turn, be seen as a challenge and opportunity for the engineer who can and should express himself in a manner that is not always permitted to the engineer. 3) With regards to the modelling of the landscape, the urban skyline may be affected to a greater or lesser extent in accordance with the adopted structural solution, though the bridge will alway become a períect viewpoint for the city. The article provides four different examples: the bridge in Cullera, a bridge in Manises and the enlargements to the historic bridges of Estivella and Sant Sadurni d'Anoia, that perfectly illustrate these arguments but with radically different solutions. Source

Verdu J.L.,Technical University Valencia | Ribera M.G.,Technical University Valencia | da Rocha e Costa H.A.B.,Technical University Valencia

This article analyses the use of the sketch in contemporary architecture, which is characterized by a systematic recourse to computerized graphics media. On the basis of the intimate relationship between manual gestures and the creation of complex concepts, as defined by modern research in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology, it concludes that although the calculation capacity of the computer allows us to give free rein to our most complex fantasies, the distance which its mathematic algorithms impose between the mental processes of design and the graphic result of those processes is covered in a much more efficient way by graphic techniques as simple as the sketch and the design model; both techniques are based on human manual gestures and, thus, linked to our most profound cognitive mechanisms. © 2013 by Unisinos. Source

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