Bisanzio D.,Emory University |
Mutuku F.,Emory University |
Mutuku F.,Technical University of Mombasa |
Mungai P.L.,Case Western Reserve University |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014
Background:In coastal Kenya, infection of human populations by a variety of parasites often results in co-infection or poly-parasitism. These parasitic infections, separately and in conjunction, are a major cause of chronic clinical and sub-clinical human disease and exert a long-term toll on economic welfare of affected populations. Risk factors for these infections are often shared and overlap in space, resulting in interrelated patterns of transmission that need to be considered at different spatial scales. Integration of novel quantitative tools and qualitative approaches is needed to analyze transmission dynamics and design effective interventions.Methodology:Our study was focused on detecting spatial and demographic patterns of single- and co-infection in six villages in coastal Kenya. Individual and household level data were acquired using cross-sectional, socio-economic, and entomological surveys. Generalized additive models (GAMs and GAMMs) were applied to determine risk factors for infection and co-infections. Spatial analysis techniques were used to detect local clusters of single and multiple infections.Principal findings:Of the 5,713 tested individuals, more than 50% were infected with at least one parasite and nearly 20% showed co-infections. Infections with Schistosoma haematobium (26.0%) and hookworm (21.4%) were most common, as was co-infection by both (6.3%). Single and co-infections shared similar environmental and socio-demographic risk factors. The prevalence of single and multiple infections was heterogeneous among and within communities. Clusters of single and co-infections were detected in each village, often spatially overlapped, and were associated with lower SES and household crowding.Conclusion:Parasitic infections and co-infections are widespread in coastal Kenya, and their distributions are heterogeneous across landscapes, but inter-related. We highlighted how shared risk factors are associated with high prevalence of single infections and can result in spatial clustering of co-infections. Spatial heterogeneity and synergistic risk factors for polyparasitism need to be considered when designing surveillance and intervention strategies. © 2014 Bisanzio et al.
PubMed | University of Washington, University of Nairobi and Technical University of Mombasa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2017
Young women bear the greatest burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to identify and address barriers to STI screening in this population. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the feasibility of STI screening among adolescent girls and young women in Mombasa, Kenya.We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (IDIs) (8 with adolescent girls and 9 with young women) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) (4 with adolescent girls and 2 with young women, total 55 participants). The audio recordings for the IDIs and FGDs were translated and transcribed into English. Transcripts were independently reviewed by two researchers, and a set of codes was designed to help analyze the data using the content analysis approach. Data content was then analyzed manually and digitally using ATLAS.ti, and consensus was reached on central and specific emergent themes discussed by the research team.Adolescent girls and young women in Mombasa, Kenya expressed willingness to participate in STI screening. A major incentive for screening was participants desire to know their STI status, especially following perceived high-risk sexual behavior. Lack of symptoms and fear of positive test results were identified as barriers to STI screening at the individual level, while parental notification and stigmatization from parents, family members and the community were identified as barriers at the community level. Uncomfortable or embarrassing methods of specimen collection were an additional barrier. Thus, urine-based screening was felt to be the most acceptable.Kenyan adolescent girls and young women seem willing to participate in screening for STIs using urine testing. Addressing stigmatization by parents, health care workers and the community could further facilitate STI screening in this population.
Makonde H.M.,Leibniz Institute DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH |
Makonde H.M.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology |
Makonde H.M.,Technical University of Mombasa |
Boga H.I.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology |
And 5 more authors.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013
The interaction between termites and their gut symbionts has continued to attract the curiosity of researchers over time. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the bacterial diversity and community structure in the guts of three termites (Odontotermes somaliensis, Odontotermes sp. and Microtermes sp.) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of clone libraries. Clone libraries were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism and representative clones from O. somaliensis (100 out of 330 clones), Odontotermes sp. (100 out of 359 clones) and Microtermes sp. (96 out 336 clones) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated seven bacterial phyla were represented: Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Synergistetes, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria. Sequences representing the phylum Bacteroidetes (>60 %) were the most abundant group in Odontotermes while those of Spirochaetes (29 %) and Firmicutes (23 %) were the abundant groups in Microtermes. The gut bacterial community structure within the two Odontotermes species investigated here was almost identical at the phylum level, but the Microtermes sp. had a unique bacterial community structure. Bacterial diversity was higher in Odontotermes than in Microtermes. The affiliation and clustering of the sequences, often with those from other termites' guts, indicate a majority of the gut bacteria are autochthonous having mutualistic relationships with their hosts. The findings underscore the presence of termite-specific bacterial lineages, the majority of which are still uncultured. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Anami S.,Technical University of Mombasa |
Njuguna E.,Vlaams Institute for Biotechnology |
Njuguna E.,Ghent University |
Coussens G.,Vlaams Institute for Biotechnology |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2013
In higher plants, genetic transformation, which is part of the toolbox for the study of living organisms, had been reported only 30 years ago, boosting basic plant biology research, generating superior crops, and leading to the new discipline of plant biotechnology. Here, we review its principles and the corresponding molecular tools. In vitro regeneration, through somatic embryogenesis or organogenesis, is discussed because they are prerequisites for the subsequent Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transferred (T)-DNA or direct DNA transfer methods to produce transgenic plants. Important molecular components of the T-DNA are examined, such as selectable marker genes that allow the selection of transformed cells in tissue cultures and are used to follow the gene of interest in the next generations, and reporter genes that have been developed to visualize promoter activities, protein localizations, and protein-protein interactions. Genes of interest are assembled with promoters and termination signals in Escherichia coli by means of GATEWAY-derived binary vectors that represent the current versatile cloning tools. Finally, future promising developments in transgene technology are considered. © 2013 UBC Press.
Mayeku W.P.,Makerere University |
Omollo N.I.,Kyambogo University |
Odalo O.J.,Technical University of Mombasa |
Hassanali A.,Kenyatta University
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2014
Previously, essential oil of Conyza newii (Asterale: Asteracea, Oliv. & Hiern) growing in the northern part of West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) of Kenya was shown to be highly repellent [RD50 = 8.9 × 10-5 mg/cm2, 95% confidence interval (CL)] to Anopheles gambiae s.s. Fumigant toxicity of the oil to the mosquito was also demonstrated. The major constituents of the oil were found to be monoterpenoids, including (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde, geraniol, (R)-(+)-limonene, trans-β-ocimene and 1,8-cineol. In this study, the chemical composition and repellency of essential oils of the plant seedlings collected from West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) and propagated in seven different geographical regions of Kenya [West Pokot (35°E, 1°N), Kilome (37°E, 1°S), Naivasha (36°E, 0°), Webuye (34°E, 1°N), Nyakach (34°E, 0°), Kericho (35°E, 0°) and Nairobi (36°E, 1°S)] were compared. There were significant variations (P < 0.01, 95% CL) in the relative proportions of the six constituents and this was reflected in the repellency of the essential oils (P < 0.01, 95% CL). Higher repellency of the oil was associated with greater proportions of (S)-(-) perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde and geraniol, and lower repellency was associated with an increased proportion of (R)-(+)-limonene. The results suggest significant epigenetic (chemotypic) variations in the repellency and composition of C. newii essential oils growing in different regions of Kenya. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.
Kilongosi M.W.,Maseno University |
Budambula V.,Technical University of Mombasa |
Lihana R.,Kenya Medical Research Institute |
Musumba F.O.,Maseno University |
And 6 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015
Background: Information about HBV sero-markers, infection stages and genotypes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs) in Kenya remains elusive. Methods: A cross-sectional study examining HBV sero-marker, infection stages and genotypes was conducted among HIV-1 infected and uninfected, respectively, IDUs (n=157 and n=214) and non-IDUs (n=139 and n=48), and HIV-1 uninfected non-drug using controls (n=194) from coastal, Kenya. HBV sero-marker and infection stages were based on HBV 5-panel rapid test plasma sero-reactivity. DNA was extracted from acute and chronic plasma samples and genotypes established by nested-PCR and direct sequencing. Results: HBsAg positivity was higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs (9.6%) relative to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (2.3%), HIV-1 infected non-IDUs (3.6%), HIV-1 uninfected non-IDUs (0.0%) and non-drug users (2.6%; P=0.002). Contrastingly, HBsAb positivity was higher in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (14.6%) and non-IDUs (16.8) in comparison to HIV-1 infected IDUs (8.3%), and non-IDUs (8.6%), and non-drug users (8.2%; P=0.023). HBcAb positivity was higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs (10.2%) compared to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (3.3%), HIV-1 infected non-IDUs (6.5%), HIV-1 uninfected non-IDUs (2.1%) and non-drug users (4.6%; P=0.038). Acute (5.7%, 1.4%, 0.0%, 0.0% and 1.5%) and chronic (5.1%, 0.9%, 3.6%, 0.0% and 1.5%) stages were higher in HIV-1 infected IDUs, compared to HIV-1 uninfected IDUs, HIV-1 infected and uninfected non-IDUs and non-drug users, respectively. However, vaccine type response stage was higher in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (15.4%) relative to HIV-1 infected IDUs (6.4%), and HIV-1 infected (6.5%), and uninfected (10.4%) non-IDUs, and non-drug users (5.7%; P=0.003). Higher resolved infection rates were also recorded in HIV-1 uninfected IDUs (11.2%) compared to HIV-1 infected IDUs (8.3%), and HIV-1 infected (7.2%), uninfected (6.3%) non-IDUs, and non-drug users (6.7%; P=0.479), respectively. Only A1 genotype showing minimal diversity was detected among the study participants. Conclusion: HBV sero-markers and infection staging are valuable in diagnosis and genotyping of HBV infections. Among IDUs, higher HBsAg and HBcAb positivity in HIV-1 infected and higher HBsAb positivity in HIV-1 negative IDUs suggests frequent exposure. Additionally, HBV genotype A is the dominant circulating genotype in both high and low risk populations of Kenya. © 2015 Webale et al.
Dindi E.,University of Nairobi |
Maneno J.B.J.,Technical University of Mombasa
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2016
An integrated geophysical ground survey was conducted on an airborne electromagnetic (EM) anomaly located in Kakamega forest of Western Kenya. The purpose of the study was to establish the existence of massive sulphides and identify suitable optimal geophysical method(s) for the investigation of similar anomalies. The study was also expected to provide information on the geological and geophysical characteristics of the deposit.Field work involved electromagnetic methods: Vertical Loop (VLEM), Horizontal Loop (HLEM), TURAM EM and potential field methods: gravity and magnetics. Geochemical sampling was carried out concurrently with the geophysical survey.All the geophysical methods used yielded good responses. Several conductors conforming to the strike of the geology were identified. TURAM EM provided a higher resolution of the conductors compared to VLEM and HLEM. The conductors were found to be associated with positive gravity anomalies supporting the presence of bodies of higher density than the horst rock. Only the western section (west of 625W) of the grid is associated with strong magnetic anomalies. East of 625W strong EM and gravity anomalies persist but magnetic anomalies are weak. This may reflect variation in the mineral composition of the conductors from magnetic to non-magnetic. Geochemical data indicates strong copper anomalies (upto 300 ppm) over sections of the grid and relatively strong zinc (upto 200 ppm) and lead (upto 100 ppm) anomalies. There is a positive correlation between the location of the conductors as predicted by TURAM EM and the copper and zinc anomalies.A test drill hole proposed on the basis of the geophysical results of this study struck massive sulphides at a depth of 30m still within the weathered rock zone. Unfortunately, the drilling was stopped before the sulphides could be penetrated. The drill core revealed massive sulphide rich in pyrite and pyrrhotite.An attempt has been made to compare characteristics of the Lirhanda massive sulphide deposit with those of better documented massive sulphides. Despite the fact that very little is known about Lirhanda, there are several similarities on the characteristics compared. These include evidence of back arc regional environment, calc-alkaline volcanic associations, conformity of anomalies to the structural trend of the host rock, proximity of synvolcanic rift, dispersive anomalies of copper and zinc in soils, presence of gossan and association of the deposit with strong EM anomalies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Sudi W.M.,Technical University of Mombasa
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014
As a result of urbanisation and globalisation, many ancient and new settlements in the world have lost the features which define their identity. In the east African Coast, such features are fast disappearing. This erosion of the architectural heritage is closely linked with the loss of a socio-cultural identity and consequently resulting in the deterioration of the quality of urban life. Various means have been tried to try to improve this historic built environment, with the symbiosis of both tourism and heritage places becoming a major objective in the management and planning of historic areas. With sustainable settlement being a global concern, and within the context of the historic urban areas of Lamu and Mombasa Old Towns, this paper explores the current conflicts among the ideas of urban conservation, heritage and tourism, arguing that the most sustainable approach to management of historical areas is the one based on community and culture-led agenda. In terms of the sustainability of heritage places, it is viewed in this study that managing tourism can have substantial inherent potential to underpin sustainable development and urban conservation. It will be concluded that, tourism can have positive attributes for conservation and development in heritage places. © 2013 WIT Press.
Shaviya N.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology |
Budambula V.,Technical University of Mombasa |
Webale M.K.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology |
Were T.,Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016
Although interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin are key immunopathogenesis mediators of tuberculosis, their association with clinical manifestations of early stage disease is inconclusive. We determined interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin levels in clinically and phenotypically well-characterised non-substance using new pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n = 13) and controls (n = 14) from Kenya. Interferon-gamma levels (P < 0.0001) and interferon-gamma to interleukin-10 (P < 0.001) and interferon-gamma to adiponectin (P = 0.027) ratios were elevated in tuberculosis cases. Correlation analyses in tuberculosis cases showed associations of interferon-gamma levels with body weight (ρ =-0.849; P < 0.0001), body mass index (ρ = 0.664; P = 0.013), hip girth (ρ =-0.579; P = 0.038), and plateletcrit (ρ = 0.605; P = 0.028); interferon-gamma to interleukin-10 ratio with diastolic pressure (ρ =-0.729; P = 0.005); and interferon-gamma to adiponectin ratio with body weight (ρ =-0.560; P = 0.047), body mass index (ρ =-0.604; P = 0.029), and plateletcrit (ρ = 0.793; P = 0.001). Taken together, our results suggest mild-inflammation in early stage infection characterised by upregulation of circulating interferon-gamma production in newly infected TB patients. © 2016 Nathan Shaviya et al.
PubMed | Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology and Technical University of Mombasa
Type: | Journal: Interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases | Year: 2016
Although interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin are key immunopathogenesis mediators of tuberculosis, their association with clinical manifestations of early stage disease is inconclusive. We determined interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and adiponectin levels in clinically and phenotypically well-characterised non-substance using new pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n = 13) and controls (n = 14) from Kenya. Interferon-gamma levels (P < 0.0001) and interferon-gamma to interleukin-10 (P < 0.001) and interferon-gamma to adiponectin (P = 0.027) ratios were elevated in tuberculosis cases. Correlation analyses in tuberculosis cases showed associations of interferon-gamma levels with body weight ( = -0.849; P < 0.0001), body mass index ( = 0.664; P = 0.013), hip girth ( = -0.579; P = 0.038), and plateletcrit ( = 0.605; P = 0.028); interferon-gamma to interleukin-10 ratio with diastolic pressure ( = -0.729; P = 0.005); and interferon-gamma to adiponectin ratio with body weight ( = -0.560; P = 0.047), body mass index ( = -0.604; P = 0.029), and plateletcrit ( = 0.793; P = 0.001). Taken together, our results suggest mild-inflammation in early stage infection characterised by upregulation of circulating interferon-gamma production in newly infected TB patients.