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Rist L.,Umea University | Shanley P.,Woods and Wayside International | Shanley P.,Center for International Forestry Research | Sunderland T.,Center for International Forestry Research | And 5 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

The potential for combining timber and non-timber forest product extraction has been examined in the context of diversified forest management. Many tropical forests are exploited both commercially for timber and by forest-dependent communities for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Divergences between these two uses may have significant implications for forest-dependent livelihoods. This article gathers existing examples of conflicts and complementarities between selective logging and non-timber uses of forest from the livelihood perspective. Additionally it draws on three case studies from Brazil, Cameroon and Indonesia to examine by what mechanisms, and to what extent, logging impacts forest resources of livelihood importance, as well as to consider how factors such as logging regime and forest management system may mediate such influences. By doing so we aim to shed further light on a relatively unacknowledged issue in tropical forest management and conservation.Four specific mechanisms were identified; conflict of use and the indirect impacts of logging being those most commonly implicated in negative effects on livelihood-relevant NTFPs. Eighty two percent of reviewed articles highlighted negative impacts on NTFP availability. Examples of positive impacts were restricted to light demanding species that respond to the opening of forest structure and typically represent a small subset of those of livelihood value. Despite considerable impacts on livelihoods, in all three case studies we found evidence to support the potential for enhanced compatibility between timber extraction and the subsistence use of NTFPs. Drawing on this evidence, and findings from our review, we make specific recommendations for research, policy and management implementation. These findings have significant implications for reconciling timber and non-timber uses of tropical forests. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Tieguhong J.C.,Beyond Timber Project in Congo Basin | Nkamgnia E.M.,Technical Training and Research Center for Development
International Forestry Review | Year: 2012

In this study the average consumption and cash incomes of households living in villages adjoining the Lobeke National Park in Southeast of Cameroon were analysed with particular focus on the extent to which households in the region were dependent on forest products and services. Possible reasons for the dependency of households on forests were identified and tested using logistic regression. A total of eight income portfolios were found to be contributing to the household annual incomes in the studied villages. The contribution of forest products to household income and consumption ranged between 0.10 to 0.82 (mean = 0.49 and sd = 0.18). Forest income contributed 44.44% to the total income of all the households surveyed. The annual average forest income per household was US$ 239.3. A major recommendation was that conservation policies need to be overhauled to take into consideration the importance of forest products in the livelihoods of forest-dependent people.

Schure J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Ingram V.,Center for International Forestry Research | Tieguhong J.C.,Technical Training and Research Center for Development | Ndikumagenge C.,International Union for the Conservation of Nature IUCN PACO
Resources Policy | Year: 2011

This paper examines the institutional framework of artisanal mining in the forests of the Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS) in the Congo Basin. Artisanal miners in Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR) commonly make sacrifices to their god of diamonds, to improve fortunes. This study looks into 'the other forces'; institutions that play a role in shaping the sector and its outcomes. These institutions comprise formal and informal institutions at a local, national, regional and international level. Although artisanal miners in TNS benefit by gaining cash income, this activity also carries risks as income is highly disparate and environmental impacts in this priority forest conservation area are expected to increase due to the growing competition over land use. It was concluded from a literature review, interviews and site visits that informal arrangements dominate the sector, especially in Cameroon, leading to poor relations between officials and miners and meaning that miners have few rights and no voice. The current institutional setup is inadequate to deal with current and anticipated social and environmental issues. Future interventions need to take into account the existing (local) types of organization, vulnerable groups, the interests of multiple actors and the fact that most miners are experienced but combine mining with other activities, such as agriculture, fishing and harvesting forest products. African initiatives concerning ASM offer opportunities to Cameroon and CAR to collaborate with other countries to combat similar issues. A regional integrated approach of both the forest and mining sector would be especially relevant for trans-boundary agreements, such as concerning the TNS, to reinforce positive outcomes for the landscape and the area's population. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Schure J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Ingram V.,Center for International Forestry Research | Tieguhong J.C.,Technical Training and Research Center for Development | Ndikumagenge C.,International Union for the Conservation of Nature IUCN PACO
Geological Resources and Good Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa - Holistic Approaches to Transparency and Sustainable Development in the Extractive Sector | Year: 2011

This contribution examines the multiple impacts of artisanal mining in the high-biodiversity forest of the Congo Basin's Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS), and proposes measures for improving livelihoods in the area. It was concluded from a literature review, interviews and site visits that: diamonds and gold are an important but highly variable income source for at least 5% of the area's population; environmental impacts are temporary and limited, mainly caused by mining inside the parks; overlaps between artisanal small-scale mining (ASM), large-scale mining (LSM), timber concessions, and national and trans-boundary protected areas have intensified competition for land resources; and despite the existence of legal frameworks, ASM is largely informal. Cross-boundary agreements concerning the TNS do not address mining, albeit a regional approach of mining policies is recommendable to reinforce beneficial outcomes for the landscape and the area's population. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Ingram V.,Center for International Forestry Research | Tieguhong J.C.,Technical Training and Research Center for Development | Schure J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Nkamgnia E.,Technical Training and Research Center for Development | Tadjuidje M.H.,International Union for the Conservation of Nature
Natural Resources Forum | Year: 2011

While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape covering Cameroon, the Central African Republic and Republic of the Congo. This paper captures the socio-economic and environmental impacts of small-scale mining in the TNS. Using structured questionnaires, consultations and observation, diamonds and gold were found to contribute directly to the livelihoods of at least 5% of the landscape's population. Although up to eight income-generating strategies are used, mining contributes on average to 65% of total income and is used mainly to meet basic needs. A gold miner's average income is US$ 3.10 a day, and a diamond miner earns US$ 3.08, making them slightly wealthier than an average Cameroonian and three times wealthier than an average non-miner in the TNS. Environmental impacts were temporary, low impact and of limited scale. However, with mining likely to increase in the near future, an increasing population and miners' low environmental awareness, measures are needed to ensure and reinforce the positive impact of artisanal mining on livelihoods and maintain its low environmental footprint in the TNS landscape. © 2011 The Authors. Natural Resources Forum © 2011 United Nations.

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